Alexander the Great

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Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great

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  • At daughter’s wedding celebration by one of his 7 body guards Assassin tripped over vine and was killed
  • Tamed untameable horse Wanted to be like Achilles his hero Philip agreed to rebuild Aristotle's hometown, which he had razed, and to repopulate it by buying and freeing the ex-citizens who were slaves, or pardoning those who were in exile
  • Phalanx was 16 men deep, used 4-meter-long spears
  • Do not take Alexander seriously Persians had greater numbers
  • both have 30 000 Famous mosaic found in italy Never grew facial hair so it would not be pulled in battle
  • Phoenicia (source of ships and sailors) Damascus (takes Persian war treasury) Egypt (crowned Pharoah) In egypt, egyptians see him as liberator, welcome him and crown him pharoah Travels to the desert to see oracle – tells him he is a god, the son of ra Starts thinking he is invincible, develops a god complex
  • Enormous army, plus 200 elephants
  • Died in bablyon in king Nebuchadnezzar’s palace Never made it back to Greece Theories on death -alcohol poisoning -poisoned One story says he lay in bed unable to talk will soldiers filed past
  • Alexander didn’t leave an heir to succeed him

Transcript

  • 1. And His Empire
  • 2. A New League
    • 338BC – Philip of Macedon defeats the Greeks
      • Promises Greek city-states autonomy (self rule)
      • League of Corinth
      • Assassinated by captain of his bodyguard
      • Alexander (20 yrs. old) left to finish the job
  • 3. A Promising Future King
      • 10 years old: Legend of Bucephalus
      • 13 years old: Tutored by Aristotle
        • Fell in love with Greek culture
      • 16 years old: Regent of kingdom when Philip was away
        • Crushed revolts, saved father’s life
    Even though he was young, Alexander was destined to be an incredible leader.
  • 4. The Invasion of Persia
    • Probably not an attempt to conquer the whole Empire
    • Reliving father’s dreams
    • Found out that he was very good at warfare
    Small, mobile cavalry units (250) formed main striking force Military features :
  • 5. The Invasion of Persia Deeper Phalanx
  • 6. The Invasion of Persia War Machines Siege towers, catapults used effectively for first time Could hurl huge arrows, boulders 180 meters
  • 7. Four Battles Alexander conquered the world in four decisive battles, in less than 10 years
    • Granicus
    • Issus
    • Gaugamela
    • Hydaspes
  • 8. Four Battles
    • Granicus (334 BC)
    • Army of 35 000 invades Asia minor
    • at River Granicus
    • Persians make their first stand
    • Demolished by cavalry
    • Near-death experience for
    • Alexander
  • 9. Four Battles
    • 2. Issus (333 BC)
    • Massive battle – Alexander faces King Darius for 1 st time
    • Equal forces but cavalry defeats Persians again
    • Darius flees – Alexander realizes he can conquer whole empire
  • 10. Four Battles
    • 3. Gaugamela (331 BC)
    • Instead of chasing Darius, Alexander crushes Persian fleet
    • Conquers:
      • Phoenicia ,Damascus and
      • Egypt
    • Darius tries to bribe Alexander
    • to stop, no deal
    • Final showdown at Gaugamela:
    • Alexander commands 45 000
    • against larger Persian army
    • Cavalry wins again, Darius flees, is
    • murdered
  • 11. Four Battles
    • 4. Hydspes (327BC)
    • Wanted to conquer India!
    • Greek army travels across Asia and fights
    • King Porus at Hydspes
    • Alexander’s superior strategy still
    • victorious
    • Wants to continue East, but men refuse – have already travelled over 17 000 km!
  • 12. The End of Alexander Alexander’s conquests took a toll on him Died of Malaria at age 32
    • Legacy
    • Incredible military genius
      • Never lost a battle
    • Huge cultural impact
      • Ensured Greek dominance by
      • spreading Greek culture all over world
      • Contributed to the Greek science, made Athens center of world
  • 13. Aftermath After his death, the Empire quickly fell apart and was divided among three powerful generals: Egypt and fringe lands went to Ptolemy Asia Minor and old Persian Empire went to Seleucus Macedon and Greece went to Antigonus