What Is Psychology? Psychology is the science1 of mental processes and behavior. 1Systematic knowledge of the physical or material world gained through observation and experimentation.
Levels of Analysis The brain The person The group
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The Evolution of a Science Structuralism Wilhelm Wundt & Edward Titchener (student of Wundt) Focused on identifying the “building blocks” of consciousness Introspection: Looking within Not objectively verifiable
The Evolution of a Science Functionalism William James Influenced by Charles Darwin Studied how consciousness helped an individual survive and adapt to an environment Animal observations provide clues for human behavior Focused on pragmatic issues such as improving education
The Evolution of a Science Gestalt Psychology Max Wertheimer Focused on consciousness and principles of perceptual organization The whole is greater than the sum of its parts
The Evolution of a Science Psychodynamic Theory Sigmund Freud The mind has separate components Conscious and unconscious components Much of behavior in influenced by the unconscious Psychoanalysis
The Evolution of a Science Behaviorism John Watson & B. F. Skinner The mind cannot be observed Behavior can be observed Science should study the observable Reinforcement Stimulus-response
His Head is a Triangle?!
The Evolution of a Science Humanistic Psychology Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow Client-centered therapy We strive for self-actualization
The Evolution of a Science The Cognitive Revolution Alan Newell & Herbert Simon Focus on mental processes (information processing) Computer metaphor Cognitive neuroscience
The Evolution of a Science Evolutionary psychology Lida Cosmides, John Tooby, David Buss, & Steven Pinker Evolutionarily successful cognitive strategies and goals survived Cultural universality