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    Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Presentation Transcript

    • Psychology: Yesterday and Today
    • What Is Psychology?
      Psychology is the science1 of mental processes and behavior.
      1Systematic knowledge of the physical or material world gained through observation and experimentation.
    • Levels of Analysis
      The brain
      The person
      The group
    • Is psychology all common sense?
      Take the Psychology Quiz and see for yourself
    • The Evolution of a Science
      Structuralism
      Wilhelm Wundt & Edward Titchener (student of Wundt)
      Focused on identifying the “building blocks” of consciousness
      Introspection: Looking within
      Not objectively verifiable
    • The Evolution of a Science
      Functionalism
      William James
      Influenced by Charles Darwin
      Studied how consciousness helped an individual survive and adapt to an environment
      Animal observations provide clues for human behavior
      Focused on pragmatic issues such as improving education
    • The Evolution of a Science
      Gestalt Psychology
      Max Wertheimer
      Focused on consciousness and principles of perceptual organization
      The whole is greater than the sum of its parts
    • The Evolution of a Science
      Psychodynamic Theory
      Sigmund Freud
      The mind has separate components
      Conscious and unconscious components
      Much of behavior in influenced by the unconscious
      Psychoanalysis
    • The Evolution of a Science
      Behaviorism
      John Watson & B. F. Skinner
      The mind cannot be observed
      Behavior can be observed
      Science should study the observable
      Reinforcement
      Stimulus-response
    • His Head is a Triangle?!
    • The Evolution of a Science
      Humanistic Psychology
      Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow
      Client-centered therapy
      We strive for self-actualization
    • The Evolution of a Science
      The Cognitive Revolution
      Alan Newell & Herbert Simon
      Focus on mental processes (information processing)
      Computer metaphor
      Cognitive neuroscience
    • The Evolution of a Science
      Evolutionary psychology
      Lida Cosmides, John Tooby, David Buss, & Steven Pinker
      Evolutionarily successful cognitive strategies and goals survived
      Cultural universality