Impressionism, Post-Impressionism
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Impressionism, Post-Impressionism

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  • Modern Art encompasses cubism, surrealism, de stijl/bauhaus, art nouveau, dadaism <br />
  • Impressionism is a 19th century artistic movement that swept much of the painting and sculpture styles of the period. It was not just a passing fad but has defined an entirely modern way of expressing one’s artistry that eventually rubbed of in other art forms like literature, photography and film making in modern film schools. <br />
  • This practice produced loose or densely textured surfaces rather than the carefully blended colors and smooth surfaces favored by most artists of the time. <br /> The colors in impressionist paintings have an overall luminosity because the painters avoided blacks and earth colors. The impressionists also simplified their compositions, omitting detail to achieve a striking overall effect. <br />
  • For struggling artists, getting theirs works exhibited in the Salon gave them their break, winning prizes and opening up opportunities for commissions, getting reviewed and the right exposure to patrons of the art and eventually carving a reputation in the arts community. <br /> prompting the then Emperor Napoleon III to decree the creation of the Salon of the Refused, an exhibition of works rejected by the Academie. <br />
  • The exhibit actually marked a percolating rebellion against the established artistic standards of the Academie des Beaux-Arts, considered the authority in the realist styles of French painting that has characterized the country’s accepted painting styles of the period.  <br /> It was not long before a new generation of artist using lighter brush strokes and brighter colors, with lesser attention to details and more bias to landscapes and mundane less noble aspects of life started getting their works rejected by the established Salon.  You have the works of Renoir, Sisley, Monet, Pissarro, Cezanne Guillaumin and Bazille rejected year after year.  In 1863, the Academie rejected Manet’s Luncheon of the Grass for depicting a realistic nude lady posed with a couple of clothed men in a contemporary picnic setting.  The jury’s rejection appalled Manet’s admirers even among tradition arts patrons.  That year alone saw an unusually large body of artworks rejected, prompting the then Emperor Napoleon III to decree the creation of the Salon of the Refused, an exhibition of works rejected by the Academie. <br />
  • Olympia <br /> French artist Édouard Manet (1832-1883) based his 1863 painting Olympia on a portrait by Renaissance master Titian. Manet’s paintings depicting everyday life, such as this reclining woman attended by her servant, received severe criticism because of their unorthodox portrayals of nude subjects that were neither mythological nor biblical. <br />
  • Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe (Luncheon on the Grass) by Édouard Manet was painted in 1863. When it was first displayed, the rough brushwork and undefined areas of color were as distressing to the public as the nude woman who was neither a classical goddess nor a symbol in an allegory. Manet claimed that the real subject of the painting was light, and it was that philosophy that gave birth to impressionism. <br />
  • Impression: Sunrise <br /> This painting by Claude Monet inspired the name of the late-19th-century French art movement, impressionism. <br /> The term &apos;Impressionist&apos; was first used as an insult in response to an exhibition of new paintings in Paris in 1874. A diverse group of painters, rejected by the art establishment, defiantly set up their own exhibition. They included Monet, Renoir, Pissarro and Degas. <br /> The first exhibit elicited highly critical reviews which could be expected from arts reviewers in the established traditions. Cezanne and Monet received the harshest critique by reviewer-humorist Louis Leroy whose criticism appeared in the Le Charivari newspaper and used the word “Impressionist” from Claude Monet’s painting entitled Impression Sunrise (Impression, Soleil Levant) to derisively describe the artists whose works he considered as being no more than unfinished sketches.  He scathingly wrote: <br /> Impression—I was certain of it. I was just telling myself that, since I was impressed, there had to be some impression in it ... and what freedom, what ease of workmanship! Wallpaper in its embryonic state is more finished than that seascape. <br /> In a short time, the term &quot;Impressionists&quot; achieved wide public acceptance, including the artists themselves, despite the fact that the avant garde painting style had more stylistic and temperamental diversity than the word suggests. <br />
  • he captured the sparkling effects of sunlight on trees in springtime and the drab light of winter on snow-tracked ground. <br />
  • captured sparkling effects of sunlight on trees and drab light of winter on snow tracked ground <br />
  • In his late years, Monet devoted himself to painting the exquisite gardens and water lily ponds he had created at his home in Giverny; their forms became increasingly evanescent as he translated them into the shimmering play of light and color. <br />
  • more than half of his works depict dancers. <br /> preferred to be called a realist. <br /> He was a superb draftsman, and particularly masterful in depicting movement, as can be seen in his renditions of dancers, racecourse subjects and female nudes. His portraits are notable for their psychological complexity and for their portrayal of human isolation.[2] <br />
  • Technically, Degas differs from the Impressionists in that he &quot;never adopted the Impressionist color fleck&quot;,[23] and he continually belittled their practice of painting en plein air.[24] &quot;He was often as anti-impressionist as the critics who reviewed the shows&quot;, according to art historian Carol Armstrong; as Degas himself explained, &quot;no art was ever less spontaneous than mine. What I do is the result of reflection and of the study of the great masters; of inspiration, spontaneity, temperament, I know nothing.&quot;[25] Nonetheless, he is described more accurately as an Impressionist than as a member of any other movement. His scenes of Parisian life, his off-center compositions, his experiments with color and form, and his friendship with several key Impressionist artists—most notably Mary Cassatt and Édouard Manet—all relate him intimately to the Impressionist movement.[26] <br />
  • Cézanne said &quot;he was a father for me. A man to consult and a little like the good Lord,&quot; and he was also one of Gauguin&apos;s masters. Renoir referred to his work as “revolutionary”, through his artistic portrayals of the &quot;common man&quot;, as Pissarro insisted on painting individuals in natural settings without &quot;artifice or grandeur&quot;. <br /> Pissarro is the only artist to have shown his work at all eight Paris Impressionist exhibitions, from 1874 to 1886. As a stylistic forerunner of Impressionism, he is today considered a &quot;father figure not only to the Impressionists&quot; but to all four of the major Post-Impressionists, including Georges Seurat, Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh and Paul Gauguin.[2] <br />
  • In 1885 he met Georges Seurat and Paul Signac,[18] both of whom relied on a more “scientific” theory of painting by using very small patches of pure colors to create the illusion of blended colors and shading when viewed from a distance. Pissarro then spent the years from 1885 to 1888 practicing this more time-consuming and laborious technique, referred to as pointillism. The paintings that resulted were distinctly different from his Impressionist works, and were on display in the 1886 Impressionist Exhibition, but under a separate section, along with works by Seurat, Signac, and his son Lucien. <br /> All four works were considered an “exception” to the eighth exhibition. Joachim Pissarro notes that virtually every reviewer who commented on Pissarro’s work noted “his extraordinary capacity to change his art, revise his position and take on new challenges.”[8]:52 One critic writes: <br /> ”It is difficult to speak of Camille Pissarro . . . What we have here is a fighter from way back, a master who continually grows and courageously adapts to new theories.”[8]:51 <br /> Pissarro explained the new art form as a “phase in the logical march of Impressionism”,[8]:49 but he was alone among the other Impressionists with this attitude, however. Joachim Pissarro states that Pissarro thereby became the &quot;only artist who went from Impressionism to Neo-Impressionism&quot;. <br /> In 1884, art dealer Theo van Gogh asked Pissarro if he would take in his older brother, Vincent, as a boarder in his home. According to Pissarro’s son Lucien, his father was impressed by Van Gogh’s work and had “foreseen the power of this artist”, who was 23 years younger. Although Van Gogh never boarded with him, Pissarro did explain to him the various ways of finding and expressing light and color, ideas which he later used in his paintings, notes Lucien.[1]:43 <br />
  • In the late 1860s, through the practice of painting light and water en plein air (outdoors), he and his friend Claude Monet discovered that the colour of shadows is not brown or black, but the reflected color of the objects surrounding them, an effect today known as diffuse reflection. Several pairs of paintings exist in which Renoir and Monet, working side-by-side, depicted the same scenes (La Grenouillère, 1869).[16][17] <br /> One of the best known Impressionist works is Renoir&apos;s 1876 Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette (Bal du moulin de la Galette). The painting depicts an open-air scene, crowded with people, at a popular dance garden on the Butte Montmartre, close to where he lived. <br /> On the Terrace, oil on canvas, 1881, Art Institute of Chicago <br /> The works of his early maturity were typically Impressionist snapshots of real life, full of sparkling colour and light. By the mid-1880s, however, he had broken with the movement to apply a more disciplined, formal technique to portraits and figure paintings, particularly of women, such as The Bathers, which was created during 1884–87. It was a trip to Italy in 1881, when he saw works by Raphael and other Renaissance masters, that convinced him that he was on the wrong path, and for the next several years he painted in a more severe style, in an attempt to return to classicism.[18] This is sometimes called his &quot;Ingres period&quot;, as he concentrated on his drawing and emphasized the outlines of figures.[19] <br /> After 1890, however, he changed direction again, returning to thinly brushed colour to dissolve outlines as in his earlier work. From this period onward he concentrated especially on monumental nudes and domestic scenes, fine examples of which are Girls at the Piano, 1892, and Grandes Baigneuses, 1887. The latter painting is the most typical and successful of Renoir&apos;s late, abundantly fleshed nudes.[20] <br /> A prolific artist, he made several thousand paintings. The warm sensuality of Renoir&apos;s style made his paintings some of the most well-known and frequently-reproduced works in the history of art. The single largest collection of his works—181 paintings in all—is at the Barnes Foundation, near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. <br />
  • He used planes of colour and small brushstrokes that build up to form complex fields. The paintings convey Cézanne&apos;s intense study of his subjects. <br />
  • through which Van Gogh expressed his emotional response to his subjects rather than providing an accurate description of them. <br />
  • Thick, swirling brushstrokes and contrasting colors charge the work with emotional intensity. Van Gogh transformed the setting of a quiet village at night into a dazzling portrait of the inherent power of the natural world. <br />

Impressionism, Post-Impressionism Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Impressionism Post-impressionism Modern Art
  • 2. Impressionism 19th century artistic movement that swept much of the painting and sculpture styles of the period.
  • 3. Impressionism 1860s-1890s studying effects of light on objects--how light colors shadows and dissolves objects; and transferring their observations into canvas. Disregard for exact details of form and use of small, separate touches of pure color--techniques in complete contrast to the prevailing academic style-- aroused animosity of both the critics and the public
  • 4. Landscapes and scenes from modern urban and suburban life Pure colors Impressionists often painted outdoors rather than in a studio Rapidly applied brushstrokes often visible
  • 5. Characteristics to achieve appearance of spontaneity, impressionist painters used broken brush strokes of bright, often unmixed colors. loose or densely textured surfaces rather than carefully blended colors and smooth surfaces colors of overall luminosity because painters avoided blacks and earth colors simplified compositions, omitting detail to achieve a striking overall effect
  • 6. Salon des Refusés The Academie held annual art exhibits that featured juried works conforming to standards. In 1863, more than 3,000 works were rejected, far more than usual. ‘Exhibition of Rejects’, those rejected by the jury of the official Paris Salon, most famously referred to the Salon des Refusés of 1863.
  • 7. Formal launching in 1874, when a group of Parisian artists mounted an exhibit at the studio of photographer/journalist Felix Nadar Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, Camille Pissarro and a few others Subsequently joined by Paul Cezanne, Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley and Berthe Morissot They exhibited 8 times between 1874 and 1886.
  • 8. Édouard Manet 1832-1883 French painter whose work inspired the impressionist style huge influence on French painting & general development of modern art choice of subject matter; application of color in broad, flat patches, vigorous, sketchy brush strokes visible on the canvas
  • 9. Claude Monet Louis Leroy, an art critic, mockingly coined the term ‘impressionism’ upon seeing Impression Sunrise by Claude Monet in Paris “Impression—I was certain of it. I was just telling myself that, since IImpression—I was certain of it. I was just telling myself that, since I was impressed, there had to be some impression in it ... and whatwas impressed, there had to be some impression in it ... and what freedom, what ease of workmanship! Wallpaper in its embryonic statefreedom, what ease of workmanship! Wallpaper in its embryonic state is more finished than that seascape.”is more finished than that seascape.”
  • 10. Claude Monet central figure and founder of impressionism chief interest was landscape, rendered in all kinds of weather and seasons
  • 11. Girl with the Parasol
  • 12. In the late years, Monet devoted himself to painting the exquisite gardens and water lily ponds he created at his home in Giverny
  • 13. Saint Lazare Station
  • 14. Edgar Degas regarded as one of the founders of impressionism but he rejected the term subject of dance and dancers superb draftsman and masterful in depicting movement
  • 15. La Toilette
  • 16. The Dance Class
  • 17. Camille Pissarro Impressionist and neo-impressionist painter ‘dean of the impressionist painters’ according to John Rewald, the oldest of the group and by virtue of his wisdom and balanced, kind and warmhearted personality insisted on painting individuals in natural settings without artifice or grandeur the only artist to have shown his work to all 8 Paris Impressionist exhibitions Father figure to the impressionists and post-impressionists: Georges Seurat, Paul Cezanne, Van Gogh and Paul Gauguin
  • 18. Shift to Neo-impressionism In 1885 he met Seurat and Signac, both who relied a more scientific theory of painting small patches of pure colors create an illusion of blended colors and shading when viewed from the distance pointillism
  • 19. Pierre August Renoir vibrant light and saturated color people in intimate and candid compositions freely brushed touches of color so that his figures softly fuse into one another and their surroundings
  • 20. Pierre August Renoir influence in the colorism of Delacroix, luminosity of Corot. Realism of Courbet and Manet. Admiration in Boucher. Degas’ sense of movement.
  • 21. Luncheon at the Boating Party
  • 22. Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette
  • 23. Techniques short, thick strokes of paint quickly capture the essence on the subject rather than the details. Paint is often applied impasto colors applied side by side with as little mixing as possible, creating a vibrant surface Grays and dark tones are produced by mixing complementary colors. Pure impressionism avoids use of black paint. Wet on wet without waiting for successive applications to dry, producing softer edges and intermingling of color play of natural light emphasized. Close attention to colors from object to object en plein air (outdoors)
  • 24. Post-impressionism
  • 25. Post-impressionism Postimpressionism, movement in late-19th-century French painting that emphasized the artist’s personal response to a subject. Postimpressionists focused on emotional or spiritual meanings that the subject might convey. Postimpressionists conveyed their personal responses to the world around them through the use of strong, unnatural colors and exaggeration or slight distortion of forms.
  • 26. Georges Seurat Postimpressionism can be said to have begun in 1886, the year that French painter Georges Seurat exhibited Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte. Excellent example of the technique known as pointillism—a method in which tiny dots of color are placed close together to create a richness and vibrancy not found in traditional painting techniques.
  • 27. Sunday Afternoon at La Grande Jatte
  • 28. Paul Cézanne bridge between Impressionism and Cubism both Matisse and Picasso attributed Cézanne ‘is the father of us all’ repetitive, exploratory brushstrokes highly characteristic and clearly recognizable planes of color and small brushstrokes build up to form complex fields
  • 29. The Card Players
  • 30. Basket of Apples
  • 31. Vincent Van Gogh Vincent van Gogh, Dutch painter exemplified the idea of artist as tortured genius His paintings are characterized by thick brush strokes, brilliant colors, jagged lines
  • 32. The Starry Night
  • 33. Café Terrace on the Place du Forum, Arles, at Night The bold colors heighten the contrast between the inviting glow of the café and the darkness of the streets and the late- night sky. Van Gogh’s thick, heavy brush strokes, typical of this period, create an expressive mood
  • 34. "Red Vineyards near Arles"
  • 35. Paul Gauguin lush color, flat 2-dimensional forms and choice of subject matter helped form the basis of modern art in 1891, ruined and in debt, Gauguin sailed for the South Seas to escape European civilization and ‘everything that is artificial and conventional’
  • 36. Gauguin and Van Gogh Gauguin's relationship with Van Gogh was rocky. Gauguin had shown an early interest in Impressionism, and the two shared bouts of depression and suicidal tendencies. In 1888, Gauguin and Van Gogh spent nine weeks together, painting in the latter's Yellow House in Arles. During this time, Gauguin became increasingly disillusioned with Impressionism, and the two quarreled. On the evening of December 23, 1888, frustrated and ill, Van Gogh confronted Gauguin with a razor blade. In a panic, Van Gogh fled to a local brothel. While there, he cut off the lower part of his left ear lobe. He wrapped the severed tissue in newspaper and handed it to a prostitute named Rachel, asking her to "keep this object carefully."[16] Gauguin left Arles, and a few days later Van Gogh was hospitalized. They never saw each other again, but they continued to correspond and in 1890 Gauguin proposed they form an artist studio in Antwerp.[17] In an 1889 sculptural self-portrait Jug in the form of a Head, Self-portrait Gauguin portrays the traumatic relationship with Van Gogh.
  • 37. Spirit of the Dead Watching
  • 38. He remained in the Tropics for the rest of his life, first in Tahiti and later in the Marquesas Islands. The essential characteristics of his style changed little in the South Seas; he retained the qualities of expressive color, denial of perspective, and thick, flat forms.
  • 39. Gauguin, Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?