particularly in the use of light and shadow and compositional movement.
reign (1715-74) of King Louis XV of France.
in painting, light-hearted, playful style rather than weighty subject matter.
Its exact origins are obscure, but it appears to have begun with the work of Lepautre
Grand Salon, Hôtel de Roquelaure The decor of the grand salon of the Roquelaure mansion in Paris, France, is characteristic of the rococo style that developed during the reign of Louis XV.
(fashionable outdoor gatherings); such pastoral fantasies were much emulated by other French artists.
Jean-Antoine Watteau’s The Embarkation for the Island of Cythera, (1717) is one of the best surviving examples of French rococo painting. Watteau’s delicate, ethereal style, influenced Venetian school, was well suited for paintings of fêtes galantes at which the French upper classes socialized in the open air.
François Boucher was highly popular for his mythological and pastoral scenes, including lighthearted and graceful depictions of women.
hangs in the Louvre museum in Paris, France.
Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806), French painter of the rococo age, who became a favorite in the courts of Louis XV and Louis XVI for his delicately colored scenes of romance, often in garden settings.
Fragonard’s style reflect the gaiety, frivolity, and voluptuousness of the period. They are characterized by fluid lines, frothy flowers amid loose foliage, and gracefully posed figures, usually of ladies and their lovers or peasant mothers with children.
Rococo gave way to the austere neoclassical style late in the 18th century and disappeared completely and abruptly after the French Revolution in 1789.
FRENCH REVOLUTION VIDEO
focus on public minded values of Greek and Roman heroes, who placed moral virtue, patriotic, self-sacrifice, and “right action” above all else.
Extolling the “noble simplicity and calm grandeur” of Greco-Roman art, this urged artists to study and “imitate” its timeless, ideal forms.
It was, however, a French painter—Jacques-Louis David—who became the leading proponent of neoclassicism. He, too, was imbued with classical influences from his stay in Rome, as well as from an earlier source, the paintings of Poussin, the 17th-century French classicist. David&apos;s sober style was in harmony with the ideals of the French Revolution.
preached stoicism and self-sacrifice. Not only did David&apos;s subject matter have its sources in ancient history and classical myth, but the form of his figures was based on ancient sculpture.
a portrait of a revolutionary martyr who was killed in his bathtub by a political enemy.
David&apos;s great successor was Jean-August-Dominique Ingres, whose cool serenity of line and tone and painstaking attention to details became identified with the academic tradition in France.
Grande Odalisque (1814), by the French artist Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, is considered a neoclassical painting even though the subject matter, a Turkish odalisque, is not typical of neoclassicism. Ingres’s work is generally believed to be influenced by classical Greek art despite his choice of subject matter. He is best known for his sensual treatment of the human figure using delicately shaded contours and a rhythmic flow.
s one of the last, completed when the artist was 82. The sensuous, elongated curves of the nude figures in the foreground lead the viewer’s eye through the painting to the figures in the background.
Ingres&apos;s strengths—superb draftsmanship, keen sensitivity for personality, and precise neoclassical linear style—were perfectly suited to portraiture.
we cannot identify romanticism by a single technique but the general characteristics include
Caspar David Friedrich, Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog, 1818
The Nightmare by Henry Fuseli
The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters (1797-1799) is one of a series of etchings by Spanish painter and printmaker Francisco de Goya. The man in this print is believed to be Goya himself, who at that time was feeling a lack of hope in humanity’s ability to rise above misfortune.
during which a number of innocent civilians were shot by soldiers from Napoleon’s army. he had become cynical about the fate of the human race, and this attitude is reflected in the raw, expressive quality of the painting style in this piece.
Goya’s Chronos Devouring One of His Children, is a disturbing indictment of man’s bestial nature. Goya confronts humanity with an example of the “blackest” forms of behavior- infanticide and cannibalism.
The main figure for French romanticism was Théodore Géricault, who carried further the dramatic, coloristic style and who shifted the emphasis of battle paintings from heroism to suffering and endurance.
portrays on a heroic scale the suffering of ordinary humanity
Eugène Delacroix, Death of Sardanapalus (1827), inspired by a work of the English romantic poet Lord Byron, is precisely detailed, but the action is so violent and the composition so dynamic that the effect is of chaos engulfing the immobile and indifferent figure of the dying king.
Although the Revolution of 1830 failed to restore the republic, it ended France&apos;s absolute monarchy and brought in a parliamentary monarchy.
About the middle of the 19th century in France, young painters led by the painter Gustave Courbet, rejecting both neoclassicism and romanticism, proclaimed a movement called realism.
Realist had no interest in history painting, portraiture of heads of state, or exotic subject matter, for they believed that the artist should be realistic and paint everyday events involving ordinary people. as opposed to those considered “beautiful.”
Burial at Ornans Courbet shows a funeral of an ordinary villager. Large group of almost full size figures standing beside an open grave in front of a somber landscape.ne painted honestly. The work shows real people behaving the way real people behave,
painting scenes of rural life, a famous example being The Gleaners (1857). his works generally depict unidealized subjects.
• flourished in France and Germany in the
early 18th century
• in many respects a continuation of baroque
the period corresponded
respectively to the reign of King
Louis XV of France (1715-74)
• ‘Rococo’ comes from the French rocaille
meaning ‘rock work’
• Hallmarks of the style:
• architectural decoration (arabesques,
shells, elaborate curves, asymmetry,
iridescent pastel colors
• painting (light-hearted and playful)
• Pierre Lepautre introduced arabesques and
curves into the interior architecture of the
royal residence at Marly
• Jean-Antoine Watteau, used delicate, color
drenched canvases of lords and ladies in
idyllic surroundings in the heroic Louis XIV
• Grand Salon, Hotel de Roquelaure
• characteristic of rococo style --pale pastel colors, gold leaf,
delicate ornamentation in many curving forms
• Jean-Antoine Watteau is known for his
ethereal pictures of elegantly dressed lovers
disporting themselves in fetes galantes--such
pastoral fantasies were much emulated by
other French artists
• The Embarkation for the Island of Cythera
(1717) by Watteau
• Francois Boucher
highly popular for
• Marquise de Pompadour by Francois Boucher
• mistress of Louis XV, king of France
French painter and a favorite in
the courts of Louis XV and XVI
delicately colored scenes of
romance often in garden settings
• reflects the gaiety, frivolity and
voluptuousness of the period
• fluid lines, frothy flowers, loose foliage,
gracefully posed figures, ladies and lovers or
peasant mothers with children as subjects
• Rococo gave way to the austere neoclassical
style late in the 18th century and
disappeared completely after the French
Revolution in 1789.
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• emulation of Greco-Roman forms, antique
• 1750s to early 1800s
• tried to replace the sensuality in rococo and
baroque with a style that was logical, solemn
in tone and moralizing in character
• developed following the excavation of the
ruins of the Italian cities of Herculaneum and
• noble simplicity and calm gradeur of Greco-
Roman art, urging artists to imitate the
timeless and ideal forms
• leading proponent of neoclassicism
• imbued with classical influences from his stay
• sober style in harmony with the ideals of the
• Oath of the Horatii (Louvre, Paris) by Jacques-Louis David
commissioned by Louis XVI intended to be used to
improve public morality through art
• The scene shows the three Horatii brothers vowing to
sacrifice their lives for their country
Romanticism• art movement that extends from 1800 to 1850
• The word romantic first became current in 18th-
century English and originally meant “romance-
like,” that is, resembling the strange and fanciful
character of medieval romances.The word came
to be associated with the emerging taste for
wild scenery,“sublime” prospects, and ruins, a
tendency reflected in the increasing emphasis in
aesthetic theory on the sublime as opposed to
• highly imaginative and subjective approach
• emotional intensity
• dreamlike or visionary quality
• Caspar David
Above the Sea of
• By the end of the century the shift away
from reason toward feeling and imagination
began to be reflected in the visual arts,
such as etchings of monsters & demons by
the Spanish artist Francisco de Goya.
•The Sleep of
•Feeling a lack of
to rise above
Third of May, 1808
Francisco de Goya
Francisco de Goya
Third of May, 1808
• commemorate Spanish war of liberation,
against Napoleon’s armies in the Peninsular
• Museo del Prado, Madrid
of His Children
Another disturbing indictment to
man’s bestial nature
Confronting humanity with an
example of the blackest forms of
carried further dramatic and
coloristic style and shifted to the
emphasis of battle paintings from
heroism to suffering and
• Death of Sardanapalus (1827)
• inspired by a work of Lord Byron, detailed, violent and dynamic
• chaos engulfing the immobile figure of the dying king
• Liberty Leading the People by Eugene Delacroix
• ‘Liberty Leading the People’ after the Revolution of 1830 when Parisians
took up in arms to restore the republic created after the French
Revolution of 1789-1799
The Death of Chatterton
Jean Francois Millet
Jean Francois Millet
• mid-19th century France
• Gustave Courbet started to reject
neoclassicism and romanticism
• proclaimed a new movement: realism
• representing scenes and events of everyday life
• realistic in painting everydayevents involving
• ‘realist’, used to describe works of art where
‘ugly’ objects or figures are represented
• describe scenes of humble life, often
criticism to social conditions
• Burial at Ornans
• Funeral of an ordinary villager, showing real people
behaving the way real people behave
Jean Francois Millet
Jean Francois Millet