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Chapter 1 Newest
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  • 1. Chapter 1<br />Psychology: Yesterday and Today<br />
  • 2. What Is Psychology?<br />Psychology is the science1 of mental processes and behavior.<br />1Systematic knowledge gained through observation and experimentation.<br />
  • 3. Levels of Analysis<br />The person<br />The group<br />The brain<br />
  • 4. Is psychology all common sense?<br />
  • 5. The Evolution of a Science<br />Structuralism<br />Wilhelm Wundt &amp; Edward Titchener (student of Wundt)<br />Focused on identifying the “building blocks” of consciousness (sensations &amp; feelings)<br />Introspection: Looking within<br />Not objectively verifiable<br />Wundt set-up 1st Psychology Lab <br /> in 1879<br />
  • 6. The Evolution of a Science<br />Functionalism<br />William James<br />Influenced by Charles Darwin<br />Studied how consciousness helped an individual survive and adapt to an environment<br />Animal observations provide clues for human behavior<br />James set-up the first psychology laboratory in America<br />
  • 7. The Evolution of a Science<br />Gestalt Psychology<br />Max Wertheimer<br />Focused on consciousness and principles of perceptual organization<br />The whole is greater than the sum of its parts<br />
  • 8. The Evolution of a Science<br />Psychodynamic Theory<br />Sigmund Freud<br />The mind has separate components<br />Conscious and unconscious components<br />Much of behavior in influenced by the unconscious<br />Psychoanalysis<br />
  • 9. The Evolution of a Science<br />Behaviorism <br />John Watson &amp; B. F. Skinner<br />The mind cannot be observed<br />Behavior can be observed<br />Science should study the observable<br />Reinforcement<br />Stimulus-response<br />
  • 10. The Evolution of a Science<br />Humanistic Psychology<br />Carl Rogers &amp; Abraham Maslow<br />Client-centered therapy<br />We strive for self-actualization<br />
  • 11. The Evolution of a Science<br />The Cognitive Revolution<br />Alan Newell &amp; Herbert Simon<br />Focus on mental processes (information processing)<br />Computer metaphor<br />Cognitive neuroscience<br />
  • 12. The Evolution of a Science<br />Evolutionary psychology<br />Lida Cosmides, John Tooby, David Buss, &amp; Steven Pinker<br />Evolutionarily successful cognitive strategies and goals survived<br />Cultural universality<br />

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