Digestive system interesting!

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Digestive system interesting!

  1. 1. DIGESTION – is the process of reducing food into smaller particles or molecules that will be absorb by the body. FUNCTIONS: 1. To break up big pieces of food into tiny particles. 2. To break the tiny particles of food molecules that will dissolve in the body fluids and pass through the cell walls to be used by the cells.
  2. 2. 3 PHASES OF DIGESTION3 PHASES OF DIGESTION 1. INGESTION – process of getting food1. INGESTION – process of getting food 2. DIGESTION PROCESS2. DIGESTION PROCESS 2 STAGES2 STAGES A. MECHANICAL PHASE – process by which food isA. MECHANICAL PHASE – process by which food is acted upon physically.acted upon physically. B. CHEMICAL PHASE - process of converting foodB. CHEMICAL PHASE - process of converting food from complex molecules into its simplest form.from complex molecules into its simplest form. 3. EGESTION / DEFECATION – process of3. EGESTION / DEFECATION – process of eliminating the undigested food from the in theeliminating the undigested food from the in the form of feces.form of feces.
  3. 3. ALIMENTARY TRACT / FOODALIMENTARY TRACT / FOOD TUBETUBE  MOUTHMOUTH  ESOPHAGUSESOPHAGUS  STOMACHSTOMACH  SMALL INTESTINESMALL INTESTINE  LARGE INTESTINELARGE INTESTINE  RECTUMRECTUM  ANUSANUS
  4. 4. ALIMENTARY TRACTALIMENTARY TRACT
  5. 5. ACCESSORY ORGANSACCESSORY ORGANS  GLANDSGLANDS  LIVERLIVER  GALL BLADDERGALL BLADDER  PANCREASPANCREAS
  6. 6. ACCESORY GLANDSACCESORY GLANDS
  7. 7. DIGESTION IN THE MOUTHDIGESTION IN THE MOUTH -Upon entering the mouth the food will be physically broken down into pieces by the Teeth with the help of the tongue and the buccinator muscle. MUCUS – comes from the lining of the mouth which moisten the food facilitates swallowing SALIVA - another secretion from the glands located at the different areas of the mouth which lubricates the food
  8. 8. 3 KINDS OF SALIVARY GLANDS3 KINDS OF SALIVARY GLANDS  PAROTID GLANDS - the largest among the 3PAROTID GLANDS - the largest among the 3 glands which are located on each side of theglands which are located on each side of the face , in front of the ears.face , in front of the ears.  SUBMAXILLARY GLANDS – lies with inSUBMAXILLARY GLANDS – lies with in the angle of the lower jaw.the angle of the lower jaw.  SUBLINGUAL GLANDS – found under theSUBLINGUAL GLANDS – found under the tonguetongue
  9. 9. TONGUE – acts as the organ of taste using taste buds - it pushes the food towards the teeth - helps in swallowing the food •SWEET TASTE – sensed at the tip of the tongue. •SOUR TASTE - sensed at the lateral part of the tongue •BITTER TASTE – sensed at the back part of the tongue
  10. 10. TONGUETONGUE
  11. 11. DIGESTION IN THE ESOPHAGUSDIGESTION IN THE ESOPHAGUS  ESOPHAGUS- a long tube which carries theESOPHAGUS- a long tube which carries the food from the mouth to the stomachfood from the mouth to the stomach  PHARYNX- serves as the passage way forPHARYNX- serves as the passage way for both air and foodboth air and food  EPIGLOTTIS – covers the glottis to preventEPIGLOTTIS – covers the glottis to prevent the food from entering the respiratory tractthe food from entering the respiratory tract * PERISTALSIS- a rhythmic wave like mascular* PERISTALSIS- a rhythmic wave like mascular action that pushes the food further down theaction that pushes the food further down the alimentary canalalimentary canal
  12. 12. DIGESTION IN THE STOMACHDIGESTION IN THE STOMACH  CARDIAC SPHINCTER – closes and opensCARDIAC SPHINCTER – closes and opens to allow the flow of food from the esophagusto allow the flow of food from the esophagus to the stomachto the stomach  STOMACH – large, J – shaped bag likeSTOMACH – large, J – shaped bag like structure which is located at the end of thestructure which is located at the end of the esophagusesophagus - the lining is thick wrinkled membrane ith- the lining is thick wrinkled membrane ith gastric glands, the walls of each gland aregastric glands, the walls of each gland are lined with secretory cells.lined with secretory cells.
  13. 13. SECRETORY CELLSSECRETORY CELLS SECRETES:SECRETES: 1.1. ENZYMES –ENZYMES – - Proteases which break down proteinsProteases which break down proteins - Pepsin breaks down protein into peptonePepsin breaks down protein into peptone - Rennin acts on milk protein allowing the milk toRennin acts on milk protein allowing the milk to clotclot 2. HYDROCHLORIC ACID- helps break up connective2. HYDROCHLORIC ACID- helps break up connective tissues and cell membranes in food, it also helps intissues and cell membranes in food, it also helps in destroying the bacteria in the systemdestroying the bacteria in the system 3. MUCUS3. MUCUS
  14. 14. PERISTALTIC MOVEMENT- the squeezing action of the stomach which churn and mix the food together with the gastric juices PYROLIC VALVE- the valve that opens and closes several times letting the food from the stomach enter the small intestine
  15. 15. PANCREASPANCREAS  Secretes hormones that regulate the balance ofSecretes hormones that regulate the balance of the blood glucosethe blood glucose  Secretes pancreatic juices which is emptiedSecretes pancreatic juices which is emptied into the duodenuminto the duodenum  EMULSIFICATION- is the process ofEMULSIFICATION- is the process of breaking down fats into tiny droplets.breaking down fats into tiny droplets.
  16. 16. LIVERLIVER  Is the largest gland in the body; it hasIs the largest gland in the body; it has a gallbladder which produce a bilea gallbladder which produce a bile  Bile- serves as the emulsifier of fatsBile- serves as the emulsifier of fats
  17. 17. DIGESTION IN THE SMALLDIGESTION IN THE SMALL INTESTINEINTESTINE - IT IS WHERE THE FINAL DIGESTION- IT IS WHERE THE FINAL DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION TAKES PLACEAND ABSORPTION TAKES PLACE
  18. 18. SMALL INTESTINESMALL INTESTINE 3 MAJOR PARTS3 MAJOR PARTS 1.1. DUODENUM- the upper 20cm long tubeDUODENUM- the upper 20cm long tube connected to the stomachconnected to the stomach 2.2. JEJUNUM-2.5cm longJEJUNUM-2.5cm long 3.3. ILEUM-longest half coiled through theILEUM-longest half coiled through the abdominal cavityabdominal cavity
  19. 19. SMALL INTESTINESMALL INTESTINE duodenum jejunum ileum
  20. 20. GLANDS IN THE SMALLGLANDS IN THE SMALL INTESTINEINTESTINE 1.1. Erepsin- change peptone to amino acidsErepsin- change peptone to amino acids 2.2. Maltose- acts on dextrin and maltoseMaltose- acts on dextrin and maltose 3.3. Sucrase- acts on sucroseSucrase- acts on sucrose 4.4. Lactose acts on LactoseLactose acts on Lactose Villi-are tiny fingerlike projections coming outVilli-are tiny fingerlike projections coming out of the folds of the mucosa or membranousof the folds of the mucosa or membranous lininglining -it increases the area for absorption-it increases the area for absorption
  21. 21. THE LARGE NTESTINE/COLONTHE LARGE NTESTINE/COLON  Shorter than the small intestine but larger inShorter than the small intestine but larger in diameter(7cm)diameter(7cm)  It absorb water from the undigested foodIt absorb water from the undigested food materialsmaterials
  22. 22. LARGE INSTESTINELARGE INSTESTINE
  23. 23. LARGE INTESTINELARGE INTESTINE
  24. 24. RectumRectum- last 20-30cm of the colon- last 20-30cm of the colon AnusAnus- forms the end of the digestive tract- forms the end of the digestive tract FecesFeces-remaining food that is being-remaining food that is being eliminated through the anuseliminated through the anus AppendixAppendix-fingerlike structure found-fingerlike structure found between the large & small intestinebetween the large & small intestine
  25. 25. AILMENTS OF THE DIGESTIVEAILMENTS OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEMSYSTEM Appendicitis,Appendicitis, - acute inflammation of the- acute inflammation of the vermiformvermiform (wormlike) appendix, a blind tube projecting(wormlike) appendix, a blind tube projecting from thefrom the cecum,cecum,—the beginning of the large—the beginning of the large intestine. The appendix, located in the lowerintestine. The appendix, located in the lower right side of the abdomen, is an organ with noright side of the abdomen, is an organ with no known function in humans. If the appendixknown function in humans. If the appendix wall ruptures, infection may spread to thewall ruptures, infection may spread to the abdominal cavity, causing peritonitis.abdominal cavity, causing peritonitis.
  26. 26. Symptoms of appendicitis include pain andSymptoms of appendicitis include pain and cramps in the area between the right hip bonecramps in the area between the right hip bone and the navel, fever, nausea and vomiting,and the navel, fever, nausea and vomiting, constipation, and diarrhea. The treatment isconstipation, and diarrhea. The treatment is surgical removal of the appendixsurgical removal of the appendix (appendectomy). Although the frequency of(appendectomy). Although the frequency of appendicitis is highest among young adults,appendicitis is highest among young adults, the ailment can affect persons of any age.the ailment can affect persons of any age.
  27. 27.  Peptic ulcers are ulcers of the stomachPeptic ulcers are ulcers of the stomach (gastric) or small intestine (duodenal). In(gastric) or small intestine (duodenal). In addition to the pain caused by the ulcer itself,addition to the pain caused by the ulcer itself, peptic ulcers give rise to such complications aspeptic ulcers give rise to such complications as hemorrhage from the erosion of a major bloodhemorrhage from the erosion of a major blood vesselvessel
  28. 28.  ConstipationConstipation - occurs when the large intestine absorbs too- occurs when the large intestine absorbs too much water because food residues are movingmuch water because food residues are moving slowly. As a result, the feces become hard andslowly. As a result, the feces become hard and dry, which may make elimination difficult.dry, which may make elimination difficult.
  29. 29.  Anorexia NervosaAnorexia Nervosa - mental illness in which a person has an- mental illness in which a person has an intense fear of gaining weight and a distortedintense fear of gaining weight and a distorted perception of their weight and body shape.perception of their weight and body shape. People with this illness believe themselves toPeople with this illness believe themselves to be fat even when their weight is so low thatbe fat even when their weight is so low that their health is in danger. A person withtheir health is in danger. A person with anorexia nervosa severely restricts food intakeanorexia nervosa severely restricts food intake and usually becomes extremely thin.and usually becomes extremely thin.
  30. 30.  Bulimia, an eating disorder in which persistentBulimia, an eating disorder in which persistent overconcern with body weight and shape leadsoverconcern with body weight and shape leads to repeated episodes of binging (consumingto repeated episodes of binging (consuming large amounts of food in a short time)large amounts of food in a short time) associated with induced vomiting, use ofassociated with induced vomiting, use of laxatives, fasting, and/or excessive exercise tolaxatives, fasting, and/or excessive exercise to control weight. Bulimia was classified as acontrol weight. Bulimia was classified as a distinct disorder by the American Psychiatricdistinct disorder by the American Psychiatric Association in 1980; the name was changed toAssociation in 1980; the name was changed to bulimia nervosa in 1987.bulimia nervosa in 1987.

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