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Fa124   4 - renaissance art
 

Fa124 4 - renaissance art

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  • Great artists, writers and thinkers lived during this time. <br />
  • The Renaissance was especially strong in Italian cities. They became centres of trade, wealth and education. <br /> Venice, Genoa and Florence had famous citizens who were very rich and gave the city a lot of money. <br />   <br />
  • Sailors had better instruments and maps , ships were built so that they could endure longer journeys. Most of them had big sails that were driven by strong winds. <br /> business and sold them home <br />
  • In the Middle Ages books were very expensive because they were written by hand. Only priests and monks could read them because most of them were written in Latin. <br /> A publishing boom broke out and buying and selling books began to prosper in many European countries. People bought travel books, romances, poetry and almanacs. They read more and became better educated. <br />
  • Because of the resurgence of books - led to a new way of thinking <br /> During the Renaissance a churchman named Martin Luther changed Christianity. In 1517 he wrote a list of things that he didn’t like about the church and posted them on the door of his church in Wittenberg, Germany. <br /> Luther also wanted the church to hold masses in German instead of Latin so that people could understand them better. Many other Christians agreed that the church was in need of change. Luther and others founded new religions and split away from the Roman Catholic church. <br />   <br />
  • important structure, everyone - everyone was baptized here <br /> site of a major commission in Renaissance, that forever changed the art world <br /> This is where renaissance <br />
  • By 1400, the city was finally ready for a new commission, and the call went out for entries. The doors on the south end of the baptistery had been completed by Andrea Pisano in 1329 (before the plague), and are still seen today.  <br />
  • 2 artists submitted panels that clearly stood out among all the rest. Both sculptors were in their early 20s at the time: Lorenzo Ghiberti and Filippo Brunelleschi. <br />
  • WHO DO YOU THINK WON? <br />
  • Both artists had turned in extraordinary panels, <br /> and the committee couldn’t decide which was best. <br /> Brunelleschi, who was left with nothing after so much work and anticipation. <br />
  • Ghiberti would spend decades completing not just the north doors (seen here to the left), but a second set of east baptistry doors, a work so impressive that Michelangelo studied them and dubbed them, “the gates of paradise”. <br /> It was Brunelleschi however, who invented linear perspective and revolutionized painting <br /> and the most difficult and daunting project in the world: giant red dome in the duomo <br /> became an architect later in his life <br />
  • general desire developed to examine all aspects of nature and the world. <br /> (as they had been in the medieval past), comparable to poets and writers. <br />
  • What renaissance artists had clearly achieved through the careful observation of nature, including studies of anatomical dissections, was the means to recreate the 3-dimensional physical reality of the human form on 2-dimensional surfaces. In part, the key to this achievement lay in understanding the underlying, hidden structure of the human body which then enabled the artist to produce realistic representations of what he saw on the flat surface of a wall (in the case of frescoes) or on a wooden panel or paper (in the case of drawings).Artists in the early 15th century had learned to portray the human form with faithful accuracy through careful observation and anatomical dissection, and in 1420 Brunelleschi&apos;s experiment provided a correspondingly accurate representation of physical space. Antonio Manetti, Brunelleschi&apos;s biographer, writing a century later, describes the experiment based on careful mathematical calculation. <br />
  • depicting spatial reality <br />
  • Northern painters contributed innovations and shared it to their souther counterparts <br />
  • In the Renaissance artists and architects used mathematics to plan their works. They discovered that many objects in nature have a certain proportion. They called this the golden mean. It is often found in the shape of a leaf or in the form of buildings. Many of them found out that the human body also displayed proportions . Renaissance architects built new buildings that were symmetrical. <br />
  • Information of Ancient Greek and Roman is readily and constantly available to the Italians--their language, and the wealth of classical ruins and artifacts. Roman architectural forms found in almost every town and city <br />
  • what city did Renaissance start? <br /> Florence, located in north central Italy, is famous for being the birthplace of the Renaissance. <br /> The eight-sided dome of the cathedral known as the Duomo was designed by Filippo Brunelleschi and completed in 1436. <br />
  • example Michelangelo <br /> Fifteenth century Florence was an exciting place to be. At that time the city was independent and had a population of about 60,000. <br />
  • one of Florence’s most beautiful churches. <br />
  • Three Florentine goldsmiths revolutionized art forever <br />
  • Sculptors led the way in introducing the new Renaissance forms early in the 15th century. Three Florentines, who were originally trained as goldsmiths, made crucial innovations. <br /> The eldest was Filippo Brunelleschi, who developed linear perspective. He eventually became an architect, the first truly Renaissance builder, and in that capacity designed the enormous octagonal dome of Florence Cathedral, also called the Duomo, completed in 1436. The dome was considered one of the most impressive engineering and artistic feats since Roman times. Brunelleschi was responsible for the revival of the classical columnar system, which he studied in Rome. <br />
  • worthy of the Gates of Paradise, which they have been called since then. <br />
  • one of the defining masterpieces of Italian Renaissance <br />
  • This detail, showing Isaac and Esau, is from one of the doors&apos; ten panels, each of which <br /> illustrates a story from the Bible. Ghiberti endowed the scenes with volume, depth, and movement, and helped initiate many of the artistic practices of the Renaissance. <br />
  • you can see ghiberti’s characteristic of the sloping effect in the mountains like waves of the water <br />
  • Prior to Restoration, accumulated dust and dirt throughout the centuries but has recently been cleaned <br />
  • Donatello, was one of the most influential artists of the Renaissance, not only because of the power of his figures but also because he traveled widely. A Florentine, Donatello also worked in Venice, Padua (Padova), Naples, and Rome and was thereby instrumental in carrying the new Florentine innovations to much of Italy. His principal works include the bronze David, an image of the biblical hero with the head of Goliath at his feet.. <br />
  • David with the head of Goliath at its feet <br /> Italian sculptor Donatello executed his David, the first nude statue of the Renaissance, about 1430-1435. This nearly life-size bronze image of the biblical hero was also the first statue since classical antiquity to be cast in the round. Its realism marked a departure from the conventions of Gothic sculpture, which mostly produced rigid, columnar figures. <br /> David, by Donatello <br /> Italian sculptor Donatello executed his David, the first nude statue of the Renaissance, about 1430-1435. This nearly life-size bronze image of the biblical hero was also the first statue since classical antiquity to be cast in the round. Its realism marked a departure from the conventions of Gothic sculpture, which mostly produced rigid, columnar figures. <br /> Early Renaissance Painting <br /> The first painter to employ the new techniques was Masaccio. Despite a regrettably short career (he died at the age of 27), Masaccio had a dramatic effect on the course of art. He made use of both linear and aerial perspective in his frescoes depicting episodes in the life of Saint Peter for the Brancacci Chapel in Florence&apos;s Church of Santa Maria del Carmine. In the most famous of these scenes, the Tribute Money, Masaccio invested the figures of Christ and the apostles with a new sense of dignity, monumentality, and refinement. <br /> Masaccio’s Expulsion from Paradise <br /> Expulsion from Paradise (about 1427) is one of six frescoes painted by Masaccio for the Brancacci Chapel in Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence, Italy. The fresco was influential for its realism, especially the simplicity and three-dimensionality of the figures, and for the dramatic depiction of the plight of Adam and Eve. <br /> Trinity , by 15th-century Italian painter Masaccio, illustrates the early Renaissance fascination with classical architecture, geometrical composition, and the projection of space by means of perspective. <br />
  • Tribute Money - invested the figures of Christ and the apostles with a new sense of dignity, monumentality, and refinement. <br />
  • linear perspective and aerial perspective <br /> the background is not as clear as the subjects in the foreground <br /> Horizon, Single point all come from the head of christ. <br />
  • 12 disciples arguing if they really need to pay taxes <br /> ‘Give due unto Caesar what is Caesar’s and to God what is God’s’ <br />
  • Peter removing money from the fish’s mouth <br />
  • Peter finally paying the taxpayer <br />
  • influential for its realism, especially the simplicity and three-dimensionality of the figures, and for the dramatic depiction of the plight of Adam and Eve. <br /> also praised for the variety of facial depictions <br />
  • son of a butcher and wife (very humble beginnings but rose to fame <br /> quit the monastery but not released from his vows <br /> The prior decided to give him the opportunity to learn painting. <br />
  • SALOME <br />
  • influenced by Massaccio for use in perspective and realism <br /> bright color - Gothic in origin <br /> (certainly more religious than Lippo Lippi <br />
  • see the peacock? <br />
  • The influence of Masaccio can be seen in the three-dimensional quality of the figures, and Piero’s interest in geometry and perspective can be seen as well. <br /> Triangle arrangement <br />
  • while fresco was a popular method at that time, Van Eyck used and mastered oil <br /> secular in theme <br /> absolutely one of my favorite paintings of all time <br />
  • wool is almost so real, soft to the touch <br /> green fabric looks heavy, very expensive <br /> not actually heavy but only holding a huge part of the dress <br />
  • fruits look almost good to eat! <br />
  • detail of the dog at the feet of the bride, probably a pet and companion, signifying loyalty <br />
  • look at the detail of the beads and the tussels! <br /> one of the most interesting parts of the painting is the mirror, which shows the back of the couple along with two more figures--one probably van Eyck, and anotehr is still not identified. <br /> surrounding the mirror is depictions also of the Passion of Christ, very little but still painstakingly rendered <br />
  • ‘Jan van Eyck was here’ <br />
  • now in the national gallery of London <br />
  • Antonio del Pollaiuolo and Andrea del Verrocchio explored the complexities of human anatomy, studying directly from life. Both were sculptors as well as painters, and their figures show a new concentration on musculature, as exemplified by Pollaiuolo&apos;s masterpiece, the Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian. <br />
  • concentration of masculature <br />
  • Birth of Venus (after 1482), a painting by Italian artist Sandro Botticelli, was commissioned by Lorenzo de’ Medici. The themes of this huge work are a mixture of astrology, classical mythology, and Christianity. The style is linear, with flat space, and the overall effect is one of grace and delicacy. <br />
  • High Renaissance <br /> The artists of the following generation were responsible for taking art to a level of noble expression. This period, usually referred to as the High Renaissance, was initiated by Leonardo da Vinci, who, when he returned to Florence from Milan in 1500, found the milieu ready for his pictorial inventions. There he found the young Michelangelo, who was about to begin the famous gigantic statue David (1501-1504, Accademia). <br />
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), Florentine artist, one of the great masters of the High Renaissance, celebrated as a painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and scientist. His profound love of knowledge and research was the keynote of both his artistic and scientific endeavors. <br /> With his sophisticated skills and love for learning, Leonardo was the quintessential Renaissance man. <br />
  • Christ—who has just announced that one of those present will betray him—represents a calm nucleus while the others respond with animated gestures. <br /> deteriorated copy because of the style he used as it is not a true fresco <br /> they have their own idiosyncrasies and mannerisms <br />
  • a copy by Giampietrino <br /> The Last Supper specifically portrays the reaction given by each apostle when Jesus said one of them would betray him. All twelve apostles have different reactions to the news, with various degrees of anger and shock. <br /> Bartholomew, James, son of Alphaeus and Andrew form a group of three, all are surprised. <br />
  • Judas Iscariot, Peter and John form another group of three. Judas is wearing green and blue and is in shadow, looking rather withdrawn and taken aback by the sudden revelation of his plan. He is clutching a small bag, perhaps signifying the silver given to him as payment to betray Jesus, He is also tipping-over the salt shaker. This may be related to the near-Eastern expression to "betray the salt" meaning to betray one&apos;s Master. He is the only person to have his elbow on the table and his head is also horizontally the lowest of anyone in the painting. Peter looks angry and is holding a knife pointed away from Christ, perhaps foreshadowing his violent reaction during Jesus&apos; arrest. The youngest apostle, John, appears to swoon. <br />
  • Jesus. <br />
  • Apostle Thomas, James the Greater and Philip are the next group of three. Thomas is clearly upset; James the Greater looks stunned, with his arms in the air. Meanwhile, Philip appears to be requesting some explanation. <br />
  • Matthew, Jude Thaddeus and Simon the Zealot are the final group of three. Both Jude Thaddeus and Matthew are turned toward Simon, perhaps to find out if he has any answer to their initial questions. <br />
  • the lips which he painted for 12 years <br /> Lisa del Giocondo, wife of Francesco del Giocondo <br />
  • eyebrows and hairline plucked as was popular at that time <br /> illusion of the Mona Lisa looking at you, an innovation da Vinci created whih other painters then copied <br />
  • triangular form <br />
  • Michelangelo an Italian artist of extraordinary accomplishments in painting, sculpture, and architecture made him one of the outstanding figures in Renaissance art. During his lifetime (1475-1564) he influenced many young artists. <br />
  • Jesus’ limp body and Mary embracing Jesus gently <br /> It shows Mary grieving silently and makes Christ’s wounds barely visible. For intense emotionalism, Michelangelo created restrained but eloquent gestures—the Virgin calls our attention to her dead son with her left hand, while her right arm embraces him gently, lifting his arm slightly so that it hangs lifelessly before us. Mary&apos;s full robe forms a broad base for Christ&apos;s limp body, which curves slightly to wrap around hers, making the group graceful and compact. <br />
  • michelangelo’ <br />
  • painted the whole ceiling standing in a scaffolding <br /> that is why he developed arthritis and other ailments at such a young age finished at 34 years old <br />
  • paintings of da Vinci and also Boticelli <br /> This used to be a painting like a star studded sky, until Pope Justinian II commissioned (forced Michelangelo to repaint it. <br />
  • he initially thought himself as a sculptor and painter, but the pope would not say no for an answer. <br /> Being deeply religious, he had to succumb and say yes <br />
  • painted singlehandedly <br /> painting standing up not lying down <br /> This amazing feat got him the name ‘Il Divino’ ‘The Divine’ <br /> Everyone was hushed and quiet upon seeing the marvelous 11,000 ft up painting <br />
  • Adam - athletic body, study of anatomy You can recall ‘David’ <br />
  • between scenes are naked, muscular youths, the most replicated element in the painting <br />
  • two manifestations of god, one creating the sun and another creating vegetation <br />
  • As if beckoning her to rise <br />
  • eve looks ugly and like a man. <br />
  • Raphael’s La Belle Jardinière <br /> Completed in 1508 in Florence, La Belle Jardinière is one of the most famous Madonna portraits of Italian Renaissance painter Raphael. Raphael studied the works of Leonardo da Vinci while in Florence and applied some of Leonardo’s techniques to his own painting. Raphael’s use of contrasting lights and darks, and the relaxed, informal pose of the Madonna illustrate Leonardo’s influence on La Belle Jardinière. <br />
  • use of perspective, as if alift before a stage <br /> he pays tribute to many of his contemporaries <br />
  • Plato and Aristotle, the two greatest philosophers <br /> Plato looks like da Vinci, to whom he is paying tribute <br />
  • In a very melancholic pose is Heraclitus, also known as ‘the weeping philosopher’. He is leaning against a block of marble as he is writing his dark thoughts in a piece of paper. Raphael used Michelangelo’s face, again to pay tribute to the painter who was then doing the Sistine Chapel nearby. <br /> Greatly influenced by him, having copied many of his paintings since he knew a friend who had the keys to the Sistine. He would look at the paintings while Michelangelo was not there <br />
  • Euclid - father of geometry <br /> also Zoroaster and Ptolemy on the side, talking about astronomy (Ptolemy thought the earth centered the universe) <br />
  • dark beret - his signature <br />
  • Renaissance in Venice <br /> Giorgione , Italian painter, who invigorated the Venetian school of painting and whose art was unrivaled in the portrayal of mood. <br /> Most of Giorgione&apos;s paintings consist of a figure or group of figures integrated in a broad surrounding landscape. Unlike earlier pictures in this mode, these works exhibit a new and highly lyrical use of light: The lighting is soft and hazy and is used to create mood rather than to define sharply the objects in the scene. <br /> The subject of Giorgione’s Tempest is unknown. Giorgione set figures in the midst of untamed wilderness in several paintings. Although there are buildings in the background, the overgrown bushes and the eerie light and humid atmosphere of an approaching storm evoke a sense of nature out of control. <br /> Giorgione&apos;s innovations in subject matter were especially important in two areas: the landscape and the female nude. Prior to Giorgione <br />
  • , landscape scenes were taken from biblical, classical, or allegorical stories, but the Tempest appears to have no such source and stands on its own as a purely imaginative work. <br />
  • was a worthy rival of Raphael and Michelangelo <br /> Among his most admired early works is Sacred and Profane Love, an allegorical picture in which two women, one nude (Sacred Love) and the other fully clothed (Profane Love), are seated opposite each other in a serene manner reminiscent of Giorgione&apos;s mysterious world. <br /> Sacred and Profane Love <br />
  • Venus of Urbino was painted by the Renaissance artist Titian (Tiziano Vecellio) in 1538. The pose was taken from an earlier painting by Giorgione and is a re-creation of the classical Greek nude. This painting embodies the rich color and tone for which Titian was famous; its pictorial composition is flawless. <br />

Fa124   4 - renaissance art Fa124 4 - renaissance art Presentation Transcript

  • Renaissance Art
  • Renaissance ❖ literally means ‘rebirth’ ❖ French translation of the Italian ‘rinascita’ ❖ 200 years from 1400 to 1600
  • What Happened during the Renaissance? ❖ age of growth in Europe ❖ New and powerful city states emerged ❖ A new middle class had more and more money to spend.
  • The Renaissance ❖ The New Middle Class ❖ bankers, merchants and tradesmen had a new market for their services ❖ people are now wealthier with more than enough money to spend. They began to build larger houses, buy more expensive clothes and get interested in art and literature ❖ they had more free time for learning, foreign languages, reading, playing musical instruments and other things of interest
  • The Renaissance ❖ Italian cities = centers of trade, wealth and education
  • The Renaissance ❖ Exploration and Trade - exploring the seas and sailing to other continents ❖ Portuguese navigates explored west coast of Africa and brought gold and ivory ❖ Also discovered India, Asia that offered spices, silk and various cloth ❖ Columbus discovered America in 1492 and many Spanish, French and Italian explorers followed suit. The Spanish conquered Central and South America and brought home the gold and silver from the Inca and Aztec empires
  • The Renaissance ❖ Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press in 1445 ❖ Mass production of books at a very cheap cost ❖ Publishing Boom - buying and selling books began to prosper in many European countries. Travel books, romances, poetry and almanacs
  • The Renaissance ❖ Scholars read the writings of Greek and Roman philosophers - ‘classics’ ❖ Study of old manuscripts on topics like science, art and life. ❖ Martin Luther - found a new religion and split away from the church
  • The Black Death ❖ Bubonic plague estimated to have killed 30% to 60% of Europe’s population, or as many as 75 million people ❖ 120,000 citizens in 1338 to 50,000 in 1351. ❖ Left Europe in political and economic chaos that took 100 years to recover
  • Florence Baptistery ❖ also Baptistery of St. John ❖ 1400 after the plague, Florence was ready for a new commission and went out for entries
  • ❖ South end was completed by Andrea Pisano in 1329 before the plague
  • ❖ Competition, artists had to submit a bronze panel of ‘Abraham sacrificing Isaac’ to win the cities’ biggest prize. ❖ Ghiberti and Brunelleschi, both in their early 20s.
  • ❖ The feud that sparked the renaissance
  • ❖ “Brunelleschi’s work is by far the more dramatic and disturbing, all angles and movement and raw emotion., like nothing that had ever been created before. His Abraham is a tall, powerful figure, grasping a frail Isaac along the jawline with his left hand, the father’s thumb under the boy’s chin to better expose the neck, or perhaps to cut off the flow of oxygen so that his son won’t feel the fatal blow. In his right hand, Abraham holds the knife, driving the blade forward with such forceful commitment that the angel sweeping down from the sky must grab his wrist to stop the sacrifice. The story literally bursts out from the panel, breaking the boundaries of the Gothic quatrefoil within which it is supposed to be contained, just as Brunelleschi burst through the boundaries of the Gothic art with his creation.”  -(Robert Paul Walker from his book “The Feud that Sparked the Renaissance”)
  • ❖ “Ghiberti’s panel is more elegant and more beautiful. His Isaac is a perfectly modeled classical nude while his Abraham is a smaller, more graceful man, his left arm wrapped around the boy’s shoulders while his right hand holds the knife hovering in the air, as if he has not yet made the decision to strike. The angel floats above them, open palm over Abraham’s wellcoifed, curly hair, no need to grab the father’s arm but able instead to stop him with a word. The whole scene plays out against an exquisitely cascading mountainside, all neatly contained within its quatrefoil boundary. Whereas Brunelleschi’s piece demonstrates an artist aching to forge a new and more powerful image of reality, Ghiberti’s demonstrates masterful perfection of the art,as remarkable in its own way for the time and place and age of the artist as is the work of his rival.” -Paul Robert Walker
  • ❖ Committee could not decide which is best, so they called together to work in tandem on the doors ❖ Brunelleschi refused, saying he would gladly concede the project to Ghiberti rather than work with anything less than full creative control ❖ Ghiberti won the project, and became a huge victory for him and a humiliating defeat for Brunelleschi
  • QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • ❖ The aftermath created the creative snowball rolling in Florence ❖ Brunelleschi took the bigger leap forward by inventing the system of linear perspective, and the biggest architectural project in the world: giant red dome on the top of the duomo
  • Principal Components or Renaissance Style ❖ Revival of classical forms originally developed by the Ancient Greeks and Romans ❖ Intensified concern with secular life--interest in humanism and importance of the individual
  • ❖ beginning of the great Western age of discovery and exploration ❖ Artists were no longer regarded as mere artisans ❖ Renaissance artists are now seen as having independent personalities ❖ Sought new solutions to formal and visual problems
  • Linear Perspective ❖ converging lines meet at a single vanishing points and all shapes get smaller in all directions with increasing distance from the eye ❖ all elements to the painting are related proportionally and rationally
  • http://robinurton.com/history/Renaissance/perspective.jpg ❖ what Renaissance artists have achieved with careful observation of nature is recreating three-dimensional physical reality of human form on two-dimensional surfaces
  • ❖ The Holy Trinity by Massacio
  • ❖ Painters devote themselves to the rendition of landscape ❖ Careful depiction of trees, flowers, mountains, cloud filled skies ❖ Development of Aerial Perspective
  • Aerial Perspective ❖ Objects are increasingly less distinct and less sharply colored ❖ Northern painters from Flanders and the Netherlands innovations by introducing oil painting as a new medium
  • Renaissance Art & Architecture ❖ Use of mathematics to plan their works ❖ The Golden Mean - objects in nature have a certain proportion
  • Renaissance in Italy ❖ Renaissance first started in Italy ❖ The Italian Renaissance is the earliest manifestation of the European Renaissance
  • Florence ❖ Florence - birthplace of Renaissance
  • Florence ❖ Many great artists of that time started their studies or worked in Florence ❖ 12 guilds controlled the trade in the city, the most powerful were the textile workers ❖ Florence - center of cloth making and cloth trading - wool ❖ Banking - many families were successful bankers ❖ ‘florin’ - gold coin that was used and popular all over Europe
  • ❖ Santa Maria Novella by Leon Battista Alberti - colored marble facade and decorated cloisters
  • Early Renaissance Sculpture ❖ 14th-15th century - Icon-like paintings in gold ground, more natural study of man and nature in fresco technique ❖ Simplicity, piety (Franciscan influence) ❖ Three Florentine goldsmiths ❖ Filippo Brunelleschi ❖ Lorenzo Ghiberti ❖ Donatello
  • Filippo Brunelleschi ❖ greatest architect and engineer of the Renaissance
  • Lorenzo Ghiberti ❖ best known for the reliefs in the gilded bronze doors for the Florence Baptistery ❖ Highly praised by Michelangelo, termed them ‘worthy of the Gates of Paradise’
  • ‘Gates of Paradise’
  • Adam and Eve
  • Cain and Abel
  • The Story of Noah
  • The Story of Abraham
  • Jacob and Esau
  • Discovery of the Golden Cup
  • Solomon & the Queen of
  • Donatello ❖ Donato di Niccolo di Betto Bardi or Donatello ❖ Powerful and influential artist who also traveled widely ❖ A Florentine, he worked in Venice, Padua, Naples and Rome ❖ Thereby instrumental in carrying the new Florentine innovations to much of Italy
  • David by Donatello by Donatello ❖ first nude statue of the Renaissance (1430-1435) ❖ First statue since classical antiquity to be cast in the round ❖ departure from the rigid, columnar figures from Gothic sculpture
  • Early Renaissance Painting ❖ Masaccio ❖ Massacio was the first to employ the new techniques in painting ❖ short career (died at age 27) ❖ Linear and aerial perspective in frescoes ❖ ‘Tribute Money’
  • ❖ Tribute Money by Masaccio ❖ Brancacchi Chapel (Florence)
  • ❖ Expulsion from Paradise ❖ one of the 6 frescoes by Masaccio at the Brancacci Chapel in Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence, Italy ❖ realism, three dimensionality and dramatic depiction
  • Fra Filippo Lippi ❖ monk ❖ Vasari’s ‘Lives of the Artists’: “instead of studying, he spent all his time scrawling pictures on his own books and those of others.” ❖ Always been patronized by the Medicci family ❖ His most distinguished pupils include Sandro Botticelli and his son Filippino Lippi
  • ❖ ‘Madonna and Child’, tempera on wood (1455)
  • Fra Angelico ❖ The Annunciation ❖ Fra Angelico is a devout Dominican monk
  • ❖ Adoration of the Magi
  • Piero della Francesca ❖ Baptism of Christ (1445) ❖ early Renaissance art ❖ Piero’s interest in geometry and perspective
  • Jan Van Eyck ❖ Arnolfini Portrait / Arnolfini Wedding ❖ believed to be rich merchant Giovanni Arnolfini and wife ❖ Jan van Eyck is a Flemish painter of the Netherlands
  • ❖ Renaissance Painting: 2nd Generation 2nd of aerial and linear perspective, rendition Generation With the innovations of landscape, powerful figural types and rigorous compositions, it was further consolidated and refined ❖ Study on the complexities of the human anatomy from life ❖ Scientific, perspective, anatomy, deeper landscape, chiaroscuro ❖ Horizon line slightly below or above center of painting, wispy trees, distant hilss, cities bathed in blue, foreground of warm yellows, ochres and browns ❖ Scene placed as if upon a stage
  • ❖ Pollaiuolo’s ‘Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian’
  • ❖ ‘Birth of Venus’ by Sandro Botticelli as commissioned by Lorenzo de Medici ❖ themes of astrology, classical mythology and Christianity ❖ Linear, flat space with an overall effect of grace and delicacy
  • High Renaissance ❖ taking art to a level of noble expression ❖ initiated by Leonardo da Vinci, upon his return to Florence from Milan in 1500 ❖ there he found the young Michelangelo, who was about to begin the famous gigantic Statue ‘David’
  • High Renaissance ❖ centers in Rome, Florence, Venice ❖ Pictorial space deepened ❖ Sky more dramatic with dark clouds and flashes of light as if afternoon or evening ❖ More dramatic representations of events of lives of martyrs and church figures ❖ Unsettled mood pervades art ❖ Landscape competes with and replaces human figure
  • Leonardo da Vinci ❖ quintessential Renaissance man ❖ celebrated as a painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, scientist ❖ profound love for knowledge and research was the keynote for both his artistic and scientific endeavors
  • ❖ The Last Supper ❖ Instead of showing the 12 apostles as individual figures, it is grouped in dynamic compositional units of three, framing the figure of Christ in the center of the picture
  • ❖ Mona Lisa ❖ technical innovations, like the mysteriousness of its legendary smiling subject ❖ two techniques ‘sfumato’ and ‘chiaroscuro’
  • ❖ Sfumato - subtle, almost infinitesimal transitions between color areas, creating a delicately atmospheric haze or smoky effect; evident in the delicate gauzy robes worn by the sitter and in her enigmatic smile ❖ Chiaroscuro -modeling and defining forms through contrasts of light and shadow, the sensitive hands of the sitter are portrayed with a luminous modulation of light and shade, color contrast used only sparingly
  • Michelangelo ❖ Contributions to painting, sculpture and architecture
  • Pieta ❖ one of his memorable early works (St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican city)
  • David ❖ located at the Academia ❖ 5.17 m or 17 ft. ❖ the original location is replaced by a replica ❖ only 26 years old
  • David
  • Sistine Chapel Frescoes ❖ Sistine Chapel ceiling frescoes ❖ Interpretation of the biblical book of Genesis, the story of creation of the world ❖ contains 343 figures and nine stories from the Book of Genesis ❖ finished at only 34 years old and took him 4 years to finish
  • Creation of Adam
  • Ignudi
  • Creation of Plants, Sun, Moon and Stars
  • Creation of Eve
  • Downfall of Adam & Eve
  • The Flood
  • Moses
  • Raphael Sanzio ❖ born in Urbino, based in Rome where he had an active shop with many assistants ❖ 25 year old Raphael was summoned to Rome by Pope Julius II and given a commission to decorate the papal apartments ❖ died of a fever, aged 37
  • School of Athens
  • Venetian Renaissance ❖ 16th century ❖ dramatic diagonal compositions ❖ sumptuous, warm, sensual colors ❖ Venetial school influences Spanish and Dutch art
  • ❖ Giorgione ❖ invigorated the Venetian school of painting and whose art was unrivaled in the portrayal of mood ❖ innovations in the landscape and the female nude ❖ ‘Tempest’
  • ❖ The Tempest by Giorgione
  • ❖ follower of Giorgione, Tiziano Vercellio or ‘Titian’ ❖ most gifted High Renaissance painter in Venice ❖ ‘Sacred and Profane Love’
  • ❖ Venus of Urbino
  • ❖ Titian’s Mary Magdalene
  • Renaissance Artist Signatures ❖ Raphael - extremely smooth and beautiful ❖ Leonardo - mixed colors scientifically
  • Conclusion ❖ Art enters the experimental stage ❖ New colors discovered, free brush strokes ❖ Forms modeled in color and chiaroscuro ❖ Canvas introduced ❖ Discovery of the landscape ❖ Art rises to independent, personal expression of individual artists ❖ Early Renaissance - linear and calm ❖ High Renaissance - painterly and dramatic ❖ Scientific discovery of natural world results in many new techniques