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umbelliferae umbelliferae Document Transcript

  • * * * ABSTRACT * * *The discussed Family is Umbelliferae, now called as Apiaceae. It an Angiospermic plant. Itsplants are used as important herbs. Many are poisonous and few are casuals and gardenescapes. The umbels are unique in their floral uniformity. They pollinate freely which allow it toincrease its natural distribution. Seed dispersal occurs through mammals and wind.The Plants discussed in this article are Coriander and Conium. Coriander is used asCarminative, stimulant, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, refrigerant and also as a flavoringagent. It is used in the treatment of arthritis colic, rheumatism, neuralgia, ulcer, piles, headacheand swellings, indigestion, flatulence, diarrhea.Conium is antispasmodic, sedative and antidote. It is used in treating Strychnine poisoning,excitability of nervous motor, scrofulous disorders, indolent tumors, swellings and pains of thejoints and in curing cancerous and other ulcers. Its internal administration can cause narcoticpoisoning and overdose can produce paralysis.
  • * * * THE UMBELLIFERAE FAMILY * * *The Umbelliferae (or Apiaceae), commonly known as carrot or parsley family, is a group ofmostly aromatic plants with hollow stems. The family is large, with more than 3,700 speciesspread across 434 genera, it is the sixteenth largest family of flowering plants. Included in thisfamily are the well known.Plants: angelica, anise, arracacha, asafoetida, caraway, carrot, celery, centellaasiatica, chervil, cicely, coriander/cilantro, cumin, dill, fennel, hemlock, lovage,Queen AnnesLace, parsley, parsnip, sea holly, and the now extinct silphium.Umbelliferae is a large, important, successful family of herbs, sharing easily identifiablecommon characteristics, their famous upside down ‘Umbrella flowers’ on stalks, which fill ourhedgerows and bridleways with an abundant profusion of summer color. They have provided uswith our most famous root crops, vegetable and medicines, saving & sustaining millions ofhuman and animal lives. They do have a darker side, many are poisonous, and fortunately fewdeaths occur now. Most are native, and common, having colonized every habitat in Britain, barupland moors, salt marshes & deep shade. Some, introduced by the Romans, have becomenaturalized and common here, fewer are casuals and garden escapes. They are generally wellknown for being indistinguishable from each other, but with reference to habitat, flowering time,leaf shape and aroma they can be easily identified.* * * CLASSIFICATION * * *The family Umbellifers belongs in the Umbellales order. A large worldwide family containing3000 species in 400 genera, concentrated in the N Northern temperate region. They are herbs,but Bupleurum has a number of shrubby species, woody members occur in Africa, the largest isSteganotaenia, a 12m high tree. The family contains sub families Apioideae, which contains9096 of species. Saniculoideae & Hydrocotyloideae, hold the others. There is much overlapregarding diagnostic characteristics, and so each genera usually contain one species, and aresaid to be monotypic. A concise ‘History of Classification’ is given by Lincoln Constance,1971.
  • * * * POLLINATION * * *The umbels are unique in their floral uniformity. They encourage free pollination byunspecialized pollinators, an interesting evolutionary adaptation. The effects of this promiscuouspollination allow it to increase its natural distribution, and thus colonies new habitats easily.The majority of insects are attracted by the copious quantities of nectar, which is prolongedwhen the stigmas become receptive, sometime after the anthers have ripened. Thestyolopodium is also often large and brightly coloured, attracting by sight. In others, the outerpetals found on the peripheral rim, are larger, and said to radiate, the innerdisc may have smaller petals, and be coloured yellow, or purple, thus giving the effect of asingle composite flower. This acts as a decoy for insects that might not normally visitumbellifereae.2-300 pollinators and visitors have been recorded, the commonest being Diptera, (flies gnats,thrips, mosquitoes) smaller Coleoptera beetles, and Hymenoptera, (ants and small tonguedbees) In a few species, the basal half of the infolded petal is erect and forms a corolla tube itlimits access to short tongued Hymemnoptera.There are usually male flowers in lateral umbels, below the terminal hermaphroditeumbel. The hermaphrodite flowers contain an extra pollen reservoir, ensuring the successof these early flowering parts to pollinate. The male flower’s later, ensuring out breeding& discouraging self pollination.*** SEED DISPERSAL ***Hooked spines on many fruits act as a special aid for dispersal by mammals. Othershave broad lateral wings, for dispersal by the wind. The aquatic species have fruitswith hollow spongy interiors, allowing them to float.*** BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION * * * Kingdom : Eukaryota Divisions : Spermatophyta Subdivision : Angiosperm Class : Dicotyledon Sub class : Rosidae Family : Umbelliferae
  • * * * LEAF MORPHOLOGY * * ** * * GENERAL BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION * * *TYPE/Habbit : annual, biennial, perennial herbs or woody shrubs.WORLDWIDE NO. : 1,400 species in 180 Genera.AROMA: often pungent or aromatic.ROOTS: either tap root or fusiform, branched.STEMS: stout. Furrowed, pith wide and soft or internodes hollow.UMBELS : usually compound, sometimes simple, rarely capitates or very reduced andcyamose .Solitary flowers surrounded by a whorl of bracts, supported on numerous raysarising from the same point. Some uni-rayed, some sessile. Umbels terminal, the oldesthaving largest number of rays, with long peduncle. Later umbels are lateral. Pedunclesometimes absent.
  • LEAVES : much divided leaves, x 2-3, entire in Bupleurum. Scattered, alternate,usually exstipulate, segments may be entire, toothed, or pinnatifid. Petiole sheathing at thebase.Venation pinnate, in Bupleurum some parallel.COTYLEDONS : tapering at the base or contracted into a petiole. Seedlings of perennial& biennial develop rosette of leaves, earliest less divided than upper.BRACTS : bracts and bracteoles usually present, whorled. Bracts appearat point where rays arise from peduncle.FLOWERS : small, white or yellow sometimes pink, rarely blue. Hermaphroditeor unisexual, with nectar. Often strongly protandrous. 7-12 flowers on one ray. Calyxteeth small, sometimes unequal and 0. 5 sepals. 5 petals, valvate or slightly. imbrecate,hairy or papillose beneath, often notched with an inflexed or incurved point. Oil canal alongmiddle of petal. Outer petals at periphary of umbel are larger and radiate, otherwise theyare actinomorphic. Ovary inferior, 2 chambered, ovules pendant, solitary in each cell, pericarphas 5 vascular bundles in each carpel. Ovary has nectar secreting disc at its summit, fromwhich two styles arise. 2 erect or curving styles, often with an enlarged base : stylopodium.5 stamen, alternating with the petals, inflexed in bud. Filaments may be < or > than petals.Anthers > than wide, attached to filaments at middle of the back. Stigma is unthickened /globose knob or capitate.FRUIT : dry, 2 united, 1 seeded capsules : indehiscent, joined by a narrow or broadconirnisure. Carpels adnate to or suspended from a slender simple or divided axis : bif Idcarpophore, which lies between two vittae. Carpels 1 at back of flower 1 at front, crownedby a fleshy disk, semi circular in cross section or compressed either dorsally, at rightangles to commisure or laterally compressed. Carpels sometimes have distinct beak, acontinuation of the carpel. When ripe it splits into two parts, which hang from central stalk,each known as a mericarp. Surface sometimes hairy, with papillae / straight or hooked spinesor bristles, arising from ridges. Surface Is ridged and ducted, most prominently 5 or 9ribbed and generally with 4 resinous canals : vittae, between the primary ridges, (rarely in them)and 2 on the commisure face, holding aromatic or poisonous oils.Harvest:Carrots can be harvested as soon as they turn orange. Harvesting can last up to three weeks.For fall crops, heavy old straw mulching can keep the carrots throughout the winter. Springcrops will have to be harvested in their entirety before consistent hot temperatures as the latterwill deteriorate the taste.Parsley, chervil, cilantro, and dill can be harvested as soon as the plants are of large enoughsize to allow for the removal of outer branches. Hot summer weather can turn the taste bitter, soplant these where they will get some shade during the warmer parts of the growing season orplan to plant both in spring and fall.Subfamily : Hydrocotyloideae : (Hydrocotyle).Leaves simple, with scarious stipules. Flowers in simple umbels / whorls, or solitary. Ovary withflat disc. Fruit with woody endocarp, no vittae, at least when mature. Carpophore absent.
  • Chromosome No. 8. Wide distribution, S. HemisphereSubfamily : Saniculoideae (Sanicula, Astrantia, Eryngium).Leaves simple / palmately lobed, no stipule. Flowers in simple umbels or capitula. Ovary withflat disc. Fruit with membranous endocarp. Carpophore absent. Chromosome No. 8. Widedistribution.Subfamily : Apioideae : (All Other Genera)Leaves much divided, no stiplues. Flowers in compound umbels.Ovary with prominent stylopodium. Fruit with membranous endocarp.Chromosme No. 11. Cosmopolitan, abundant in N hemisphere.
  • * * * CORIANDER * * ** * * SYNONYMS * * *Coriander fruits, Dhaniya, Fructus Coriandri* * * BIOLOGICAL SOURCE * * * These are the fully dried ripe fruits of the plant known as Coriandrum sativum Linn. The fruitsshould contain not less than 0.3% of the volatile oil.* * * GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCE * * *Coriander is indigenous to Italy. Plant is cultivated throughout European countries, principally inRussia, Hungary and Holland. It is also cultivated in India, Egypt, China, Bangladesh andMorocco.* * * HABITAT * * *Coriander thrives in well-drained, fertile, deep, and medium to heavy soil. Coriander toleratescold and heat, but does require full sunlight and watering during dry periods. Grow coriander ina location that is protected from the wind, as the plants are susceptible to being blown overwhen they are top-heavy with seeds. Coriander does not transplant well, so sow seeds directlyin the garden. Keep area free of weeds. The plants grow fast, and flower and go to seed quicklyin hot weather. Leaf production stops once the plant flowers. Generally pest-free, butsusceptible to fungus diseases, especially in moist, rainy conditions and if the soil is too rich innitrogen. Also liable to root rot, if the soil is poorly drained.Gerard described it as follows: The common kind of Coriander is a very striking herb; it has a round stalk full of branches, two feet long. The leaves are almost like the leaves of the parsley, but later on become jagged, almost like the leaves of Fumitorie, but a great deal smaller and tenderer. The flowers are white and grow in round tassels like Dill.
  • * * * CULTIVATION & COLLECTION * * *Coriander is an annual herb with erect stems, about 0.7m high with small white or pinkishflowers. They are cultivated as kharif as well as rabi crop. It needs light to heavy black soil.About 15 to 2 Kg of fruits/hectare are required for cultivation. It is sown by drilling method.Before sowing the fruits are rubbed till the two mericarps are separated and sown eitherbroadcast or in rows. The crop requires 2 or 3 weedings and the field is irritated wheneverrequired. Fruits are collected when ripe and dried. Aromatic odour is developed on drying thefruits. Crop is ready for harvesting after 100 days of growth. Dont over fertilize, as too muchnitrogen delays the ripening of the fruits (seeds) and diminishes their flavor. The plants are thenpulled out by the roots and after drying, the fruits are threshed out. They are further dried in thesun, winnowed and stored in bags. Sow seeds every 3 weeks for a continuous supply ofcilantro (leaves). J-16, J-214, K-45 and New Pusa are few of the improved varieties ofcoriander.* * * MACROSCOPIC CHARACTERS * * * Colour: Yellowish brown to brown Odour: Aromatic Taste: Spicy and characteristic Size: Fruits are 2-4 mm in diameter and 4-30 mm in length Shape: Coriander is a sub-globular cremocarpous fruit. Cremocarps consists of two hemispherical mericarps united by their margins. Two divergent styles are present on the apex.About 10 primary ridges and 8 secondary ridges are present.Primary ridges are wavy and inconspicious, while secondary ridges are straight. It is furtherdescribed as an endospermic and coelospermic fruit. The weight of 100 fruits is approximately1g.Fresh plant emits very disagreeable odour on rubbing.* * * MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERS * * *The epidermis of pericarp is made up of polygonal tubular cells with stomata. Several epidermalcells contain prisms of calcium oxalate. Mesocarp consists of inner and outer layer of
  • parenchyma with a layer of sclerenchyma in between them. Inner epidermis of pericarp consistsof parquetry cells.The seed is characteristic to umbelliferous fruits. Starch grains, trichomes and lignified reticulateparenchyma absent. Fixed oil globules are present in the endosperm, while volatile oil in thevittae. Aleurone grains are present in polygonal thick walled cellulose parenchyma ofendosperm.* * * CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS * * *Coriander yields from 0.3-1% of volatile oil. The fixed oil (13%) and proteins (20%) are the othercontents of the drug. Volatile oil of the drug contains 90% of D-linalool (coriandrol), pinene, andcoriandryl acetate. Small quantities of L-borneol, geraniol, p-cymene, dipentene, phellandrene,terpinolene, hydrocarbons such as alpha and beta-terpinene, n-decyclic aldehyde, malic acid,esters of of acetic and decyclic acids, tannins and mucilage are also present. Coriander leavesare rich in Vitamin A content. The fruit yields 5-7% ash. The seed also contain fatty oils (19-20%) which is a mixture of glycerides of palmitic, oleic, linoleic and petroselinic acids. Duringordinary storage of crude drug, the volatile oil composition alters considerably.Coriander oil is pale yellow liquid having specific gravity of 0.863-0.875, refractive index 1.462-1.472, and optical rotation of +8 to +15 degree.* * * USES * * * Culinary uses: Add fresh, tender, young cilantro to salads, and use for garnishing. Coriander seeds are a vital ingredient of curry powder. Ground coriander is used commercially to flavor baked goods and processed meats, while the oil extracted from the seeds is used in the preparation of canned soups, sauces, candy, chewing gum, ice cream, liqueurs, gin, and even tobacco products. A new assessment has concluded that coriander essential oil is safe for use in foods. Craft uses: Include fragrant coriander seeds in potpourris and sachets. Medicinal Uses: Coriander seed oil is an aromatic stimulant, a carminative (remedial in flatulence), an antibilious, diuretic, tonic, stomachic, refrigerant, antispasmodic, appetizer and aphrodisiac. It is generally beneficial to the nervous system. The powdered fruit, fluid extract and oil are mainly used as flavouring agent to mask foul medicines, especially purgatives, where it has anti-griping qualities. The herb is used against piles, headache and swellings; the fruit in colic, piles and conjunctivitis; the essential oil in colic, rheumatism and neuralgia; the seeds as a paste for mouth ulceration and a
  • poultice for other ulcers. Coriander water was formerly much esteemed as a carminative for windy colic.Recent studies have supported its use as a stomach soother for both adults and colicky babies.Coriander contains an antioxidant that helps prevent animal fats from turning rancid. It alsocontains substances that kill meat-spoiling bacteria and fungi. These same substances inCilantro also prevent infection in wounds. Coriander has been shown to improve tummy troublesof all kinds, from indigestion to flatulence to diarrhea. Weak coriander tea may be given tochildren under age 2 for colic. Its safe for infants and may relieve their pain. Cilantro andCoriander contain substances that kill certain bacteria and fungi, thereby preventing infectionsfrom developing in wounds. Intriguing new studies suggest that coriander has anti-inflammatoryeffects so are applied externally for arthritis and painful joints. Coriander water was formerlymuch esteemed as a carminative for windy colic.* * * PRODUCTS * * *It is an ingredient of compound spirit of orange and cascara elixir. It is an ingredient of thefollowing compound preparations of the Pharmacopceia: confection, syrup and tincture ofsenna, and tincture and syrup of Rhubarb, and enters also into compounds with angelicagentian, jalap, quassia and lavender. As a corrigent to senna, it is considered superior to otheraromatics.Coriander water was formerly much esteemed as a carminative for windy colic.* * * PREPARATION * * *Powdered fruit: dose, 10 to 60 grains. Fluid extract, 5 to 30 drops. B.P.: dose, 1/2 to 3 drops.* * * STORAGE * * *Coriander fruits are thoroughly dried and stored in well closed container, as they are highlyprone to insects, away from light and heat. The flavor will begin to diminish after about 6months. Use within 1 year.* * * PACKAGING * * *Coriander is packaged in jute fabric bags (30 kg), during transportation.* * * SUBSTITUTES * * *
  • It is substituted by Bombay Coriander fruits, which contain less volatile oil and are ellipsoidal inshape.* * * DRUG INTERACTIONS & PRECAUTIONS * * * Known Interactions: The oxytocic-like action of coriander may produce neonatal jaundice which would interfere with serum bilirubin test results. Possible Interactions: Allopurinol has been tentatively shown to increase the half life of anticoagulants.* * * TOXICITY * * *Based on the history of consumption of coriander oil without reported adverse effects, lack of itstoxicity in limited studies and lack of toxicity of its major constituent, linalool, the use of corianderoil as an added food ingredient is considered safe at present levels of use.
  • * * * CONIUM ***Conium means small genus of highly toxic perennial.* * * SYNONYMS ***genus conium,poison parsley,poison hemlock* * * MERONYMS ***Members of conium:California fern,conium maculatum , hemlock* * * BIOLOGICAL SOURCE * * *Conium is a genus of two species of highly poisonous perennial herbaceous flowering plantknown as conium maculatum.* * * GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCE * * *It is found in disturbed or waste areas such as roadsides and the edges of cultivated fields.Poison hemlock was introduced into North America from Europe and is and can be found in allareas of the U.S. except for dessert areas. Poison hemlock can be found growing in the samekind of habitats as the water hemlock. conium maculatum, a Eurasian weed naturalized in NorthAmerica, contains high concentrations of piperidine alkaloids that act as chemical defensesagainst herbivores.Conium maculatum is a highly toxic weed found in waste places throughout much of the world.* * * HABITAT * * *It reproduces only from seed. Some poison hemlock seeds germinate in the fall, producingflowers until the second spring. Poison hemlock can be easily controlled with the herbicide 2,4-
  • D. No effective biological control techniques are known, but mechanical removal (hand pulling,grubbing, or mowing) is effective if done prior to floweringconium maculatum "commonly occurs in sizable stands of dense, rank growth alongroadsides, field margins, ditchbanks and in low-lying waste areas. It also invades native plantcommunities in riparian woodlands and open flood plains of rivers and streams in southernCalifornia" (Goeden and Ricker 1982) and other regions in the state. It is common on shady ormoist ground below 5000 feet, especially in cismontane California.* * * CULTIVATION AND COLLECTION * * * Hemlock (Conium maculatum) was occasionally deliberately grown as a medicinal herb in thepast, even though it is highly poisonous. It is generally considered a weed of gardens thesedays. The Poisonous Hemlock does not require any maintenance to grow and should beeradicated upon sight.* * * ACTIVE INGREDIENTS * * * The special and characteristic medicinal substance contained in hemlock is a peculiar alkaloid,called coniine, N-methyl coniine, conhydrine, lambda-coniceine, and pseudoconhydrine.Of the total alkaloids of hemlock isolated by the method of Chemnitius and fractionally distilled,the portion boiling up to 190 °C contains most of the coniine, γ-coniceine and N-methylconiine,while conhydrine and ψ-conhydrine remain in the higher boiling residues. For the separation ofconiine from coniceine, Wolffenstein recommends conversion into hydrochlorides. These aredried and extracted with acetone, which dissolves coniceine hydrochloride, leaving the coniinesalt, from which the base may then be regenerated.* * * MACROSCOPIC CHARACTER * * * Colour: dark green Odour: unpleasent Taste: exteremly poisonous. Size : 5-8 ft Shape: leaves are mostly triangular. Flowers: clustered umbels up to 10-15 cm.* * * MEDICINAL ACTION AND USES * * *As a medicine, Conium is sedative and antispasmodic, and in sufficient doses acts as aparalyser to the centres of motion. In its action it is, therefore, directly antagonistic to that of
  • Strychnine, and hence it has been recommended as an antidote to Strychnine poisoning,Hemlock juice (Succus conii) is prescribed as a remedy in cases of undue nervous motorexcitability, such as teething in children, epilepsy from dentition. cramp, in the early stages ofparalysis agitans, in spasms of the larynx and gullet, in acute mania, The drug has to beadministered with care, as narcotic poisoning may result from internal use, and overdosesproduce paralysis. Hemlock was formerly believed to exercise an alterative effect in scrofulousdisorders. Both the Greek and Arabian physicians were in the practice of using it for the cure ofindolent tumours, swellings and pains of the joints, Baron Storch was the first to call theattention of medical men to its use, both externally and internally, for the cure of cancerous andother ulcers, and in the form of a poultice or ointment it has been found a very valuableapplication to relieve pain in these cases.In the case of poisoning by Hemlock, the antidotes are tannic acid, stimulants and coffee,emetics of zinc, or mustard and castor oil, and, if necessary, artificial respiration. It is essentialto keep up the temperature of the body.* * * PRESERVATION * * *The walls are thick and the costae are apparent in poorly-preserved grains. So it can bepreserved easily with rich amount of constituents.* * * PREPARATION * * * Powdered leaves 1 to 3 grains. Fluid extract of leaves, 5 to 10 drops. Fluid extract of seeds, 2to 5 drops. Tincture seeds, B.P., 1/2 to 1 drachm. Juice of leaves, B.P., 1 to 2 drachms. Solidextract, 2 to 6 grains. Ointment, B.P.* * * TOXICITY ***"It has been shown that the predominant alkaloid in the plant changes with stage ofdevelopment, and even from hour to hour, that the total amount of alkaloid varies with the stageof growth and part of plant and with geographic area, the plants from southern latitudes beingheld more poisonous on the average than northern-grown ones. Variability in toxicity of this kindmay explain the fact that in experimental feedings of a cow in Texas, Conium was found toproduce symptoms but not death at about two percent of the animals weight and did notproduce death even at almost 4 percent. Coniine is volatile and is lost slowly from Conium whiledrying. The hemlock alkaloids are present in least amount in the root. As the plant grows, theyaccumulate in the stem, leaves, and fruits, being greater in amount in these organs in the orderlisted and in each reaching a maximum just prior to maturation of the seeds. Concentrations oftotal alkaloids as high as 1.6 percent have been measured in the green seed" (Kingsbury 1964).
  • * * * SYMPTOMS * * *Conium alkaloids are structurally related to nicotine and function similarly. "In addition tonicotinic activity, coniine also exhibits curare-like actions, and it paralyzes the striatedmusculature starting at the legs and rising until finally, while still fully conscious, death takesplace as a result of respiratory paralysis" (Frohne and Pfander 1983)Treatment; Frohne and Pfander (1983) recommend "measures to prevent absorption of thepoison (elicit vomiting, gastric lavage, activated charcoal), strychnine in small doses (2 mg/h),and in the case of respiratory arrest, artificial respiration."* * * PRECAUTION * * *If the solution changes color or becomes cloudy.If the condition is accompained by fever.If new symptoms occur, or if redness or swelling is present, the patient should be carefully re-evaluated because these could be signs of a serious condition.
  • *** DISCUSSION ***UMBELLIFERAE (now known as APIACEAE) is a family of plant which flower (umbels) havespecial characteristic shape like UMBERELLA FLOWER. This family mainly consist of herbs soon that basis it is also known as PARSELY FAMILY. This family contain mostly plant withhollow stem. They are biennial (once every two years) or perennial (last three season or more).Plant coriander commonly known as Dhania. Fully riped dry fruits are known as Coriandrumsativum Linn. Largely cultivated in India ,Pakistan, China and Bangladesh. It has spicy andcharacteristic odour and colour brown to yellowish brown.shape of coriander is sub. Globular.Due to spicy taste coriander is widely used as spice, and fresh coriander leaves is used ingarnishing and to enhance the taste of food. Medicilnal uses of coriander are, carminative,diuretic, refrigerant , antispasmodic, and stomach soother due to the presence of 0.3-1% ofvolatile oil (90% of D-linalool (coriandrol), pinene, and coriandryl acetate) , fixed oil (13%) andproteins (20%). The seed also contain fatty oils (19-20%) which is a mixture of glycerides ofpalmitic, oleic, linoleic and petroselinic acids.Plant conium maculatum is a poisonous plant. Mostly found in shadow and moist places ofNorth America, and all areas of U.S. Conium is an herbaceous biennial plant. it is generallyconsider as a weed, but in past it was cultivated as herb.the most active ingredient is peculiaralkaloid, called coniine, which has similar structure to nicotine. Conium maculatum is used as asedative , antispasmodic, paralyser to the centre of motion.
  • *** REFERENCES ***