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  1. 1. Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt The Stable Civilization 3100 BCE – 30 BCE                                                                     
  2. 2. The “SOUL” of Ancient Egypt <ul><li>The Nile was the source of life and path to immortality </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians lived on Eastern side but buried on Western side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>River was symbol of passage of one life to next </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creation story began in swirling waters of the Nile when god Horus gave power to Pharaohs </li></ul><ul><li>Click here for Creation Story </li></ul>
  3. 3. Geography: Populated Areas <ul><li>There were three main areas that were populated in Egypt: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The Nile Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Sole source of water for Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Predictable flooding provided rich fertile soil </li></ul><ul><li>Revered and feared </li></ul><ul><li>The Nile Delta </li></ul><ul><li>Nile empties into Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>Largest piece of fertile land </li></ul><ul><li>All the major cities of Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Faiyum </li></ul><ul><li>Lake Moeris lies at end of branch of Nile is centre of oasis called Faiyum </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation from Nile made Faiyum the third most populated land </li></ul>
  4. 4. Geographic Effects on Egypt’s Stability <ul><li>Regular flooding of Nile = predictability </li></ul><ul><li>Deserts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provided protection and isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>source of minerals and building supplies: copper, tin, gold and natron </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Access to Mediterranean increased and expanded trade </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of stability, rejection of change </li></ul>
  5. 5. Historical Highlights <ul><li>Unification of Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>King Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt and wears double crown in 3100 BCE. </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning of the united and stable civilization </li></ul><ul><li>After Menes -31 dynasties over 3000 years </li></ul>Personifications of Upper and Lower Egypt place their crowns upon Menes head
  6. 6. Age of Pyramids Old Kingdom 2690 BCE – 2181 BCE <ul><li>Embodiment of Pharaoh's god like absolute power </li></ul><ul><li>Medium of immortality. </li></ul>Step Pyramid at Saqqara for Djoser 2650 BCE Mastaba – used since before Menes Great Pyramids of Giza for Khufu 2600 BCE
  7. 7. Imhotep <ul><li>First non-ruler whose life is recorded </li></ul><ul><li>Served Pharaoh Djoser (2686-2613 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Designed step pyramid </li></ul><ul><li>Furnished and sculpted stone images for tomb </li></ul><ul><li>Founded Egyptian medicine </li></ul>Statuette in bronze of Imhotep at Louvre, from Ptolemaic era (332-30 BCE)
  8. 8. National God Amon Re <ul><li>Popular as Amon or Amun in many areas throughout entire history of Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with bull, goose, ram and protector of the weak </li></ul><ul><li>Amon, the local god of Thebes merged with sun god Re and became Egyptian national god Amon-Re </li></ul>Figure of Amon Re from late period - ROM collection
  9. 9. Exodus <ul><li>Hebrew slaves under Ramses II leave Egypt in mass migration called Exodus (13 th c. BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Moses receives the 10 Commandments at Mount Sinai but never finds the “Promised Land” </li></ul>Colossal statue of Ramses II from temple of Ptah - Spain
  10. 10. Was Egypt Really a Stable Civilization? <ul><li>Your tasks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research a particular topic to discover if ancient Egypt really was a stable civilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write a thesis statement which answers the research question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple thesis statements: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yes, Egypt was stable OR No, Egypt was not stable. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More complex thesis statements: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt was stable for the most part except for… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt’s was mostly unstable, but we believe it to be stable only because of … </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide evidence via a class presentation to prove your thesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pod Organization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write an in class paper at the end of all presentations explaining your final point of view. </li></ul></ul>