`African Art- `Fauves-wild brush works, strident colors, subject matter high degree of simplification `The French-Was a reaction and opposition to the French impressionism that solely focused on the visual appearance of the objects It contrasted with impressionism , which wentt to capture the outward impression of an object or scene. And Expressionism did not attempt a realistic portrayal of the world.
blended the highly stylized treatment of the human figure in African sculptures with painting styles derived from the post-Impressionist works The resulting pictorial flatness, vivid color palette, and fragmented Cubist shapes helped to define early modernism. knew nothing of the original meaning and function of the West and Central African sculptures they encountered, they instantly recognized the spiritual aspect of the composition and adapted these qualities to their own efforts to move beyond the naturalism that had defined Western art since the Renaissance. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner ( from Die Brücke) used African aesthetics with the emotional intensity of harsh color tones and figural distortion, to depict the anxieties of modern life
Impressionism- showing what they actually saw Fauvism- bright colors, not distorted Expressionism-distorted colors, and distorted images
Expressionist imagery exploded into modern art from the subconscious. Its divers formal means and emotional effects range from anguish to exuberance. As the powerful, personal creations of modern individuals, these images have little in common except their inventive power and their reliance upon a distinctly private vision. The stylistic premise of Expressionism was that the artist's response to the environment was so intense that it affected the form of the art. The elements are distorted or exaggerated by subjective pressures. As a reflection of the time aka the war, Expressionist painting tended to be vivid and violent, with jarring images.
`individual perspective, was also a reaction to positivism and other artistic movements such as naturalism and impressionism. `
&quot;An Expressionist wishes, above all, to express himself... (an Expressionist rejects) immediate perception and builds on more complex psychic structures... Impressions and mental images that pass through mental peoples soul as through a filter which rids them of all substantial accretions to produce their clear essence [...and] are assimilated and condense into more general forms, into types, which he transcribes through simple short-hand formulae and symbols.&quot;
Was before the actual movement started but influenced many of the later groups of expressionists such as Die Bruecke Munch's clarity of expression was to have a great influence on many artists who would come to be known as &quot;Expressionists&quot;.
Possibly the first expressionist painting Very different of the paintings of the time because it does not show reality (impressionists) Most of Munch’s family died and this shows how people referred to him as a tortured soul The scream is his own inner hell “ One evening I was walking along a path, the city on one side of me and the fjord below. I felt tired and ill. I stopped and looked out across the fjord. The sun was setting, the clouds were turning blood red. I felt a scream passing through nature. It seemed to me that I could hear the scream. I painted this picture; painted the clouds as real blood. The colors screamed “ Visualizes desperate aspects, anxiety, and apocalypse Pictures shows how Munch was feeling insane due to how he was screaming He then portrayed that he has a feeling of being left out or left behind by the rest of the world by having the couple walking away from him “ the study of the soul, that is to say the study of my own self”
Puberty shows a bug eyed girl, squashed, oval face, sitting on a beds edge She is mortified of becoming a woman/menstruation/sexuality You can tell by her body in clenched together, trying to cover herself from the world It is said that Munch is portraying his queasy uneasy thoughts about women because he was obsessed with them, but was never married Also thought of as one of his apprehensions of how he has been taken over by women, entangled, and sucked of all life. Shadow does not fit for the lighting of the painting, is a phallic thought bubble
`Their isolation led to their shared stylistic and thematic development `Held formation from 1905-1913. Their studio was in a working class neighborhood `the group fell apart due to artistic differences `favored distorted lines and enhanced forms, vibrant color and flattened prospective `This is a painting of all the members
1- Poster by Fritz Bleyl to promote the first Die Brücke show in 1906. It was banned by the police. 2-Heckel was born in Döbeln ( Saxony ). His parents were too born in Saxony. He and others members of the group Die Brücke greatly admired the work of Edvard Munch , and aimed to make a &quot;bridge&quot; between traditional neo-romantic German painting and modern expressionist painting. The four founding members made much use of the print as a cheap and quick medium with which to produce affordable art. Most of his life he spent on printmaking. 3- Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (6 May 1880 – 15 June 1938) was a German expressionist painter and printmaker and one of the founders of the artists group Die Brücke or &quot;The Bridge&quot;, a key group leading to the foundation of Expressionism in 20th century art. He volunteered for army service in the First World War , but soon suffered a breakdown and was discharged. In 1933, his work was branded as &quot; degenerate &quot; by the Nazis and in 1937 over 600 of his works were sold or destroyed. In 1938 he committed suicide.
Impressionism: such as landscapes with stippled brushstrokes His style changed radically after returning from WWI (served as medical help for a year) Gustav Friedrich Hartlaub was the founder of the New Objectivity: “what we are displaying here is distinguished by the characteristics of the objectivity with which the artists express themselves.” two groups: Verists, who &quot;tear the objective form of the world of contemporary facts and represent current experience in its tempo and fevered temperature; Magical Realists (whom he called classicists in the article), who &quot;search more for the object of timeless ability to embody the external laws of existence in the artistic sphere.” Verists: distorted appearances to emphasize the ugly, as ugliness was the reality these artists wished to expose Magical Realists: encompassed the nearly photographic realism and the gentle neo-primitivism
Share formal arrangements, man and a woman dressed in carnival attire Realistic to some extent, they have a different appearance in the face and body shape Bright colors on different articles of clothing Grid of vertical and horizontal lines and sharp shapes throughout each composition…diagonal lines were used often in expressionism art as well Lead the eye into the center of the piece
Ecstatic objects Once again the diagonals are used in every portion of the painting Rough texture The bearded, intense, contemporary artist in the left panel not a self-portrait …modern model is transmuted into the classical figure of Medea The girl musicians in the right panel are already half-transformed into an antique chorus In the center panel, the fantasy is victorious; there is no trace of present-day metier left, no smell of studio dust and oil paint, only the clear, salty breeze of antiquity
in both world war 1 and 2…. at the age of 77. When the Nazis came to power in Germany, they regarded Dix as a degenerate artist and had him sacked from his post as an art teacher at the Dresden Academy Dix, like all other practicing artists, was forced to join the Nazi government's Reich Chamber of Fine Arts. Membership was mandatory for all artists in the Reich. Dix had to promise to paint only inoffensive landscapes
During this time he met an artist by the name of George Groz, then he started introducing some Dadaism traits to his pieces, for example collages. This piece was extremely controversial because it spoke out against all the people and how poorly vetrans were treated when they returned from war. Its painted very unrealistically thus another sign that its expressionism. It tries to unveil the ugly side of war and illustrate their forgotten status within contemporary German society,
This is shown before the war, with a veteran with fake limbs the picture again shows a veteran returning back to war and being treated poorly the German on the paper translates to “Jews Out!”, It is showing the grotesque world that veterans are forced into. Also the man on the skateboard, in an army uniform has no legs. It is between neutral precision and satirical distortion. Highlighting the effects of war, and satire. Most of Otto Dix’s works were highly controversial because many people felt that it was personally attacking the government, and they also felt that he was over exaggerating things and just showing grotesque images such as the trench.
Although not painted in the usual impressionism qualities it influenced many people This is probably one of his most famous pieces, this depicts trench warfare. It was bought by Wallraf-Richartz Museum. It created such an outcry that the museums’ director was forced to resign and they protested so the piece was also taken down, it was said to have been destroyed by the Nazi’s. . It is said that the man lying dead is to depict Jesus after falling off the cross. The space is brimming with corpses, debris, and maimed forms, and run through with spiked vertical lines This is expressionism because of the feelings and emotions evoked through the piece, obviously this cant be a play by play because you cant be painting on the field, all of otto dix’s pieces are a reflection on how he feels and how he feel people should see the truth, Nothing in this piece says happy it is all depressing even the sky is a dark red to the dead men laying underneath.
These films were united by highly stylized visuals, strange asymmetrical camera angles, atmospheric lighting and harsh contrasts between dark and light. Shadows and silhouettes were an important feature of expressionism The story lines of German expressionist films matched the visuals in terms of darkness and disillusionment. Horror films were influenced by expressionism a ton Distortion is also commonly used in both expressionism and later horror films, employed through make-up, camera angles, costumes and strange backdrops. overtly theatrical (anti-naturalist) acting style (actors move in jerky, slow, sinuous patterns) and heavy make-up little camera movement Expressionist elements (particularly sinister plots, horrific events, and chiaroscuro lighting, are found in German cinema throughout the 1920s and into the 1930s totally artificial, stylized sets (“paintings come to life”), stripped of all realistic details and psychology—sets that become symbolic diagrams of emotional states Popular expressionism films were: The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, Nosferatu (top picture), The Night of the Hunter, and the Killers.
Expressionist architecture describes a type of architecture which uses the form of a building as a means to evoke or express the inner sensitivities and feelings of the viewer or architect. This tendency can be coupled with the notion that the form can represent the physical manifestation of a transpersonal or mystic spirit.  felt the parts of a building had to be like 'individuals in a democracy' who contribute to the whole while retaining their own identities
1 Air Force Academy Chapel located in Colorado Springs, CO 1962 2 Guggenheim Museum Bilbao located in Bilbao Spain 1997 3 Dipoli Conference Center located in Otaniemi, Finland 1966
THE HISTORY BEHIND THE MOVEMENT <ul><li>Expressionism emerged as an 'avant-garde movement' in painting before the World War I </li></ul><ul><li>The movement primarily originated in Germany and Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Expressionism gained significance between 1905 and 1918 during a politically and culturally turbulent era of revelation of the profoundly problematic conditions of the turn-of-the-century Europe. </li></ul>
AFRICAN ART <ul><li>Sophisticated approach to abstraction of human figure </li></ul><ul><li>Integration with form and function </li></ul><ul><li>Exaggerated shapes or figures </li></ul><ul><li>Expressionism results in: </li></ul><ul><li>-Pictorial flatness </li></ul><ul><li>-Vivid color palette </li></ul><ul><li>-Fragmented Cubist shapes </li></ul>
FAUVISM ` Pure, bright color, applied straight from the paint tubes in an aggressive, manner to create a sense of an explosion of Color on the canvas `Movement in modern French painting characterized by the use of very bold, Vivid, pure colors. The name is a reference to the fact that the works seemed crude and untamed to many people at the time
WHAT ITS MADE OF. <ul><li>Worked with arbitrary colors as well as jarring compositions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arbitrary colors: Colors selected and used without reference to those found in reality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jarring compositions: To have a harshly unpleasant or perturbing effect on one’s nerves, feelings, thoughts, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>artist's response to the environment was so intense that it affected the form of the art. elements are distorted or exaggerated by subjective pressures </li></ul><ul><li>vivid and violent , with jarring images. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Expressionist goal is to capture emotion from the audience by: </li></ul><ul><li>Use of subjective interpretations of the world around them </li></ul><ul><li>Use of powerful colors and dynamic compositions to help inflict emotion </li></ul>
THE DRIVE BEHIND THE PAINTINGS <ul><li>Inner experience rather than solely realistic portrayal </li></ul><ul><li>Depict not the objective reality, but the subjective emotions and responses </li></ul>
<ul><li>Expressionist Goals: </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly impose the artist's own sensibility to the worlds representation </li></ul>
EDVARD MUNCH <ul><li>He first studied engineering but his frequent illnesses interrupted his studies </li></ul><ul><li>Left college to paint </li></ul><ul><li>“ in my art I attempt to explain life and its meaning to myself.” </li></ul><ul><li>Lived a life of solitude </li></ul><ul><li>Depressed- mother died at the age of five, sister died when he was fourteen </li></ul>
EDVARD MUNCH <ul><li>Put a lot of emotion into his works </li></ul><ul><li>Used heavy emotional colors and thick brush strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Art was a way for him to release himself </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on sickness, anxiety, pain, and love </li></ul>
The Scream 1893- Edvard Munch <ul><li>Aspects- </li></ul><ul><li>Strong colors </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy use of line </li></ul><ul><li>Shows how artist saw scene, not how it actually was </li></ul><ul><li>Subject is distorted and exaggerated </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional feelings of the anxiety of the modern man </li></ul>
DIE BRUECKE 1905-1913 <ul><li>First art studio that focused mainly on impressionism </li></ul><ul><li>Die Bruecke meanin g the “the bridge” was centered in Dreseden . </li></ul><ul><li>Typically violent and emotional with imagery </li></ul><ul><li>The theme’s explore d the relationship between city and cou ntry </li></ul><ul><li>Ended on the onset o f World War One </li></ul>
DIE BRUECKE CONT. <ul><li>Main goal was to build a bridge </li></ul><ul><li>between Germany’s past and future </li></ul><ul><li>Felt that the current art was too </li></ul><ul><li>academic and to defined and was not </li></ul><ul><li>expressing the artists' feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Used medieval German art and </li></ul><ul><li>primitive African sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired by Vincent Van Gogh and </li></ul><ul><li>Edvard Munch </li></ul><ul><li>Primary concern was to express deeply felt emotions so often put their feelings towards WWI onto the canvas </li></ul>
MAX BECKMANN (1884-1950) <ul><li>From 1906-1910 his paintings were characterized from the Impressionism period </li></ul><ul><li>His style changed radically and his forms became more mannered and polished, colors becoming more intense </li></ul><ul><li>By mid 1920’s he was hailed as a leading example of Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) </li></ul><ul><li>1928 he received one of the highest honors in the fine arts </li></ul><ul><li>1930 an art gallery for his art was opened at the Stadtische Galerie </li></ul>
OTTO DIX <ul><li>He was extremely critical of contemporary German society and often dwelled on the act of sexual murder </li></ul><ul><li>In 1920 he met Groz and, influenced by Dadaism he began incorporating collage into his works </li></ul><ul><li>by 1924 he was developing an increasingly realistic style of painting (this is the period in which The Trench was created) </li></ul><ul><li>His works drew attention to the worse side of life, showing prostitution, violence and death. </li></ul><ul><li>He was born in Germany, fought for Germany and eventually died in Germany </li></ul>
EXPRESSIONISM INFLUENCES FILM <ul><li>Asymmetrical camera angles </li></ul><ul><li>Harsh contrasts between dark and light </li></ul><ul><li>Shadows and silhouettes were important feature </li></ul><ul><li>Distortion was commonly used </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y9TQkh6F4ZU
EXPRESSIONISM IN ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>The form can represent the physical manifestation of a transpersonal or mystic spirit. </li></ul><ul><li>Displayed an aggressive articulation of parts </li></ul><ul><li>Evoke or express the inner sensitivities and feelings of the viewer or architect. </li></ul>Einstein Tower in Potsdam Germany