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zooplantons

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  • 1. RABIYA NASIR M.PHIL STUDENT INSTITUTE OF MARINE SCIENCE
  • 2. ZOOPLANKTONS OF MARINE ECOSYSTEM
  • 3. * OBJECTIVES: :Be able to define zooplankton. :Be familiar with the major. groups of zooplankton and their characteristics. :Explain the benefits of zooplankton. :Explain how certain zooplankton can gauge reproductive success.
  • 4. CLASSIFICATION OF MARINE ORGANISMS: • Plankton (floaters) • Nekton (swimmers) • Benthos (bottom dwellers)
  • 5. PLANKTONS: Plankton (singular plankter) are any organisms that live in the water column and are incapable of swimming against a current . They provide a crucial source of food to many large aquatic organisms , such as fish and whales.
  • 6. These organisms include drifting animals, protists , archaea , algae, or bacteria that inhabit the pelagic zone of oceans, seas, or bodies of fresh water. That is, plankton are defined by their ecological niche rather than phylogenetic or taxonomic classification.
  • 7. ZOOPLANKTON *Planktonic animals can be found in almost all animal phyla *Most zooplankton belong to 3 major groups: rotifers, Cladocera , and Copepoda
  • 8. *One other group may, at times, be important: Protozoa *Spend only portion of lives in plankton (mostly sediment-dwelling) *Feed on bacteria, detritus (little used by other zooplankton)
  • 9. IMPORTANT ZOOPLANKTON GROUPS: *Protozoa Ciliates, Amoebae *Rotifera *Copepods *Gelatinous Zooplankton *Invertebrate and Vertebrate Larvae
  • 10. Protozoa *Single cell organisms. *Primarily feed on bacteria and phytoplankton. *Capable of reproducing rapidly due to small size. *Most species capable of forming cysts Microzooflagellates, ciliates, amoebae.
  • 11. Ciliates and Amoebae
  • 12. ROTIFERA:  Typically referred to as “Rotifers”  “sloppy feeders” on phytoplankton and other zooplankton  recycle nutrient via feeding and fecal pellets  parthenogenic eggs
  • 13. Rotifers:  Mostly littoral, sessile, but some are completely planktonic  May be dominant zooplankton in some lakes  Omnivorous, small (<12 µm)  Filter-feeding with corona
  • 14. ROTIFER USE BY FISH  Too small to be important as food for most fish  May be important in diets of some larval fish  Rotifers are potential prey for predatory copepods  Vertical migration upward at midday to avoid copepods
  • 15. COPEPODS: • “Sloppy feeder” on phytoplankton and other zooplankton • Major source of food for larval fish • Recycles nutrients via feeding and fecal pellets
  • 16. COPEPODA: • Microcrustaceans in same size range as cladocerans • Several different groups based on differences in body structure • 2 major groups: cyclopoids and calanoids
  • 17. COPEPODA: • Cyclopoids - short 1st antennae • Cyclopoids - most are littoral, but few are open-water planktonic forms • All seize food particles and bring them to mouth raptorial
  • 18. COPEPODA:
  • 19. GELATINOUS ZOOPLANKTON: • Commonly referred to as jellyfish • Most have stinging cells called cnidocytes but some are filter feeders • May be permanent of temporary members of the plankton
  • 20. CTENOPHORES: • Cteno means comb: sometimes called comb jellies • Gelatinous filter feeding organisms- no stinging cells • May be bioluminescent • Common in the Bay in the early Spring
  • 21. COMB JELLIES:
  • 22. CNIDARIANS: • Stinging cells • Chrysaora quinequecirrha • Stinging and feeding tentacles • Male and female forms • “jelly” is the sexual stage of the life cycle and is called the medusa stage
  • 23. OTHER CNIDARIANS HYDROMEDUSA, PORTUGESE MAN-O-WAR
  • 24. LARVAE OF INVERTEBRATE AND VERTEBRATE ANIMALS • Temporary members of the plankton • Invertebrates are animals without backbones: worms, oysters, crabs • Vertebrates are animals with backbones: fish
  • 25. They aren’t always “small!” Some large gelatinous zooplankton: (c) A colony of salps (Pegea) cloned from a single parent.
  • 26. BARNACLES: BENTHIC SESSILE Barnacles: benthic sessile crustacean CRUSTACEAN
  • 27. Cnidaria (siphonophora)
  • 28. FLOATING ZOOPLANKTON: • Microscopic zooplankton have shells or tests. –Radiolarians –Foraminifers –Copepods
  • 29. LIFE CYCLES IN ZOOPLANKTON • Holoplankton: spend entire life in the water column (pelagic) • Meroplankton: spend only part of their life in the pelagic environment, mostly larval forms of invertebrates and fish • Ichthyoplankton: fish eggs and fish larvae
  • 30. SEASONAL: • Maximum in the spring – Temperate areas (spring, fall, summer, winter) – Polar areas (spring, summer, fall, winter) – Food supply (concentration and type) – Life cycle of the zooplankter
  • 31. EXCRETION: • Release of soluble material – Ammonia (Urea, free amino acids, DOC) – Younger stages excrete more per unit weight (Not total volume) – Decreases with temperature – Related to grazing