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Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Presentation Transcript

  • Psychology: Yesterday and Today
  • What Is Psychology?
    Psychology is the science1 of mental processes and behavior.
    1Systematic knowledge of the physical or material world gained through observation and experimentation.
  • Levels of Analysis
    The brain
    The person
    The group
  • Is psychology all common sense?
    Take the Psychology Quiz and see for yourself
  • The Evolution of a Science
    Structuralism
    Wilhelm Wundt & Edward Titchener (student of Wundt)
    Focused on identifying the “building blocks” of consciousness
    Introspection: Looking within
    Not objectively verifiable
  • The Evolution of a Science
    Functionalism
    William James
    Influenced by Charles Darwin
    Studied how consciousness helped an individual survive and adapt to an environment
    Animal observations provide clues for human behavior
    Focused on pragmatic issues such as improving education
  • The Evolution of a Science
    Gestalt Psychology
    Max Wertheimer
    Focused on consciousness and principles of perceptual organization
    The whole is greater than the sum of its parts
  • The Evolution of a Science
    Psychodynamic Theory
    Sigmund Freud
    The mind has separate components
    Conscious and unconscious components
    Much of behavior in influenced by the unconscious
    Psychoanalysis
  • The Evolution of a Science
    Behaviorism
    John Watson & B. F. Skinner
    The mind cannot be observed
    Behavior can be observed
    Science should study the observable
    Reinforcement
    Stimulus-response
  • His Head is a Triangle?!
  • The Evolution of a Science
    Humanistic Psychology
    Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow
    Client-centered therapy
    We strive for self-actualization
  • The Evolution of a Science
    The Cognitive Revolution
    Alan Newell & Herbert Simon
    Focus on mental processes (information processing)
    Computer metaphor
    Cognitive neuroscience
  • The Evolution of a Science
    Evolutionary psychology
    Lida Cosmides, John Tooby, David Buss, & Steven Pinker
    Evolutionarily successful cognitive strategies and goals survived
    Cultural universality