York St John University |   www.yorksj.ac.uk Rachel Wicaksono Senior Lecturer, York St. John University Higher Education A...
York St John University |  www.yorksj.ac.uk What kind of English do you speak?  The construction and use of ideas about En...
The ‘gift’ of English? York St John University |   www.yorksj.ac.uk BBC News January 20, 2008 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/u...
No monolithic lexicon York St John University |   www.yorksj.ac.uk background Speakers of all languages,  “… have differen...
No ‘standard’ York St John University |   www.yorksj.ac.uk background “ The assumption of a default, ‘accent-free’, versio...
Meaning as process 1 York St John University |   www.yorksj.ac.uk background “… what multilingual communities have known a...
Meaning as process 2 York St John University |   www.yorksj.ac.uk background “ [multilingual] speakers are able to monitor...
York St John University |   www.yorksj.ac.uk background “… native speakership is neither a privilege of birth nor of educa...
 
York St John University |   www.yorksj.ac.uk background “ Research is also beginning to show how bad some native speakers ...
York St John University |   www.yorksj.ac.uk 30  UK students  on a ‘TESOL and Language Studies’ module, third year BA Engl...
York St John University |   www.yorksj.ac.uk 24 recorded semi-structured interviews submitted.  7 interviews (whole or par...
York St John University |   www.yorksj.ac.uk analysis Conversation analysis. “… how the parties are embodying for one anot...
York St John University |   www.yorksj.ac.uk analysis Listen to an extract from the data and read the transcript. Data ana...
York St John University |   www.yorksj.ac.uk <ul><li>Co-constructing and contesting ‘native speaker’ and ‘non-native speak...
York St John University |   www.yorksj.ac.uk implications <ul><li>no relationship between competence in EIL and any variet...
York St John University |   www.yorksj.ac.uk implications <ul><li>“ By thinking in terms of  raising awareness,   directin...
York St John University |   www.yorksj.ac.uk implications “… it is not necessary to show how people develop vested interes...
York St John University |   www.yorksj.ac.uk references Braine, G. (1999).  Non-native educators in English language teach...
York St John University |   www.yorksj.ac.uk references Hall, C. J. (2005). An introduction to language and linguistics: b...
York St John University |  www.yorksj.ac.uk What kind of English do you speak?  The construction and use of ideas about En...
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What kind of English do you speak? The construction and use of ideas about English as an international language

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What kind of English do you speak? The construction and use of ideas about English as an international language. Rachel Wicaksono. Higher Education Academy annual conference. Harrogate, July 2008.

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What kind of English do you speak? The construction and use of ideas about English as an international language

  1. 1. York St John University | www.yorksj.ac.uk Rachel Wicaksono Senior Lecturer, York St. John University Higher Education Academy Annual Conference Harrogate, 3 July 2008
  2. 2. York St John University | www.yorksj.ac.uk What kind of English do you speak? The construction and use of ideas about English as an international language
  3. 3. The ‘gift’ of English? York St John University | www.yorksj.ac.uk BBC News January 20, 2008 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/7198546.stm Mr Brown was greeted by the Indian minister of state for commerce Gordon Brown and his wife Sarah visited an Indian women's project
  4. 4. No monolithic lexicon York St John University | www.yorksj.ac.uk background Speakers of all languages, “… have different vocabularies, depending on the communities they belong to (age, residence, job, hobby, religion, ethnicity, clubs, etc). What (expert) listeners understand changes with their community membership (and their role in the conversation).” (Clark 1997, 579 - 81)
  5. 5. No ‘standard’ York St John University | www.yorksj.ac.uk background “ The assumption of a default, ‘accent-free’, version of each language is one of our most powerful linguistic beliefs…the judgements involved are not linguistic at all, but social.” Hall (2005: 252)
  6. 6. Meaning as process 1 York St John University | www.yorksj.ac.uk background “… what multilingual communities have known all along: language learning and language use succeed through performance strategies, situational resources, and social negotiations in fluid communicative contexts. Proficiency is therefore practice-based, adaptive and emergent.” Canagarajah (2007: 923)
  7. 7. Meaning as process 2 York St John University | www.yorksj.ac.uk background “ [multilingual] speakers are able to monitor each other’s language proficiency to determine mutually the appropriate grammar, lexical range and pragmatic conventions that would ensure intelligibility.” (Canagarajah 2007: 925)
  8. 8. York St John University | www.yorksj.ac.uk background “… native speakership is neither a privilege of birth nor of education, but “acceptance by the group that created the distinction between native and nonnative speakers”.” Braine (1999: xv), citing Kramsch (1997: 363) background Native speakership
  9. 10. York St John University | www.yorksj.ac.uk background “ Research is also beginning to show how bad some native speakers are at using English for international communication. It may be that elements of an [English as a lingua franca] syllabus could usefully be taught within a mother tongue curriculum.” (Graddol 2006: 87) ELF and inherited EL?
  10. 11. York St John University | www.yorksj.ac.uk 30 UK students on a ‘TESOL and Language Studies’ module, third year BA English Language and Linguistics. 20 International students on a ‘Communication Skills’ module, pre-undergraduate Foundation Programme. Interviewed (and recorded) each other and used the information to plan lessons (TESOL) or prepare a presentation/report on ‘English as an International Language ’ (Communication Skills). Task
  11. 12. York St John University | www.yorksj.ac.uk 24 recorded semi-structured interviews submitted. 7 interviews (whole or part) were transcribed, using a code that captured aspects of the interaction. Data collection
  12. 13. York St John University | www.yorksj.ac.uk analysis Conversation analysis. “… how the parties are embodying for one another the relevance of the interaction and are thereby producing the social structure. ” (italics in the original, Schegloff 1999: 113) Data analysis
  13. 14. York St John University | www.yorksj.ac.uk analysis Listen to an extract from the data and read the transcript. Data analysis
  14. 15. York St John University | www.yorksj.ac.uk <ul><li>Co-constructing and contesting ‘native speaker’ and ‘non-native speaker’ identities: </li></ul><ul><li>introduction of topics, question and answer sequences. </li></ul><ul><li>your learning history, your difficulties. </li></ul><ul><li>collaborative search for words and explanations . </li></ul><ul><li>resisting being explained. ‘Not sure’? </li></ul>Findings
  15. 16. York St John University | www.yorksj.ac.uk implications <ul><li>no relationship between competence in EIL and any variety of inherited EL? </li></ul><ul><li>mixed language assessments create a need for interaction . </li></ul><ul><li>spoken communication is demanding and unpredictable – willingness (and opportunities) to practise paying attention and negotiating meaning are key. </li></ul>Implications?
  16. 17. York St John University | www.yorksj.ac.uk implications <ul><li>“ By thinking in terms of raising awareness, directing attention, developing sensitivity, challenging assumptions , etc., CA can [help] professionals to deepen their understanding and develop new competencies.” (Richards 2007: 5-6) </li></ul>Implications?
  17. 18. York St John University | www.yorksj.ac.uk implications “… it is not necessary to show how people develop vested interests in being different from one another… without such vested interests being created from one moment to the next, people usually develop metacommunicative procedures for altering their communicative codes in order to make sense of each other. When communicative differences become irremedial, it is because there are sound political or economic reasons for their being so.” (McDermott & Gospodinoff 1979: 277) Implications?
  18. 19. York St John University | www.yorksj.ac.uk references Braine, G. (1999). Non-native educators in English language teaching . Mahwah, New Jersey: Erlbaum. Brown, G. (2008). English - The World's language. 2008 speeches. Available online at: http://www.pm.gov.uk/output/Page14289.asp [last accessed 6/6/08] Canagarajah, S. (2007). Lingua franca English, multilingual communities, and language acquisition. Modern Language Journal , 91(focus issue), 923-939. Clark, H. H. (1997). Dogmas of understanding. Discourse Processes , 23, 567-598. Clark, H. H. (2001). Conversation. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.) International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences . London: Elsevier. Gargesh, R. (2006). South Asian Englishes. In B. B. Kachru, Y. Kachru & C. L. Nelson (Eds.) The handbook of world Englishes (Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics). Oxford: Blackwell. Graddol, D. (2006). English next . British Council. Available online at: http://www.britishcouncil.org/learning-research-english-next.pdf [last accessed 6/6/08]. References
  19. 20. York St John University | www.yorksj.ac.uk references Hall, C. J. (2005). An introduction to language and linguistics: breaking the language spell. London: Continuum. Jenkins, J (2007), English as a lingua franca: attitude and identity . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kachru, B. B., Kachru, Y. & Nelson, C. L. (eds) (2006). The handbook of World Englishes . Oxford: Blackwell. Richards, K. (2007). Introduction. In K. Richards and P. Seedhouse (Eds.) Applying Conversation Analysis . Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Schegloff, E. A. (1992). In another context. In A. Duranti and C. Goodwin (Eds.) Rethinking context: language as an interactive phenomenon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Schegloff, E. A. (1999). Talk and social structure. In A. Jaworski & N. Coupland (Eds.) The discourse reader . London: Routledge. References
  20. 21. York St John University | www.yorksj.ac.uk What kind of English do you speak? The construction and use of ideas about English as an international language

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