Cell notes

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Cell notes

  1. 1. Cells Unit 2
  2. 2. The Cell Theory  All organisms are composed of one or more cells. 7.1 Cell Discovery and Theory Cellular Structure and Function  The cell is the basic unit of structure and organization of organisms. Chapter 7  All cells come from preexisting cells.
  3. 3. Prokaryotic Cell  Simple structure Cellular Structure and Function  Contains a plasma membrane  Does not contain membrane-bound organelles  No Nucleus 11,000x 7.1 Cell Discovery and Theory Chapter 7
  4. 4. Eukaryotic Cell  More complex structure Cellular Structure and Function  Contains a plasma membrane  Contains membrane- bound organelles  Has a nucleus 400x 7.1 Cell Discovery and Theory Chapter 7
  5. 5. Cellular Structure and Function 7.3 Structures and Organelles Chapter 7
  6. 6. Cellular Structure and Function 7.3 Structures and Organelles Chapter 7
  7. 7. Plasma (Cell) Membrane  Thin, flexible boundary between the cell and its environment 7.2 The Plasma Membrane Cellular Structure and Function  Allows nutrients into the cell  Allows waste to leave the cell  (Selectively Permeable) Chapter 7
  8. 8.  The plasma membrane is composed of the phospholipid bilayer. Cellular Structure and Function  A phospholipid means: a glycerol backbone two fatty acid chains a phosphate group. 7.2 The Plasma Membrane Chapter 7
  9. 9. Fluid Mosaic Model Cellular Structure and Function  The phospholipid bilayer allows other molecules to “float” in the membrane. Other Components  Proteins  Cholesterol  Carbohydrates 7.2 The Plasma Membrane Chapter 7
  10. 10. Proteins Cellular Structure and Function  Transmit signals inside the cell  Act as a support structure  Provide pathways for larger substances to enter and leave the cell 7.2 The Plasma Membrane Chapter 7
  11. 11. Cholesterol Cellular Structure and Function  Prevents fatty acid tails from sticking together 7.2 The Plasma Membrane Chapter 7
  12. 12. Carbohydrates Cellular Structure and Function  Identify chemical signals 7.2 The Plasma Membrane Chapter 7
  13. 13. Cilia  Short, numerous projections that look like hairs Cellular Structure and Function Flagella  Longer and less numerous than cilia  Create movement with a whiplike motion 400x 26,367x 7.3 Structures and Organelles Chapter 7
  14. 14. Passive Transport  Movement of particles from a high to low concentration across the membrane without using energy 7.4 Cellular Transport Cellular Structure and FunctionChapter 7 High Low
  15. 15. Diffusion  Movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration Cellular Structure and Function 7.4 Cellular Transport Chapter 7
  16. 16.  Diffusion is controlled by Cellular Structure and Function  Temperature  Pressure  Concentration Dynamic Equilibrium  When diffusion of material into the cell equals diffusion of material out of the cell 7.4 Cellular Transport Chapter 7
  17. 17. Facilitated Diffusion Cellular Structure and Function  Movement of materials across the membrane from a higher to a lower concentration by using proteins 7.4 Cellular Transport Chapter 7
  18. 18. Osmosis Cellular Structure and Function  Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane 7.4 Cellular Transport Chapter 7
  19. 19. Blood CellPlant Cell Isotonic Solution Cellular Structure and Function  Water and dissolved substances diffuse into and out of the cell at the same rate. 11,397x 7.4 Cellular Transport Chapter 7
  20. 20. Blood Cell Hypotonic Solution Cellular Structure and Function  Solute concentration is higher inside the cell.  Water diffuses into the cell. Plant Cell 13,000x 7.4 Cellular Transport Chapter 7  BLOWS UP the cell.
  21. 21. Plant Cell Hypertonic Solution Cellular Structure and Function  Solute concentration is higher outside the cell.  Water diffuses out of the cell. Blood Cell 13,000x 7.4 Cellular Transport Chapter 7  SHRINKS the cell.
  22. 22. Active Transport Cellular Structure and Function  Movement of particles from low to a high concentration across the cell membrane using energy 7.4 Cellular Transport Chapter 7 Low High
  23. 23. Cellular Structure and Function Endocytosis  The cell surrounds and takes particles into the cell 7.4 Cellular Transport Chapter 7
  24. 24. Chapter 7 7.4 Cellular Transport Exocytosis  Secretion of material out of the plasma membrane
  25. 25. Cellular Structure and Function  Protein pump  Moves three Na+ ions out of the cell and two K+ ions into the cell  Important for nervous system impulses for transmitting information 7.4 Cellular Transport Chapter 7 http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_the_sodium_potassium_pump_works.html
  26. 26. Transformation of Energy  Energy is the ability to do work. 8.1 How Organisms Obtain Energy Cellular Energy  Thermodynamics is the study of the flow and transformation of energy in the universe. Chapter 8
  27. 27. Metabolism  All of the chemical reactions in a cell 8.1 How Organisms Obtain Energy Cellular Energy  Photosynthesis—light energy from the Sun is converted to chemical energy for use by the cell  Cellular respiration—organic molecules are broken down to release energy for use by the cell Chapter 8
  28. 28. ATP: The Unit of Cellular Energy  ATP releases energy when the bond between the second and third phosphate groups is broken. 8.1 How Organisms Obtain Energy Cellular EnergyChapter 8
  29. 29. http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/photosynth/overview.html
  30. 30. Light and pigments • Photosynthesis requires light and the pigment chlorophyll • The green pigment is the wavelength reflected rather than absorbed, by plants the most – so plants are green and other colors are absorbed
  31. 31. Overview of Photosynthesis  Photosynthesis occurs in 2 phases: Cellular Energy 1. Light-dependent reactions (thylakoid) 2. Light-independent reactions/ Calvin Cycle (stroma) 8.2 Photosynthesis Chapter 8
  32. 32. Phase One: Light Reactions  The absorption of light is the first step in photosynthesis. Cellular Energy  Chloroplasts capture light energy. 8.2 Photosynthesis Chapter 8
  33. 33. Reactions of Photosynthesis Light dependent reactions • Grana are stacks of thylakoids in the chloroplast that contain the chlorophyll which captures sunlight • Light dependent reactions take place in the thylakoids
  34. 34. Cellular Energy 8.2 Photosynthesis Phase Two: The Calvin Cycle (Light-Independent)  In the second phase is the Calvin cycle, energy is stored in organic molecules such as glucose. Chapter 8
  35. 35. Light independent reactions The Calvin Cycle • The Calvin cycle or light independent reactions take place in the stroma of chloroplast • Uses ATP and NADPH from light dep. Reactions to produce high energy sugars
  36. 36. http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/facilities/multimedia/uploads/alberta/Photo.html http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/nature/photosynthesis.html
  37. 37. Overview of Cellular Respiration  the chemical bonds of glucose are broken down in the presence of oxygen and produce energy. 8.3 Cellular Respiration Cellular EnergyChapter 8 (Glucose) + (oxygen)---->(carbon dioxide) + (water) + energy* (ATP)
  38. 38. Glucose Glycolysis Cytoplasm Pyruvic acid Electrons carried in NADH Krebs Cycle Electrons carried in NADH and FADH2 Electron Transport Chain Mitochondrion Overview of Cellular Respiration Mitochondrion
  39. 39. 8.3 Cellular Respiration Cellular Energy  Cellular respiration occurs in 3 parts.  Glycolysis  Kreb’s Cycle Chapter 8  Electron Transport Chain
  40. 40. Step 1: Glycolysis  Takes 2 ATP to start  Glucose is broken down in the cytoplasm by glycolysis (splitting glucose).  Occurs in the cytoplasm  Forms 2 pyruvate from 1 glucose 8.3 Cellular Respiration Cellular Energy  2 molecules of ATP and 2 molecules of NADH are formed for each molecule of glucose that is broken down. Chapter 8
  41. 41. Step 2: Krebs Cycle 8.3 Cellular Respiration Cellular Energy  The series of reactions in which pyruvate is broken down into carbon dioxide  Occurs in the mitochondria Chapter 8
  42. 42. 8.3 Cellular Respiration Cellular Energy  The net yield from the Krebs cycle is: 6 CO2 molecules 2 ATP 8 NADH 2 FADH2. Chapter 8
  43. 43. 8.3 Cellular Respiration Cellular Energy Step 3: Electron Transport  Final step in the breakdown of glucose  Point at which most ATP is produced  Produces 24-32 ATP Chapter 8
  44. 44. Summary FlowchartSection 9-2 Glucose (C6H1206) + Oxygen (02) Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Carbon Dioxide (CO2) + Water (H2O) Cellular Respiration
  45. 45. Glucose Glycolysis Krebs cycle Electron transport Fermentation (without oxygen) Alcohol or lactic acid Chemical PathwaysSection 9-1
  46. 46. 8.3 Cellular Respiration Cellular Energy Anaerobic Respiration  The anaerobic pathway after glycolysis  Two main types:  Lactic acid fermentation (muscles)  Alcohol fermentation (yeast & molds)
  47. 47. Fermentation • A process in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic) • Lactic acid fermentation – Occurs when body can’t supply enough oxygen to the muscles during exercise = soreness, burning, fatigue
  48. 48. Cell Tour http://vcell.ndsu.nodak.edu/animations/flythr ough/movie-flash.htm

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