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Chapter 16[1][1]

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Transcript

  • 1. Social Psychology: Meeting of the Minds
  • 2. Social Cognition
    • How we perceive our social worlds and how we attend to, store, remember, and use information about other people and the social world
  • 3. Impressions
    • How long does it take you to “size someone up” (i.e., decide if you like him or her, etc.)?
    • What do you look for? What influences your impression? Are there “things” in particular that catch your attention?
    • Does the information that you notice or receive first have a disproportionate influence on your impression? Why or why not?
  • 4. Making an Impression
    • Impression formation
    • Impression management
    • Social judgments in seconds!
    • Halo effect
    • Primacy effect
  • 5. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
    • Expectations can create outcomes
    • Rosenthal & Jacobson
      • “ Test” predicted student academics
      • Students performed as “predicted”
  • 6. Attitudes and Behavior
    • Attitudes
      • An overall evaluation about some aspect of the world
    • Attitudes and behavior do not always go hand in hand (e.g., cognitive dissonance).
  • 7. Cognitive Dissonance “ Did you enjoy the task?” Receive Boring task $1 $20 “ No” “ Yes”
  • 8. Cognitive Dissonance
    • Dissonance theory
      • Reducing mismatch between behaviors and feelings
  • 9. Stereotypes
    • What are stereotypes?
    • A belief or set of beliefs about people in a particular social category
  • 10. Look quickly at each “person” below. What is the first stereotype that comes to mind?
    • Men
    • Women
    • Blondes
    • Redheads
    • Lawyers
    • Scientists
    • Professors
    • Grade school teacher
    • Physician
  • 11. Stereotypes
    • Stereotype consistent information
    • Prefer it
    • Process it faster
    • Attend to it more
    • Recall it faster
  • 12. Prejudice
    • Social Categorization (dividing the world into us and them)
    • Ingroup
    • Outgroup
    • Illusory correlation
    • Illusion of outgroup
    • homogeneity
      • Ingroup differentiation
    • Discrimination
  • 13. Understanding Prejudice
    • Social Categorization Theory
    • Realistic conflict theory
      • Competition for scarce resources
    • Self-fulfilling prophecy
    • Social learning theory
  • 14. Yielding to Others
    • What is conformity?
    • A change in beliefs or behavior because of pressure from others.
      • Informational social influence
      • Normative social influence
  • 15. Conformity: Asch’s Studies 1 2 3 Find the matching line
  • 16. Compliance
    • What is compliance?
    • Change in behavior brought on by a direct request
    • Six principles
      • Friendship/liking
      • Commitment/consistency
      • Scarcity
      • Reciprocity
      • Social validation
      • Authority
  • 17. Compliance
    • Foot-in-the-door technique
    • Lowball technique
    • Door-in-the-face technique
  • 18. The Milgram Studies Obedience
    • What is obedience?
    • Compliance with an order from an authority figure
    Teacher and Learner
  • 19. The Milgram Studies Increasing Shocks for Errors
  • 20. The Milgram Studies
    • 15 volts to 450 volts (“XXX”)
    • At 120 volts learner shouts in pain
    • At 150 volts learner asks to stop
    • At 300 volts learner pounds on wall
    • At 330 volts learner stops responding
    • Question: how far will teachers go?
  • 21. The Milgram Studies
    • Psychiatrists predicted 2% would go to maximum level
    • Actual results: 65% of teachers went to the maximum level
    • Other factors
    • Ethical issues
    • What does this tell us about human nature?
  • 22. Attribution
    • An explanation for the cause of an event or behavior
    • Humans seek to know the cause of actions!
    • What caused that behavior?
      • Internal attributions
        • Dispositional attributions
      • External attributions
        • Situational attributions
  • 23. Attributional Biases
    • Fundamental attribution error
    • Self-serving bias
    • Belief in a just world
      • Blaming the victim
  • 24. Helping Others
    • Altruism
    • Prosocial behavior
    • Catherine Genovese murder
    • Bystander effect
      • Evaluation apprehension
      • Diffusion of responsibility
  • 25. Relationships: Liking
    • Repeated contact
    • Similarity
    • Physical attraction
  • 26. Relationships: Loving
    • Is there a soul mate for you? What does falling in love feel like? Does that feeling last?
    • Passionate love
    • Companionate love
    • Sternberg’s triangular model
    • of love
      • Passion
      • Intimacy
      • Commitment
  • 27. Social Organizations
    • What are some common elements of group?
    • Interaction among members
    • Emotional connection
    • Common frame of reference
    • Interdependence
    • Norms
    • Roles
    • Status hierarchy
    • Sometimes deindividuation
  • 28. Decision Making in Groups
    • Group polarization
    • Groupthink
    • Heterogeneous vs. homogeneous groups
  • 29. Performance in Groups
    • Social loafing
    • Social compensation
    • Social facilitation
  • 30. The Stanford Prison Experiment How powerful is a role? How does this study relate to the Abu Ghraib prison incident?