All About Genre Genre is very important to both film producers and film audiences because the producers need to engage their target audiences in order to be successful, whilst the film audiences need to be interested and engaged in the genre so that they go and watch the film and get pleasure. Genre theory is used in the study of films in order to facilitate the categorization of films. Genre are dependent on various factors such as story line, whom the director is, what are the audience expectations et cetera. In using genre theory we create a short cut in how we are to describe films. Genre theory through it's use is a method of shortening academic works. It is the repetition and variation of the conventions but it is not just a simple means of labelling or classifying films. Genres can change over time as different social groups/ethnics come about. For example, in the past Western Cowboy movies were the most popular and helped to encourage new ideas for future films like actions, horrors, thrillers, Sci-Fi's and physiological thrillers. Audience When marketing and studying cinema it is important to know who the intended audience are so that it engages them and helps them to relate to certain producers so that forthcoming movies are successful as they will be interested if they liked a previous movie.
Denis McQuail and Christine Gledhill Denis McQuailrefers to the commercial and industrial significance of genres. This theorist suggested that genre helps the target audience of producers to capitalize on the success of previous films because audiences may choose to see a film based on the genre or perhaps the content of the film, or even the actors in it. For example, the action film James Bond. The actor Daniel Craig may interest an audience that like action films. Christine Gledhill notes that “differences between genres means that different audiences could be identified and catered to. This makes it easier to standardise and stabilise production. To the mass media, genre is part of the process of targetting different market sectors”.
Hybrids: 1. Paul The Movie This movie ‘Paul’ is similar to E.T. It is about an alien that lands on earth and accidentally intrudes in two men’s lives when they are on a road-trip. The setting of a long desert road helps to relate to the genre as it is quiet and secluded. The genre of this movie is a sci-fi/action film. The actors Simon Pegg and Nick Frost are associated to comedy and action films, therefore they help to engage the target audience of comedy/action film lovers. The poster and film cover help to engage the target audience by using two normal people with an alien to suggest abnormality. The writing is in bold to engage the audience and the striking yellow background also helps to attract attention. The facial expressions also show the shock of the people and interest the audience about the genre of the movie.
Hybrids: 2. Cowboys and Aliens As you can see, the posters are very appealing and focus on the genre of Action and a Sci-Fi/Physiological thriller. The actor Daniel Craig is used because audiences automatically associate him with Action/Thriller movies and sci-fi /agent genresfor eg. James Bond. The film cover/poster are also very related to the sci-fi genre. The glowing band around the actors wrist is very high tech and suggest an anbormality and therefore reflect the genre of the film. The dark setting/background also portray an interesting look to the film.
Hybrids: 3. Super 8 These posters are edited cleverly so that they engage the target audience. The genre is an adventure/Sci-Fi film and is produced by a well-known producer named ‘Steven Spielberg’. This would in turn attract a potentially bigger audience as his films are very successful. The setting in the posters etc is very dark and chilling, which helps to engage the audience too and reflect the mysterious sci-fi genre.
Conventions of Genre FORMAL CONVENTIONS: The Plot- Example, man seeking revenge/mystery The Theme- Loyalty, price of criminal success in gangster STYLISTIC CONVENTIONS: Slow Motion/Editing/Music Iconography- Battlefield, Close up of hand on a gun STARS ASSOCIATED WITH THAT GENRE TO ENGAGE TARGET AUDIENCE: This is definitely a deciding factor for an audience. Clint Eastwood- Westerns Jenifer Aniston- Rom-com Nick Cage-Adventure Jim Carey- Comedy Angelina Jolie- Action GENRES CHANGE AND EVOLVE OVER TIME. They can come in and out of fashion everyday, for example Westerns was one of the first ever film genres, and now new genres like rom-coms and psychological thrillers have came about after different audiences grew different interests and the socio historical context (society and cultures) changed. This has therefore boosted movie ratings and the advance in technology has also helped produce amazing films.
Genre Changes Over time genre has become a major factor in producing films. The genre is now one of the main factors in creating a successful film that engages audience. The first genres that came out were Westerns and Musicals as they engaged people and were simple. The use of mise en scene also helped reflect the genre of the movie. For example Doris Day in Calamity Jane. The use of prop (gun) and costume (cowgirl clothes/tassles) helped to reflect the genre of a Western/Musical movie. Nowadays, as changes are made in social and cultural ways, the genre has changed, bringing different audiences about. Over years, times have changed and more advanced technology has meant edits can be made and better effects in a film to produce different genres of film. Examples are psychological thrillers/horror/comedy/rom-coms and many more.
Although genre has changed rapidly and new genres have been introduced many genres remain. For example, the genre of romance is used mostly in every film. In most films, there is normally always a couple or a princess that is saved by a ‘hero’. The use of romance in a film helps to engage an audience as does any other genre for example horror and thrillers. People are different and therefore producers have to try and engage the majority of their target audiences in order to be successful. Gone with the wind is a romantic film that helps show how the romance genre has changed over time.
The musical genre was also very popular in the past. For example The sound of music, Mary Poppins and New York, New York starring well-known singer/actor Frank Sinatra. Musicals have became a big success in the filmmaking industry and have engaged various audiences around the globe. Nowadays, editing and effects have enabled musicals to be produced in better quality and the use of costume etc has remained the same to help reflect genre.