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  • 1. Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt The Stable Civilization 3100 BCE – 30 BCE                                                                     
  • 2. The “SOUL” of Ancient Egypt
    • The Nile was the source of life and path to immortality
    • Egyptians lived on Eastern side but buried on Western side
      • River was symbol of passage of one life to next
    • Creation story began in swirling waters of the Nile when god Horus gave power to Pharaohs
    • Click here for Creation Story
  • 3. Geography: Populated Areas
    • There were three main areas that were populated in Egypt:
    • 1. The Nile Valley
    • Sole source of water for Egypt
    • Predictable flooding provided rich fertile soil
    • Revered and feared
    • The Nile Delta
    • Nile empties into Mediterranean
    • Largest piece of fertile land
    • All the major cities of Egypt
    • Faiyum
    • Lake Moeris lies at end of branch of Nile is centre of oasis called Faiyum
    • Irrigation from Nile made Faiyum the third most populated land
  • 4. Geographic Effects on Egypt’s Stability
    • Regular flooding of Nile = predictability
    • Deserts
      • provided protection and isolation
      • source of minerals and building supplies: copper, tin, gold and natron
    • Access to Mediterranean increased and expanded trade
    • Philosophy of stability, rejection of change
  • 5. Historical Highlights
    • Unification of Egypt
    • King Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt and wears double crown in 3100 BCE.
    • Beginning of the united and stable civilization
    • After Menes -31 dynasties over 3000 years
    Personifications of Upper and Lower Egypt place their crowns upon Menes head
  • 6. Age of Pyramids Old Kingdom 2690 BCE – 2181 BCE
    • Embodiment of Pharaoh's god like absolute power
    • Medium of immortality.
    Step Pyramid at Saqqara for Djoser 2650 BCE Mastaba – used since before Menes Great Pyramids of Giza for Khufu 2600 BCE
  • 7. Imhotep
    • First non-ruler whose life is recorded
    • Served Pharaoh Djoser (2686-2613 BCE)
    • Designed step pyramid
    • Furnished and sculpted stone images for tomb
    • Founded Egyptian medicine
    Statuette in bronze of Imhotep at Louvre, from Ptolemaic era (332-30 BCE)
  • 8. National God Amon Re
    • Popular as Amon or Amun in many areas throughout entire history of Egypt
    • Associated with bull, goose, ram and protector of the weak
    • Amon, the local god of Thebes merged with sun god Re and became Egyptian national god Amon-Re
    Figure of Amon Re from late period - ROM collection
  • 9. Exodus
    • Hebrew slaves under Ramses II leave Egypt in mass migration called Exodus (13 th c. BCE)
    • Moses receives the 10 Commandments at Mount Sinai but never finds the “Promised Land”
    Colossal statue of Ramses II from temple of Ptah - Spain
  • 10. Was Egypt Really a Stable Civilization?
    • Your tasks:
      • Research a particular topic to discover if ancient Egypt really was a stable civilization
      • Write a thesis statement which answers the research question
        • Simple thesis statements:
          • Yes, Egypt was stable OR No, Egypt was not stable.
        • More complex thesis statements:
          • Egypt was stable for the most part except for…
          • Egypt’s was mostly unstable, but we believe it to be stable only because of …
      • Provide evidence via a class presentation to prove your thesis
        • Pod Organization
      • Write an in class paper at the end of all presentations explaining your final point of view.