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Sj 공학심리학 Speech Perception
 

Sj 공학심리학 Speech Perception

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    Sj 공학심리학 Speech Perception Sj 공학심리학 Speech Perception Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 6. Language and Communications Speech Perception Engineering Psychology and Human Performance ㅇㅇ Seo-jung ko, Industrial Engineering, Hanyang University
    • Contents 1. Speech Perception 2. Representation of Speech 3. Units of Speech Perception Phonemes Syllables Words 4. Top-Down Processing of Speech 5. Applications of Voice Recognition Research 6. Communications Nonverbal Communications Video Mediated Communications Crew Resource Management Seo-jung ko, Industrial Engineering, Hanyang University
    • Speech Perception Example In1997, a Tragic event occurred at the Tenerife airport in the Canada Island : A KLM Royal Dutch Airlines 747 jumbo jet, accelerating for takeoff, crashed into a Pan American 747 taxiing on the same runway. → Confusion between the KLM pilot and air traffic control. Reading & Speech In common with reading, the perception of speech involves both bottom-up hierarchical processing and top-down contextual processing. reading :: features세부특징 – letters낱자 – words단어 Speech :: phonomes음소- sylables음절 -words단어 But, reading 과 달리 physical units of speech 분리가 쉽지 않다. The perceptual system must undertake some analog to digital conversion to translate the continuous speech waveform into the discrete units of speech perception. Seo-jung ko, Industrial Engineering, Hanyang University
    • Contents 1. Speech Perception 2. Representation of Speech 3. Units of Speech Perception Phonemes Syllables Words 4. Top-Down Processing of Speech 5. Applications of Voice Recognition Research 6. Communications Nonverbal Communications Video Mediated Communications Crew Resource Management Seo-jung ko, Industrial Engineering, Hanyang University
    • Representation of Speech (a) The stimulus of speech is a continuous variation or oscillation of the air pressure (b) Fourier 분석 서로 다른 주파수, 진폭을 갖는 sine wave로 분리시킬 수 있다. (c) Spectral representation. (b)의 그래프를 각각 Y축 : Power sine wave 진동의 평균 폭or 폭의제곱 X축 : Frequency 로 표현함. (d) Formants :: two separated tones Y축 : Frequency X축 : Time 넓이 : amplitude Seo-jung ko, Industrial Engineering, Hanyang University
    • Contents 1. Speech Perception 2. Representation of Speech 3. Units of Speech Perception Phonemes Syllables Words 4. Top-Down Processing of Speech 5. Applications of Voice Recognition Research 6. Communications Nonverbal Communications Video Mediated Communications Crew Resource Management Seo-jung ko, Industrial Engineering, Hanyang University
    • Units of Speech Perception Phonemes, Syllables, Words Phonemes (음소) – the basic unit of speech • changing a phoneme in a word will change its meaning (or change it to a nonword). • The 38 English phonemes. Ex) [p] [b] [t] [d] [k] [g] [f] [v] [θ] … • 실제 지각시 phonemes와 printed letters 가 상당히 다름. • Physical form of a phoneme is highly dependent on the context in which it appears. Syllables (음절) – the basic unit of speech perception. • Two of more phonemes generally combine to create syllables. • The syllabic unit is itself relatively invariant in its physical form. • A Study suggests that people are particularly dependent on the syllable unit in speech perception. Words (단어) – the smallest cognitive or semantic unit of meaning • Morpheme(형태소)로 이루어져있다. Ex) un- . –ing … • Segmentation problem “she uses st*and*ard oil” 세 단어 사이의 boundary-gap 이외에도 두개의 physical pauses가 있음 → 순수 Bottom-up processing 에서 의미를 모르는 단어들이 연속적으로 주어진 경우 단어들의 분리경계를 구분하기 어려워진다. Seo-jung ko, Industrial Engineering, Hanyang University
    • Contents 1. Speech Perception 2. Representation of Speech 3. Units of Speech Perception Phonemes Syllables Words 4. Top-Down Processing of Speech 5. Applications of Voice Recognition Research 6. Communications Nonverbal Communications Video Mediated Communications Crew Resource Management Seo-jung ko, Industrial Engineering, Hanyang University
    • Top-Down Processing of Speech Contrast speech perception with reading (1) invariable problem. (2) segmentation problem. (3) the serial and transient nature of the auditory message. →Bottom-up processing을 어렵게 하며, top-down processing 에 의존하게 한다. Demonstrations of top-down or context-dependent processing in speech perception are quite robust. In one experiment, compare recognition of degraded word strings.. (1) 무작위 단어들 (2) 문법적 구조이지만, 의미가 없는 단어들 (3) 의미적 맥락이 있는 단어들 → 문법, 의미 제약이 적을수록 신호강도가 커야만 같은 수준의 인식가능. Mixture of bottom-up and top-down processing. Bottom-up processing : 음향적인 세부특징, 음절수준의 하위특징 Top-down processing : 의미적, 통사론적 맥락에서 특정 speech의 음이 무엇인지 단어경계에 대한 주관적 특성 Seo-jung ko, Industrial Engineering, Hanyang University
    • Contents 1. Speech Perception 2. Representation of Speech 3. Units of Speech Perception Phonemes Syllables Words 4. Top-Down Processing of Speech 5. Applications of Voice Recognition Research 6. Communications Nonverbal Communications Video Mediated Communications Crew Resource Management Seo-jung ko, Industrial Engineering, Hanyang University
    • Applications of Voice Recognition Research Speech perception - Two major categories of applications. 1. Understanding of how humans perceive speech and employ context-driven top-down processing in recognition. 2. Measure and predict the effects on speech comprehension of various kind of distortion. (extrinsic or intrinsic distortion) Natural speech the differing amplitudes of the various phonemes distributed across a wide rage of frequencies. → spectrum 형성가능 Figure 6.12 Typical power spectra of speech Noise & frequency 동일 주파수대의 noise 가 이해를 더 떨어트림 Seo-jung ko, Industrial Engineering, Hanyang University
    • Applications of Voice Recognition Research Articulation index (AI) : Predict the effects of background noise on speech understanding Signal Noise hearing. It is not comprehension. So, AI provided measure of Only bottom-up stimulus quality. Seo-jung ko, Industrial Engineering, Hanyang University
    • Applications of Voice Recognition Research Speech intelligibility명백 :: Vocal material of particular level of redundancy over the speech channel in question and computing the percentage of words understood correctly. 정보내용/ redundancy / 청자의 top-down processing 에 따라 다른 이해 정도를 표현할 수 있음.  제한된 단어 > 제한이 없는 단어 (표준화 등등)  의미 있는 단어 > 무의미한 음절  고빈도 단어 > 저빈도 단어  맥락 있는 문장 > 맥락 없는 문장  Figure 6.14 The important implications 1. Either the AI or the speech-intelligibility Measures by themselves are inherently Ambiguous unless the redundancy of the transmitted material is carefully specified 2. data-driven, bottom-up processing may trade off with context-driven, top-down processing. Seo-jung ko, Industrial Engineering, Hanyang University
    • Applications of Voice Recognition Research The ability to “guess” the massage Limitations in signal quality can be compensated for by augmenting top-down processing – creating the ability to “guess” the message without actually (or completely) hearing it. Ex) 표준화된 어휘만 이용, 중복되는 quot;carrier” sentences 사용 The effect of redundant carrier sentences on comprehension. 소음이 있는 상태에서 비행기조조사에게 음성경고를 보내는 실험. 경고형태 :: “ fuel low” , “your fuel is low” →recognition performance : “fuel low” < “you fuel is low” →carrier sentences : one-syllable words > multi-syllable words Seo-jung ko, Industrial Engineering, Hanyang University
    • Contents 1. Speech Perception 2. Representation of Speech 3. Units of Speech Perception Phonemes Syllables Words 4. Top-Down Processing of Speech 5. Applications of Voice Recognition Research 6. Communications : there is more to communications than simply understanding the words and sentences in speech. ex) gestures, pauses, and voice inflection … Nonverbal Communications Video Mediated Communications Crew Resource Management Seo-jung ko, Industrial Engineering, Hanyang University
    • Communications Communications :: there is more to communications than simply understanding the words and sentences in speech. ex) gestures, pauses, and voice inflection … Nonverbal Communications 1. Visualizing the mouth. 화자의 입 움직임과 단어를 발음하는 모양을 보는 것. 유용한 중복적 단서. (특히 음성의 질이 좋지 않을 때) 2. Nonverbal cues. 화자의 끄덕임이나 곤혹스런 표정 등과 같은 표정을 통해 얻는 단서, 제스처 등의 부가정보. 3. Disambiguity. 화자입장에서 청자의 곤혹스러운 표정이나 끄덕임을 통해 내 말을 이해 했는지 못 했는지 알 수 있기 때문에 메시지의 모호성을 알 수 있음. 청각에만 의존하고 시각적 피드백이 없는 경우, 전체적으로 단서 수가 많아지고 정식으로 이루어지는 대화의 주고받기 빈도가 늘어남. 4. Shared knowledge of action. 팀 수행에서는, 팀 구성원들이 수행하는 혹은 실패하는 행위를 단지 지켜보는 것 만으로도 많은 정보가 교환되고 공유됨 Seo-jung ko, Industrial Engineering, Hanyang University
    • Communications Video Mediated communications Video 가 face to face communication의 장점을 가질 것이다. 하지만 비디오와 청각정보의 질이 떨어지고, 이 두 채널을 동기화 시켜하 하는데 문제가 있을 수 있다. 또한 질이 좋고 동기화가 잘 되더라도, face-to-face communication에 비해 원격 비디오 조건에서는 더 많은 단어가 필요했고, 소통의 방식도 청각만 사용하는 소통과 비슷하게 더 많은 공식적인 주고받기와 더 적은수 의 중단을 보였다. Crew Resource Management 대화에 참여하는 사람들간의 사회적 분위기의 특성이 의사소통의 패턴을 촉진하거나 떨어뜨릴수 있다.  조종사의 실수를 보았거나 의심을 갖고 있는 부조종사의 경우. 1) 조종사가 주의를 기울이도록 만드는데 실패 2) 너무 모호하게 말해서 실수가 교정되지 못함  정보를 교환해야 하는 두 오퍼레이터 간에 분명한 지위차이가 있는 경우. (Ex.사장과 비서) 조종사들의 협동을 필요로하는, 효율적인 의사소통을 위한 시뮬레이션 실험 결과 승무원들이 의사소통을 많이 공유하고, 더 빈번히 소통내용을 확인하며 명령 또는 단정적인 문장을 많이 사용. 공식적인 지휘체계의 양방향으로 (조종사->부 조종사. 부 조종사->조종사) 단정적인 진술을 사용. - 각 구성원이 분명하게 정해진 책임감을 자각하고 의사소통을 하고 있음을 뜻함 오랜시간 함께 수행한 승무원들의 수행이 더 우수. Seo-jung ko, Industrial Engineering, Hanyang University