The road to war presentation


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The road to war presentation

  1. 1. The Road to War Underlying Causes of World War Two
  2. 2. 1. The Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>Harsh terms intended to make Germany powerless </li></ul><ul><li>accept total blame for WW1 </li></ul><ul><li>reduced military </li></ul><ul><li>reparations of $33 billion </li></ul><ul><li>loss of territory </li></ul>
  3. 3. Territorial Disputes After WWI <ul><li>Many German people were living in new countries such as Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Austria. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany lost territory to several countries, leading to grievances. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 2. Rise of Fascism <ul><li>Fascism </li></ul><ul><li>A system of government in which: </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism is promoted </li></ul><ul><li>Labour and industry are regulated by a strong national government </li></ul><ul><li>All opposition is suppressed </li></ul>
  5. 5. Italian Fascism <ul><li>The political ideology of fascism </li></ul><ul><li>originated with Benito Mussolini, who </li></ul><ul><li>became dictator of Italy in 1922 </li></ul><ul><li>1922- “March on Rome” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mussolini’s blackshirts destroyed Italy’s government </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Benito Mussolini <ul><li>Called “Il Duce” meaning “The Leader” </li></ul><ul><li>Created a totalitarian dictatorship by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>banning opposing political parties & unions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>censoring newspapers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>creating a secret police force </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Rise of Adolph Hitler <ul><li>1923: Hitler, leader of Nazi party, conducts an armed revolt in Munich </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the “Beer Hall Putsch” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hitler thrown in prison </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote “Mein Kampf” (my struggle) while in prison </li></ul>
  8. 8. Rise of Fascism in Germany <ul><li>1933 -Hitler is elected Chancellor of Germany, becoming “Fuhrer” (leader) </li></ul><ul><li>organized opposition was violently suppressed by the “brownshirts” </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler’s policy of “ Lebensraum ” (living room): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>take over German-speaking territories in neighbouring countries such as Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>defeat Soviet communism and expand German territory to the east into the U.S.S.R., expelling non-German people </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Anti-Semitism in Germany <ul><li>Blamed Germany’s problems on “scapegoats” such as Jews, blacks, Gypsies, homosexuals and the mentally ill. </li></ul>Nazi party policy very racist and anti-Semitic Widespread discrimination against Jews in Germany
  10. 10. 3. Failure of the League of Nations <ul><li>Non-intervention is when one does not involve themselves with foreign affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>Appeasement is the act of giving into, or satisfying ones demands. </li></ul><ul><li>Canada and most other countries followed a policy of non-intervention and appeasement </li></ul><ul><li>The League of Nations was established in 1920 to prevent war, but its decisions were not legally binding </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Manchurian Crisis <ul><li>Sept. 1931: Japan invaded Chinese province of Manchuria on the pretext that China attacked Japanese-owned South Manchurian Railroad </li></ul>
  12. 12. Manchurian Crisis (con’t) <ul><li>China applied to the League of Nations for help </li></ul><ul><li>The League condemned Japan’s actions, but there was little support for economic sanctions due to Great Depression </li></ul>
  13. 13. Limited Membership <ul><li>The United States never joined the League </li></ul><ul><li>The Soviet Union joined only in 1934, and was expelled in 1939 </li></ul><ul><li>Germany and Japan both withdrew in 1933 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Spanish Civil War <ul><li>In 1936 a Spanish civil war breaks out between: </li></ul><ul><li>New Republic government led by communists </li></ul><ul><li>vs. </li></ul><ul><li>Fascists led by Francisco Franco </li></ul>
  15. 15. Response to Spanish Civil War <ul><li>“ MacKenzie-Papineau Battalion” made up of Canadian supporters of communism - over half of volunteers die </li></ul><ul><li>Britain, France and Canada maintain official policy of non-intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Germany and Italy support the fascists with arms, equipment, and money </li></ul>
  16. 16. Italian Invasion of Abyssinia <ul><li>Border clash between Abyssinian troops (Africa) and neighboring Italian Somaliland </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini launched full-scale attack against Abyssinia </li></ul><ul><li>League of Nations imposes boycott against Italy, but little world enthusiasm for sanctions </li></ul><ul><li>England and France took no action against Italy, allowing Italian ships through the Suez canal </li></ul>
  17. 17. 5. Formation of Axis Powers <ul><li>In 1937 Germany and Italy made a pact not to go to war with each other, later joined by Japan </li></ul><ul><li>They became known as the “Axis Powers” during World War Two </li></ul>Hitler with Mussolini