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The road to war presentation

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  • 1. The Road to War Underlying Causes of World War Two
  • 2. 1. The Treaty of Versailles
    • Harsh terms intended to make Germany powerless
    • accept total blame for WW1
    • reduced military
    • reparations of $33 billion
    • loss of territory
  • 3. Territorial Disputes After WWI
    • Many German people were living in new countries such as Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Austria.
    • Germany lost territory to several countries, leading to grievances.
  • 4. 2. Rise of Fascism
    • Fascism
    • A system of government in which:
    • Nationalism is promoted
    • Labour and industry are regulated by a strong national government
    • All opposition is suppressed
  • 5. Italian Fascism
    • The political ideology of fascism
    • originated with Benito Mussolini, who
    • became dictator of Italy in 1922
    • 1922- “March on Rome”
      • Mussolini’s blackshirts destroyed Italy’s government
  • 6. Benito Mussolini
    • Called “Il Duce” meaning “The Leader”
    • Created a totalitarian dictatorship by:
      • banning opposing political parties & unions
      • censoring newspapers
      • creating a secret police force
  • 7. Rise of Adolph Hitler
    • 1923: Hitler, leader of Nazi party, conducts an armed revolt in Munich
      • the “Beer Hall Putsch”
    • Hitler thrown in prison
    • Wrote “Mein Kampf” (my struggle) while in prison
  • 8. Rise of Fascism in Germany
    • 1933 -Hitler is elected Chancellor of Germany, becoming “Fuhrer” (leader)
    • organized opposition was violently suppressed by the “brownshirts”
    • Hitler’s policy of “ Lebensraum ” (living room):
      • take over German-speaking territories in neighbouring countries such as Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia
      • defeat Soviet communism and expand German territory to the east into the U.S.S.R., expelling non-German people
  • 9. Anti-Semitism in Germany
    • Blamed Germany’s problems on “scapegoats” such as Jews, blacks, Gypsies, homosexuals and the mentally ill.
    Nazi party policy very racist and anti-Semitic Widespread discrimination against Jews in Germany
  • 10. 3. Failure of the League of Nations
    • Non-intervention is when one does not involve themselves with foreign affairs.
    • Appeasement is the act of giving into, or satisfying ones demands.
    • Canada and most other countries followed a policy of non-intervention and appeasement
    • The League of Nations was established in 1920 to prevent war, but its decisions were not legally binding
  • 11. The Manchurian Crisis
    • Sept. 1931: Japan invaded Chinese province of Manchuria on the pretext that China attacked Japanese-owned South Manchurian Railroad
  • 12. Manchurian Crisis (con’t)
    • China applied to the League of Nations for help
    • The League condemned Japan’s actions, but there was little support for economic sanctions due to Great Depression
  • 13. Limited Membership
    • The United States never joined the League
    • The Soviet Union joined only in 1934, and was expelled in 1939
    • Germany and Japan both withdrew in 1933
  • 14. Spanish Civil War
    • In 1936 a Spanish civil war breaks out between:
    • New Republic government led by communists
    • vs.
    • Fascists led by Francisco Franco
  • 15. Response to Spanish Civil War
    • “ MacKenzie-Papineau Battalion” made up of Canadian supporters of communism - over half of volunteers die
    • Britain, France and Canada maintain official policy of non-intervention
    • Germany and Italy support the fascists with arms, equipment, and money
  • 16. Italian Invasion of Abyssinia
    • Border clash between Abyssinian troops (Africa) and neighboring Italian Somaliland
    • Mussolini launched full-scale attack against Abyssinia
    • League of Nations imposes boycott against Italy, but little world enthusiasm for sanctions
    • England and France took no action against Italy, allowing Italian ships through the Suez canal
  • 17. 5. Formation of Axis Powers
    • In 1937 Germany and Italy made a pact not to go to war with each other, later joined by Japan
    • They became known as the “Axis Powers” during World War Two
    Hitler with Mussolini