Color Schemes & Wheel
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Color Theory: Schemes and Color Wheel

Color Theory: Schemes and Color Wheel

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  • 1. color theory: color schemes & “traditional” color wheel ART 251
  • 2. “Newton’s error was trusting math over the sensations of his eye.” -Goethe
  • 3. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), poet and author of Faust, published Theory of Colours in 1810. As a color theorist, he was more interested in how we perceive color.
  • 4. Basic Color Wheel… but it is flawed!
  • 5. Color Bias Wheel
  • 6. How to use the Color Bias Wheel to mix colors...
  • 7. What happens when you mix complementary colors? + + +
  • 8. What happens when you mix complementary colors? + + + = a neutral grey or brown
  • 9. Color Bias Wheel
  • 10. Make brightest purple
  • 11. Make duller purple because some blue and orange are mixed
  • 12. M a k e d u l l e s t purple, because blue is mixed with orange and red is mixed with green.
  • 13. Understand this color wheel & you will be more successful in color mixing!
  • 14. Itten’s Color Wheel
  • 15. Ewald Hering (1834-1918)
  • 16. The 3 Properties of Color Hue Value Intensity
  • 17. Properties of Color • HUE • VALUE • INTENSITY (or saturation) (HateVideogames Immensely)
  • 18. Properties of Color HUE - the name of the color, the part of the color spectrum that the color belongs to: Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or violet.
  • 19. There is no pure blue.
  • 20. . ... ..... . . .... . .. ... . .. .... . . . .. .... . . .. . .... . ... . . . . .... . .. .. . . . ... .... .... .. .. .. ... .. .. . .. .. . . . ... ... . .... .. .. .. ... .. .. . .. .. . . . ... ... . .... .. .. .. ... .. .. . .. .. . . . ... ... . .... .. .. .. ... .. .. . .. .. . . . ... .... .... .. .. .. ... .. .. . . .. . . . ... .... .... .. .. .. ... .. .. . . If colored paints were actually pure color- every time any two “pure” colors of paint were mixed you would get black. The bits of blue in the blue paint would absorb the red and yellow light. The bits of yellow paint would absorb the red and blue light. No light would escape from the paint, and you’d see a perfectly black surface.
  • 21. Properties of Color V A L U E - lightness or darkness of the hue. Mark Rothko, Untitled (Black on Gray), 1969/1970.
  • 22. MUNSELL VALUES
  • 23. InherentValue: “Normal” hues have different values.
  • 24. Grayscale Chart Low Key High Key
  • 25. Shadows in black and white... 7-8 6 3 4-5 2-3 1 3 3
  • 26. Properties of Color VALUE—lightness or darkness of the hue. –  Adding white produces aTINT –  Adding black produces a SHADE
  • 27. Painting with a limited number of values
  • 28. David Hockney, Mist, 1973. From The Weather Series. Lithograph, 37 X 32 in. Painting with a limited number of values
  • 29. Properties of Color INTENSITY—The brightness of a color. Not to be confused with lightness, which is value. –  Also called chroma or saturation.
  • 30. Adding a color’s complement will make that color LESS INTENSE.
  • 31. Phillip Otto Runge
  • 32. Giorgio Morandi, Still Life, 1962. Low intensity painting.
  • 33. Richard Diebenkorn, Ocean Park No. 16 1968 Contrast in intensity.
  • 34. Richard Diebenkorn, Ocean Park No. 54 1972
  • 35. Color Schemes or Systems A h a r m o n y o r c o m b i n a t i o n o f particular colors based on the color wheel.
  • 36. Color Schemes Monochromatic: The use of just one hue in an image. (You can use black and white to add variety though.) MarkTansey. Forward Retreat. 1986. Oil on canvas, 7 10 x 9 8 (2.4 x 2.9 m). Collection of Eli Broad Family Foundation, Santa Monica, California. Courtesy Gagosian Gallery, NewYork.
  • 37. Color Schemes Warm Color Scheme: – Red – Orange – Yellow •  Warm colors advance •  Represents – Fire, Sunlight •  Implies – Happy energy •  An artist many use warm and cool color relationships to create depth and volume. •  It can also create a feeling of light. Chicago History Museum. Childe Hassam.The Breakfast Room,Winter Morning. 1911. Oil on canvas. © Worcester Art Museum, Massachusetts/The Bridgeman Art Library.
  • 38. Cool Color Scheme: – Blue – Green – Purple •  Cool colors recede •  Represents – Sky, Water, Grass, Plants •  Implies – Sadness, Depression, Night Archibald J. Motley Jr. Getting Religion. 1948. Oil on canvas, 2 7 7/8 x 3 3 1/4 . Collection Archie Motley andValerie Gerrard Browne, Evanston, Illinois. Chicago History Museum. Color Schemes
  • 39. Complementary Color Scheme: Opposite on color wheel •  Red-Green, •  Blue-Orange, •  Yellow-Purple Tip: •  Placing 2 complimentary colors side by side creates a brighter image. •  Mixing 2 complimentary colors creates gray Color Schemes
  • 40. Analogous Color Scheme: A picture that uses several (often 3) colors that are right next to each other on the color wheel. Color Schemes
  • 41. Split Complementary Color Scheme: An even wider range of possibilities. Rather than pair colors of that are in opposite positions on the color wheel, the artist completes the scheme using the two colors on either side of one of the complements. Color Schemes
  • 42. D o u b l e - S p l i t Complementar y Color Scheme: Rather than pair colors of that are in opposite positions on the color wheel, the artist completes the scheme using the two colors on  either side of the two complements. Color Schemes
  • 43. Triadic Color Scheme: A triadic color scheme uses colors that are evenly spaced around the color wheel. Triadic color schemes tend to be quite vibrant, even if you use pale or unsaturated versions of your hues. To use a triadic harmony successfully, the colors should be carefully balanced - let one color dominate and use the two others for accent. Color Schemes
  • 44. Rectangle (tetradic) color scheme: The rectangle or tetradic color scheme uses four colors arranged into two complementary pairs. •  This rich color scheme offers plenty of possibilities for variation. •  Tetradic color schemes works best if you let one color be dominant. •  You should also pay attention to the balance between warm and cool colors in your design. Color Schemes
  • 45. Square (tetradic) color scheme: Uses four colors arranged into two complementary pairs. •  This rich color scheme offers plenty of possibilities for variation. •  Tetradic color schemes works best if you let one color be dominant. •  You should also pay attention to the balance between warm and cool colors in your design. Color Schemes
  • 46. Chromatic Grays: A chromatic gray is made from a mixture of color, rather than a simple blend of black and white. The result is both subtle and vibrant. •  In The Magpie, the grays vary widely. •  This is not a dark, sullen winter day; through the use of chromatic grays, Claude Monet makes the warm light an transparent shadows sparkle in the crisp air. Color Schemes
  • 47. Earth Colors: •  Earth colors, including raw sienna and burnt sienna, raw and burnt umber and yellow ochre, are made literally from pigments found in the soil. •  G e n e r a l l y w a r m i n temperature, when used together they create a type of analogous harmony. Color Schemes Andrew Wyeth, Sea Boots, 1976.
  • 48. Planning Color Schemes •  The use of deliberate color schemes is most common in interiors, posters, and packaging. •  But knowing these harmonies can help both painters and designers consciously to plan the visual effects they want a finished piece to have. JanVermeer. Girl with a Pearl Earring. c. 1665-1666. Oil on canvas, 1 5 1/2 x 1 3 3/8 (44.5 x 39 cm). Royal Cabinet of Paintings, Mauritshuis,The Hague.
  • 49. U n e x p e c t e d Combinations •  C o l o r D i s c o r d : opposite of color harmony. •  Can be disturbing. •  They do not balance each other. •  Mild discord can be e x c i t i n g o r e ye - catching. Wolf Kahn. Color/Tree Symphony. 1994. Oil on canvas, 4 3 1/2 x 4 x 8 1/2 . Grace Borgenicht Gallery, NewYork. Art © Estate of Wolf Kahn/Licensed byVAGA, NewYork, NewYork. Color Discord
  • 50. Colors in Conflict •  Certain color parings are almost difficult to look at •  Our eyes experience conflict trying to look at them •  They look as though they are vibrating •  Vibrating Colors: Colors that create a flickering effect at their border. This effect is usually dependent o n a n e q u a l v a l u e relationship and strong hue contrast Annie MaeYoung. Quilt. c. 1965. Cotton stiff material: corduroy sheeting, polyester dress and pants material, wool. Color Discord
  • 51. Color Use There are 3 basic ways to use color in painting. 1.  Local Color (or Objective): Painting the object the color that it is in normal daylight. 2.  Optical Color: Depicting an objects color as it might be seen under various or different light. 3.  Subjective Color: The arbitrary use of color, where the artist picks colors based on design, aesthetics, or emotional response. 4.  Heightened Color: The use of color that is intensified or exaggerated. Paul Gauguin.Allés etVenues, Martinique (Coming and Going). 1887. Oil on canvas, 2 4 1/2 x 3 1/4 (72.5 x 92 cm). ゥ CarmenThyssen-Bornemisza Collection on loan to the MuseoThyssen-Bornemisza (CTB.1979.88).