Strongest Influences on Students 1950 1. Home 2. School 3. Church 4. Peers 5. TV 1990 1. Peers 2. TV 3. Home 4. School 5. Church Source: Michigan State University study, 1990
Government Spending & Social Problems (U.S. from 1960Ð1990) 500% increase in spending on social problems ¥ Violent crime rose 500% ¥ Births outside marriage rose 400% ¥ Divorce rose 400% ¥ Children living in single parent homes rose 300% ¥ Teenage suicides rose 200% Source: William Bennett, speech ÒSearch for A New World CultureÓ to conference, Washington, D.C., Apr 23, 1997
Characteristics of ÒNon-DirectiveÓ Education 1. Emphasizes feelings and process over knowledge and content 2. Promotes self-determined standards and choices 3. Teacher as facilitator of studentsÕ personal choice
Characteristics of ÒNon-DirectiveÓ Education 4. Rejects the authority of traditional moral teaching 5. Undermines the parentsÕ role in education
Early Appeal of Non-Directive Education 1. Used interactive methodology 2. Supported by the science of its time 3. Coincided with the loss of confidence in traditional values 4. Seemed to promote tolerance
Limitations of Values Clarification 1. Does not teach standards of right and wrong ¥ No moral basis upon which to make wise choices 2. Encourages mediocrity and lack of commitment 3. Does not build good character
Myths 1. Self-esteem is a right 2. Self-esteem prevents moral and social problems 3. Self-esteem must be protected from guilt
Theorists of School Reform Later Disavow Non-Directive Education Declared their methods inappropriate for children and classrooms Source: William Kilpatrick, Why Johnny CanÕt Tell Right from Wrong, 1992
U.S. Policy Recognizes Limitations of Non-Directive Methods Rejects Òopen-ended decision-making, values clarification and therapeuticÉ strategiesÓ in drug abuse education Source: U.S. Dept. of Education guidelines for drug prevention education, 1988 Mandates federal funding for directive abstinence-oriented sex education Source: Act of Congress, 1996
Attempt to Foster Moral Development Ð The ÒMoral ReasoningÓ Approach Strengths Recognizes hierarchy of values & moral development Limitations 1. Tends to equate moral character with rationality 2. Neglects cultivation of moral feeling and will
Why Moral & Ethical Education Was Neglected 1. Rise of moral relativism ¥ All values subjective 2. Increasing pluralism ¥ Unclear whose values should be taught 3. Confusion that teaching values was promoting religion
Normal & healthy Controlling it is normal & healthy
Moral & Ethical Education Recognizes Universal Values
Criteria for Universal Values 1. Objective benefits for individuals and society 2. Universal validity ¥ Reversibility Ð Is good if another does it to oneself ¥ Generalizability Ð Is good if everyone does it 3. Compelling to the conscience 4. Transcending cultures
Ethics Ð Balance of Love & Rules Love Seeks harmony Compassionate Forgiving Rules Regulatory Fair Uncompromising
Morals Goal — Loving Relationships & Family Strong marriages Effective parenting Ethical practice living for higher purpose
Family in Crisis ¥ Spouse and child abuse ¥ Infidelity ¥ Divorce
Priority of Moral & Ethical Education
Part 3. What Is a Balanced Education?
Goals of Education 1. Mature character 2. Ethical & loving relationships 3. Productive citizens
Romance by itself Insufficient foundation for the enduring love needed to sustain marriages and families
Good Character Inner disposition conducive to right conduct ¥ Attitudes and habits ¥ For the purpose of loving
Heart Ð Core of Character Pursues true love
Cultivation of Heart 1. Cultivation of moral feeling ¥ Empathy ¥ Loving motivation ¥ Love of goodness 2. Learning through experiences of love ¥ Gaining the capacity to love through family life 3. Training in good character ¥ Develop self-control ¥ Strengthen the conscience 4. Internalizing moral standards 5. Valuing people and respecting things
Moral Goal — Creating a Prosperous Society Technical mastery Community service Concern for the environment
Dear Teacher, I am a survivor of a concentration camp. My eyes saw what no man should witness: gas chambers built by learned engineers, children poisoned by learned physicians, infants killed by trained nurses, women and babies shot and burned by high school and college graduates. So, I am suspicious of education.
My request is: Help your students become human. Your efforts must never produce learned monsters, skilled psychopaths, educated Eichmanns. Reading, writing, arithmetic are important only if they serve to make our children more human.
1960s Ð Breakdown of Traditional Values 1. Decline of adult moral authority 2. Rise of selfish individualism and moral relativism
What Is the Crisis in American Education?
Traditional Role of Education 1. Passing on knowledge and cultural values 2. Teaching moral standards and social responsibilities 3. Preparing good citizens
Explosion of Destructive Youth Behavior Since 1940s 1940s School Problems 1. Talking out of turn 2. Chewing gum 3. Making noise 4. Running indoors 5. Getting out of line 6. Improper clothing 7. Littering 1990s School Problems 1. Drug abuse 2. Alcohol abuse 3. Pregnancy 4. Suicide 5. Rape 6. Robbery 7. Assault Source: William J. Bennett et al., Index of Leading Cultural indicators, Empower America, Mar. 1993
U.S. Education Ð Founded with Moral Purposes Morality and knowledge considered essential to a good society 1. Schools actively promoted good character and citizenship 2. Earliest universities Ð Established by religious organizations ¥ Harvard ¥ Yale ¥ Georgetown