American Colonies The settling of North America<br />Written by: Alan Taylor <br />Presentation by: Rachelle Alcantara <br />History 140 <br />
Chapter 13: Men and Money<br />William Orange got England into a war with France that cost them extreme amounts of money. The English were required to build a brand new much larger and professional army and navy. This took much funding which was provided by higher levels of taxation. During the 1690’s England created a military that was solely based on waging war. To uphold the Protestant regime, to maintain England’s hold over Ireland, to preserve their American Colonies and to defend the Dutch from a massive French invasion the English fought the Nine Years War from 1689 to 1697. Because of this war, for merly the lightest-taxed people in Europe, the English joined the French and the Dutch as the MOST heavily taxed. Taxes fell short with the growing military expenditures. As a result of all of this spending, by 1698 national debt reached 17 million and the annual interest payments absorbed nearly a third of the national revenues. The Bank of England was established by Parliament to manage the debt. Parliament could control foreign and military policy because of the new fiscal powers. War created both a formidable government and a new form of sovereignty that prevented the crown from exercising that expanded power without Parliament. <br />
Chapter 13:War of the Spanish Succession<br /><ul><li>For the Europeans and their colonists, the peace of 1697 lasted only a short five years.
By 1702, Louis XIV had rebuilt his military and reviewed his ambitions for Foreign expansion.
England received alliance against Louis XIV for the war of the Spanish succession
England was qualified as a first-rank power, but their war effort again faulted in the colonies.
In 1711, England sent a large expedition to assist New England in capturing Quebec from the sea. This resulted in nine hundred deaths. The English could not complete the deaths because of the harsh weather and sailed home sparing Quebec for the second time, thus frustrating and upsetting the New English.
The Queen and Parliament decided to cash in their early european victories before further warfare reversed them.
Although their forces won victories in Europe, they were defeated in the colonies.
By giving a new priority to overseas expansion, the English committed their empire to maritime commerce rather than to European territory. As a result of this a dramatic shift occurred that elevated their American colonies to a new importance. </li></li></ul><li>Chapter 14: News<br />The improved flow of transatlantic information gave the Colonial America a massive sense of isolation. But by the 1730’s ships arrived more frequently, keeping everyone connected to England by providing them with letters, pamphlets, and English newspapers. This sparked the idea of the Colonial newspaper. <br />The colonial newspaper was developed because of an increase in information from home and a greater colonial dependence upon it. The very first colonial newspaper was called the Boston News-Letter and was born in 1704. The idea blossomed and by 1739, British America has thirteen newspapers in seven seaports of seven colonies. Newspapers depended on contributions from the British Atlantic. <br />The news papers avoided local news stories and copied offical items from the London press such as: diplomatic exchanges, parliamentary proceedings and royal addresses. They did this to draw colonial readers into the English perspective on the world. <br />
Chapter 14: Scots<br /><ul><li>Scots emigration soared all the way to 145,000 between 1707 and 1775. They had great incentives to emigrate and the British Union of 1707 gave them legal access to all of the colonies.
After a few early emigrants prospered, this attracted many to follow in their footsteps creating a chain migration.
Scottish Diaspora flowed in three streams: </li></ul>Lowland Scots<br />Highland Scots<br />Ulster Scots<br />Lowland Scots- <br /><ul><li>Skilled tradesmen, farmers, and professionals
Usually emigrated individually or in single families.
They were especially conspicuous as colonial doctors – by the American Revolution, Scots doctors and their American apprentices dominated formal medical practice in the colonies. </li></ul>Highland Scots-<br /><ul><li>In 1746, the British army suppressed a rebellion in the Highlands and because of this Parliament outlawed many of their traditions and institutions
Preferred cheap and dangerous land (frontier valleys ex: along Cape Fear River in North Carolina) </li></li></ul><li>Chapter 15: Old Lights and New Lights<br />The New Lights: the evangelicals, who<br /> believed in the new dispensations of <br />divine grace<br /><ul><li>Initially educated men with prestige</li></ul>wealth and influence, usually older<br /> men well established in their careers and<br /> set in their ways. <br /><ul><li>Traditional learned sermons</li></ul>Vs. <br />The Old Lights: defended venerable institutions and scriptural traditions.<br /><ul><li>Ambitious ministers, usually younger and more prone to embrace “new measures.”
Preached emotionally and spontaneously to use their immediate sense of the Holy Spirit (and to shock and inspire their audience)
Often included emotional outbreaks during the worship</li></ul>This controversy split both the colonial elite and the common people. <br />Both: included learned ministers, powerful magistrates, wealthy merchants, common farmers, artisans, and laborers. <br />
Chapter 15: Radicals<br />Moderates: <br /><ul><li>Stayed true to their establishment and its system of territorial parishes
Believed that church institutions necessarily belonged to the world and had to accommodate to its inequalities in wealth, status, and learning
Embraced almost all of the professional clergy who supported the revivals
Defended the revivals as the authentic work of God
Felt compelled to denounce the radicals. </li></ul>Vs. <br />Radicals: <br /><ul><li>Thought that the Moderates establishments were obstacles to the free flow of divine grace.
Imagined otherworldly churches that brought heaven to earth during worship, temporarily dissolving the significance of all social distinctions.
Rejected any church establishment as corrupting to both religion and government.
Encouraged emotional and physical outbursts of the revivals
Defined “experimental religion” to be the only divine and true truth. </li></ul>Both: commitment to “experimental religion” <br />
Chapter 15: Legacies<br /><ul><li>As Northern revivalism receded after 1743, the moderate evangelicals and most Old Light clergy regretted many of the decisions they had made because it led to the publics respect for a learned clergy to weaken greatly. Although the New Lights and Old Lights disagreed on many different aspects of the church, they decided to agree to disagree without impugning each other’s salvation and godliness. The clergies of all three denominations were brought together by the victories of the moderates in attracting more listeners and in training the next generation of ministers and also recognizing their shared antipathy toward the radical evangelicals who championed lay exhorters, anti-intellectualism, latter-day versions, and church separations.
The educated clergy worked to regain popular support.
Even with all of this change, they could not reverse the popular enthusiasm for sampling many different traveling preachers of high social and theological diversity.
The changes made it easier for gentlemen and ladies to become Baptists.</li></li></ul><li>Chapter 17: Texas<br /><ul><li>During the 18th century, French traders ascended the Great Plains rivers to trade with the village peoples. They offered guns and ammunition for buffalo hides and slaves.
Because of this many of the Indian villiages such as the Wichita and Pawnee became better armed then the mission Indians within the Hispanic orbit.
The Governor Valverde of New Mexico send Pedro de Villasur with 45 Hispanics and 60 Pueblo on an adventure northeastward across the Great Plains to attack the Pawnee. The Pawnee surprised the Hispanic-Pueblo encampment killing half the invaders including the governor. New Mexico never dared to strike across the Great Plains again.
In 1716, the Spanish built new missions in the hill country of east Texas to convert the people who lived there. The missionaries brought smallpox to the Caddo and they refused to convert to to Catholicism.
The Missionaries and their soldiers retreated to San Antonio, Texas. (founded by the Spanish in 1718) In 1760 only about 1,200 colonists lived in Texas and almost half of them in San Antonio.
In San Antonio the missions prospered, but only in San Antonio, and only for one year. </li>