Diegetic and non-diegetic sound
Sound whose source is visible on the screen or the source is implied to be
present by the action of the film:
voices of characters
sounds made by objects in the story
Sound whose source is neither visible on the screen or has been implied to be
present in the action:
sound effects which is added for the dramatic effect
Are those sounds which are synchronized or matched with what is
viewed. For example:If the film portrays a character playing the piano,
the sounds of the piano are projected.
Effects are not matched with a visible source of the sound on screen.
Such sounds are included so as to provide an appropriate mood.
E.G A film maker might opt to include the background sound of an
ambulance's siren while the foreground sound and image portrays an
arguing couple. The asynchronous ambulance siren underscores the
psychic injury incurred in the argument. (CONTRAPUNTAL SOUND)
A voice over
A voice over is a sound device wherein one hears the voice
of a character and/or narrator speaking but the character in
question is not speaking those words on screen. This is often
used to reveal the thoughts of a character.
A sonic flashback
A sonic flashback describes the technique of using sound
from earlier in the film during a later scene. One character
may be present on the screen, but they are hearing a voice
or action from a previous time in their head.
Sound perspective refers to the apparent distance of a sound
source, evidenced by its volume, timbre, and pitch. This type of
editing is most common in how the audience who hear film
characters’ speech in reality.
For example in the clip the soundtrack does not reproduce these
relative distances and the change in volume that would naturally
occur. As the volume of her voice remains the same even though
the camera is at a long distance.
A sound bridge is a type of sound editing that occurs when
sound carries over a visual transition in a film. It is the way
in which it connects the mood, as for example shown in the
clip suggested by the music, throughout multiple scenes
Nonsimultaneous sound is essentially sound that takes place
earlier in the story than the current image. This type of sound
can give us information about the story without us actually
seeing these events taking place
Direct sound is all of the sound that is recorded at the time
of filming. In this scene from Talladega Nights: The Ballad of
Ricky Bobby, the only sounds are those that occurred when
the scene was filmed. The main sound in the scene is the
characters’ dialogue, but some subtle direct background
A sound other than speech or music made artificially for us
in a play,movie or other broadcast production. E.g an
imitative sound as of thunder or an explosion.
A sound effect or combination of sound effects that are associated
with a particular character,setting,situation or idea through the film
Conversation between two or more people in a programme,
film or book.
Mode of Address/direct address
How the text speaks to the audience and involves them, it also
involves how an audience respond to a text in a certain way
Original music written specifically to accompany a flim,often
played in the background.
Themes and stings
Themes is a music that always accompanies that particular Tv
show or even a particular character and it suits the mood or
themes (james bond)
The background sounds which are present in a scene or
location. Common ambient sounds include birds,crowds,office