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Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 1
    Psychology: Yesterday and Today
  • 2. What Is Psychology?
    Psychology is the science1 of mental processes and behavior.
    1Systematic knowledge gained through observation and experimentation.
  • 3. Levels of Analysis
    The person
    The group
    The brain
  • 4. Is psychology all common sense?
  • 5. The Evolution of a Science
    Structuralism
    Wilhelm Wundt & Edward Titchener (student of Wundt)
    Focused on identifying the “building blocks” of consciousness (sensations & feelings)
    Introspection: Looking within
    Not objectively verifiable
    Wundt set-up 1st Psychology Lab
    in 1879
  • 6. The Evolution of a Science
    Functionalism
    William James
    Influenced by Charles Darwin
    Studied how consciousness helped an individual survive and adapt to an environment
    Animal observations provide clues for human behavior
    James set-up the first psychology laboratory in America
  • 7. The Evolution of a Science
    Gestalt Psychology
    Max Wertheimer
    Focused on consciousness and principles of perceptual organization
    The whole is greater than the sum of its parts
  • 8. The Evolution of a Science
    Psychodynamic Theory
    Sigmund Freud
    The mind has separate components
    Conscious and unconscious components
    Much of behavior in influenced by the unconscious
    Psychoanalysis
  • 9. The Evolution of a Science
    Behaviorism
    John Watson & B. F. Skinner
    The mind cannot be observed
    Behavior can be observed
    Science should study the observable
    Reinforcement
    Stimulus-response
  • 10. The Evolution of a Science
    Humanistic Psychology
    Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow
    Client-centered therapy
    We strive for self-actualization
  • 11. The Evolution of a Science
    The Cognitive Revolution
    Alan Newell & Herbert Simon
    Focus on mental processes (information processing)
    Computer metaphor
    Cognitive neuroscience
  • 12. The Evolution of a Science
    Evolutionary psychology
    Lida Cosmides, John Tooby, David Buss, & Steven Pinker
    Evolutionarily successful cognitive strategies and goals survived
    Cultural universality