Beginning of WWII


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  • Brownshirts = storm troopers Lots of colonial uniforms available cheap after WW1 ‘ Night of long knives’ – blood purge, Hitler had them killed (political adversaries) and replaced them with the SS
  • Anschluss –union of Germany and austria
  • France, Britain, Italy, Germany
  • Surprise attacks using a lot of force and executed as fast as possible to keep the enemy off guard, continuously moving Very effective France- often frustrated because they would go to reform their lines only to find the germans already there and pushing through
  • Phony War- period of a few months when war had been declared but there was no real fighting going on der Sitzkrieg – play on blitzkrieg meaning the sitting war
  • Beginning of WWII

    1. 1. The Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>Harsh terms intended to make Germany powerless </li></ul><ul><li>accept total blame for WW1 </li></ul><ul><li>reduced military </li></ul><ul><li>reparations of $33 billion </li></ul><ul><li>loss of territory </li></ul>
    2. 2. Rise of Fascism in Germany <ul><li>1933 -Hitler becomes “Fuhrer” (leader) </li></ul><ul><li>Organized opposition was violently suppressed by the “brownshirts” </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler wants to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-take over German-speaking territories (Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-expand German territory to the east into the U.S.S.R. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Formation of Axis Powers <ul><li>In 1937 Germany and Italy join forces. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan would join later </li></ul><ul><li>Became known </li></ul><ul><li>as the “Axis Powers” </li></ul><ul><li>during WWII </li></ul>Hitler with Mussolini
    4. 4. German Annexation of Austria January 1938 Hitler forces Austria to give more power to Nazis by threatening military action March 12, 1938 German troops enter Austria and are greeted enthusiastically The Anschluss was a clear violation of the Treaty of Versailles
    5. 5. Appeasement World leaders eager to avoid war met with Hitler at Munich Believed Germans demands were reasonable and could be satisfied Hitler saw the appeasement as a sign of weakness
    6. 6. The Munich Pact <ul><li>In September 1938 World leaders give Germany sections of Czechoslovakia </li></ul><ul><li>Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union were not even invited to the conference </li></ul><ul><li>March 15,1939: Germany takes over the rest of Czechoslovakia anyway, and the French and British feel betrayed </li></ul>
    7. 7. Soviet-Nazi Non-Aggression (the Molotov-Ribbentrop) Pact <ul><li>August 1939: Stalin and Hitler agreed to not attack each other and to divide Poland between them </li></ul>German ambassador Von Ribbentrop, Soviet Leader Stalin, and Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov <ul><li>Now Hitler was free to attack Poland and then the Western Allies </li></ul>
    8. 8. World War Two Begins <ul><li>Sept. 1, 1939: Germany invaded Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Britain and France declare war on Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Canada declared war on Germany on Sept. 10, 1939 </li></ul>German troops march into Poland
    9. 10. Blitzkrieg <ul><li>Blitzkrieg – lightning war </li></ul><ul><li>Germany used air strikes, followed by tanks, then infantry to rapidly attack and destroy defending forces </li></ul>
    10. 11. German Early Victories <ul><li>Germany defeats Poland by the end of September, 1939 </li></ul><ul><li>April, 1940 - After the “phony war,” Germany invades Denmark and Norway, fighting is finished by June </li></ul><ul><li>May 10 Germany invades Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg and France </li></ul><ul><li>June 25, 1940 France officially surrenders to Germany </li></ul>