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    Master oral uk Master oral uk Document Transcript

    • MASTER _ ORAL _ By Captain _ SAMSON A. _ SAFETY MANAGEMENTA. _ SAFETY MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGEKNOWLEDGE OF SOLAS CHAPTER IX, RESOLUTIONOF SOLAS CHAPTER IX, RESOLUTION 741(18)741(18) SOLAS chapter IX is the Management for the safe operation of ships. The purposeSOLAS chapter IX is the Management for the safe operation of ships. The purpose of this chapter is to implementing of ISM Code. International safety managementof this chapter is to implementing of ISM Code. International safety management Code means the ISM Code is to provide safe Management and operation of shipsCode means the ISM Code is to provide safe Management and operation of ships and for pollution prevention adopted by the organization by resolution A. 741(18),and for pollution prevention adopted by the organization by resolution A. 741(18), as amended by MSC.104 (73). The ISM Code is to take the necessary steps toas amended by MSC.104 (73). The ISM Code is to take the necessary steps to safeguard the shipmaster in the proper discharge of his responsibilities with regardsafeguard the shipmaster in the proper discharge of his responsibilities with regard to maritime safety and the protection of the marine environment.to maritime safety and the protection of the marine environment.
    • __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ CONTENTS OF ISM CODECONTENTS OF ISM CODE 1. General:1. General: - Definitions- Definitions - Objectives- Objectives - Application- Application - Functional requirements for a safety management system _- Functional requirements for a safety management system _ 2. Safety and environmental protection policy2. Safety and environmental protection policy 3. Company responsibilities and authority3. Company responsibilities and authority 4. Designated Person4. Designated Person 5. Master’s responsibility and authority5. Master’s responsibility and authority 6. Resources and personnel6. Resources and personnel 7. Development of plans for shipboard operations7. Development of plans for shipboard operations 8. Emergency Preparedness8. Emergency Preparedness 9. Reports and analysis of non-conformities, accidents and9. Reports and analysis of non-conformities, accidents and hazardous occurrenceshazardous occurrences 10. Maintenance of the ship and equipment10. Maintenance of the ship and equipment 11. Documentation11. Documentation 12. Company verification, Review and Evaluation12. Company verification, Review and Evaluation 13. Certification and periodical verification13. Certification and periodical verification 14. Interim Certification14. Interim Certification 15. Vérification15. Vérification 16.16. FormsForms ofof CertificatesCertificates
    • ISM CODE APPLIES _ISM CODE APPLIES _ 1. Passenger ships/passenger high-speed craft, oil/chemical tankers, gas/bulk1. Passenger ships/passenger high-speed craft, oil/chemical tankers, gas/bulk carrier and cargo high-speed craft of 500 GT and upwards – 1carrier and cargo high-speed craft of 500 GT and upwards – 1stst Jul 98.Jul 98. 2. Other cargo ships and mobile offshore drilling units (MODU) of 500 GT and2. Other cargo ships and mobile offshore drilling units (MODU) of 500 GT and upwards – 01 July 2002.upwards – 01 July 2002. OBJECTIVE _OBJECTIVE _ 1. Safety at sea1. Safety at sea 2. Prevention of human injury or loss of life2. Prevention of human injury or loss of life 3. Avoidance of damage to the environment3. Avoidance of damage to the environment 4. Avoidance of damage to the property4. Avoidance of damage to the property MASTER’S RESPONSIBITY AND AUTHORITY:MASTER’S RESPONSIBITY AND AUTHORITY: The company should clearly define and document the master’s responsibilityThe company should clearly define and document the master’s responsibility with regard to:with regard to: 1. Implementing the safety and environmental-protection policy of the Cie;1. Implementing the safety and environmental-protection policy of the Cie; 2. Motivating the crew in the observation of that policy;2. Motivating the crew in the observation of that policy; 3. Issuing appropriate orders and instructions in a clear and simple manner;3. Issuing appropriate orders and instructions in a clear and simple manner; 4. Verifying that specified requirements are observed; and4. Verifying that specified requirements are observed; and 5. Reviewing the SMS and reporting its deficiencies to the shore-based5. Reviewing the SMS and reporting its deficiencies to the shore-based management.management. The company should ensure that the SMS operating on board the ship containsThe company should ensure that the SMS operating on board the ship contains a clear statement emphasizing the master’s authority. The company shoulda clear statement emphasizing the master’s authority. The company should establish in the SMS that the master has the overriding authority and theestablish in the SMS that the master has the overriding authority and the responsibility to make decisions with respect to safety and pollution prevention andresponsibility to make decisions with respect to safety and pollution prevention and to request the company’s assistance as may be necessary.to request the company’s assistance as may be necessary. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESSEMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS 1. The Company should establish procedures to identify describe and respond1. The Company should establish procedures to identify describe and respond to potential emergency shipboard situations.to potential emergency shipboard situations. 2. The company should establish programme for drills and exercises to2. The company should establish programme for drills and exercises to prepare for emergency actions.prepare for emergency actions. 3 The SMS should provide for measures ensuring that the company’s3 The SMS should provide for measures ensuring that the company’s organization can respond at any time to hazards, accidents and emergencyorganization can respond at any time to hazards, accidents and emergency situations involving its ships.situations involving its ships. CERTIFICATION AND VERIFICATIONCERTIFICATION AND VERIFICATION DOCUMENT OF COMPLIANCEDOCUMENT OF COMPLIANCE should be issued by the Administrations to the anyshould be issued by the Administrations to the any Company complying with the requirements of ISM Code for a period which shouldCompany complying with the requirements of ISM Code for a period which should not exceednot exceed fivefive years _ the validity of a Document of Compliance should be subjectyears _ the validity of a Document of Compliance should be subject to annual verification by the Administration within three months before or after theto annual verification by the Administration within three months before or after the anniversary date. The Document of Compliance should be withdrawn by theanniversary date. The Document of Compliance should be withdrawn by the Administration if annual verification is not requested or if there is evidence of majorAdministration if annual verification is not requested or if there is evidence of major non-conformities with this Code. A copy of the Document of Compliance should benon-conformities with this Code. A copy of the Document of Compliance should be placed on board with Master for verification by the Administration.placed on board with Master for verification by the Administration. SAFETY MANAGEMENT CERTIFICATESAFETY MANAGEMENT CERTIFICATE should be issued by the Administration toshould be issued by the Administration to aa ship for a period which should not exceedship for a period which should not exceed fivefive years.years. The S M C should be issued after verifying that the company and its shipboardThe S M C should be issued after verifying that the company and its shipboard management operate in accordance with the approved Safety Management System.management operate in accordance with the approved Safety Management System.
    • Such a certificate should be accepted as evidence that the ship complying with theSuch a certificate should be accepted as evidence that the ship complying with the requirement of this Code. The validity of the Safety Management Certificate shouldrequirement of this Code. The validity of the Safety Management Certificate should be subject to at least one intermediate verification by administration it should takebe subject to at least one intermediate verification by administration it should take place between the second and third anniversary dates of the Safety Managementplace between the second and third anniversary dates of the Safety Management Certificate. The S M C should be withdrawn by Administration if intermediateCertificate. The S M C should be withdrawn by Administration if intermediate verification is not requested or if there is evidence of major non-conformities withverification is not requested or if there is evidence of major non-conformities with this Code.this Code. INTERIM CERTIFICATION _INTERIM CERTIFICATION _ An INTERIM DOCUMENT OF COMPLIANCE may be issued to facilitate initialAn INTERIM DOCUMENT OF COMPLIANCE may be issued to facilitate initial implementation of this Code when:implementation of this Code when: 1. _ A company is newly established1. _ A company is newly established 2. _ New ship types are to be added to an exiting Document of Compliance.2. _ New ship types are to be added to an exiting Document of Compliance. The company has a safety management system and meets full requirementsThe company has a safety management system and meets full requirements of this Code the administration should be issued with Interim Document ofof this Code the administration should be issued with Interim Document of Compliance for a period not exceedingCompliance for a period not exceeding 12 months.12 months. An INTERIM SAFETY MANAGEMENT CERTIFICATE may be issued:An INTERIM SAFETY MANAGEMENT CERTIFICATE may be issued: 1. to new ships on delivery;1. to new ships on delivery; 2. when a Company takes on responsibility for the operation of a ship which2. when a Company takes on responsibility for the operation of a ship which is new to the Company; oris new to the Company; or 3. When a ship changes flag3. When a ship changes flag Such an Interim Safety Management certificate should be issued for a periodSuch an Interim Safety Management certificate should be issued for a period not exceedingnot exceeding 66 monthsmonths by the Administration. In special cases the certificate mayby the Administration. In special cases the certificate may be extend for a furtherbe extend for a further period which should not exceedperiod which should not exceed 6 months6 months from the date offrom the date of expiry. An Interim Safety Management certificate may be issued after followingexpiry. An Interim Safety Management certificate may be issued after following verification:verification: 1. Ship has a Document of Compliance, or the Interim Document of1. Ship has a Document of Compliance, or the Interim Document of ComplianceCompliance 2. The Safety Management System provided by the Company for the ship2. The Safety Management System provided by the Company for the ship concerned.concerned. 3. The Company has planned the audit of the ship within three months.3. The Company has planned the audit of the ship within three months. 4. The master and officers are familiar with the safety management system4. The master and officers are familiar with the safety management system and the planned arrangements for its implementation;and the planned arrangements for its implementation; 5. Instructions, which have been identified as being essential, are provided5. Instructions, which have been identified as being essential, are provided prior to sailing; andprior to sailing; and 6. Relevant information on the safety management system has been given in6. Relevant information on the safety management system has been given in a working language understood by the ship’s personnel.a working language understood by the ship’s personnel. DESIGNATED PERSONSDESIGNATED PERSONS __ To ensure the safe operation of each ship and to provide a link between theTo ensure the safe operation of each ship and to provide a link between the company and those on board, every company, as appropriate, should designate acompany and those on board, every company, as appropriate, should designate a person or persons ashore having direct access to the highest level of management.person or persons ashore having direct access to the highest level of management. The responsibility and authority of the designated person or persons should includeThe responsibility and authority of the designated person or persons should include monitoring the safety and pollution prevention aspects of the operation of each shipmonitoring the safety and pollution prevention aspects of the operation of each ship and ensuring that adequate resources and shore-based support are applied, asand ensuring that adequate resources and shore-based support are applied, as required.required. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ B _B _ PORT STATE CONTROLPORT STATE CONTROL KNOWLEDGE OF GENERAL ASPECTS, RESOLUTION 787(19KNOWLEDGE OF GENERAL ASPECTS, RESOLUTION 787(19)) __
    • Port State Control (PSC) is the control through inspection of foreign ships by aPort State Control (PSC) is the control through inspection of foreign ships by a Coastal State in its ports. This control is exercised for the purpose of verifying that:Coastal State in its ports. This control is exercised for the purpose of verifying that: 1. The condition of the ship and its equipment comply with the requirements of1. The condition of the ship and its equipment comply with the requirements of certain international maritime conventions andcertain international maritime conventions and 2. The ship is manned and operated in compliance with applicable2. The ship is manned and operated in compliance with applicable international laws.international laws. The Flag StateThe Flag State has been given the primary responsibility for ensuring that a shiphas been given the primary responsibility for ensuring that a ship flying their flag should be equipped, operated, maintained and manned inflying their flag should be equipped, operated, maintained and manned in accordance with international maritime conventions.accordance with international maritime conventions. Port State Control Officer (PSCOPort State Control Officer (PSCO):): A person duly authorized by the competentA person duly authorized by the competent authority of a party to a relevantauthority of a party to a relevant convention to carry out port State control inspections, and responsible exclusivelyconvention to carry out port State control inspections, and responsible exclusively to that party.to that party. The purpose ofThe purpose of Flag State ImplementationFlag State Implementation (FSI) document is intended to provide(FSI) document is intended to provide basic guidance on conduct of Port State Control inspections, the re -COGNAZITIONbasic guidance on conduct of Port State Control inspections, the re -COGNAZITION of deficiencies of a ship, its equipment, or its crew and the application of controlof deficiencies of a ship, its equipment, or its crew and the application of control procedures.procedures. The procedures for Port State Control inspections come under the provisions of the:The procedures for Port State Control inspections come under the provisions of the: 1. SOLAS 1974 – Regulation 19 of chapter I, Regulation 4 of chapter XI-11. SOLAS 1974 – Regulation 19 of chapter I, Regulation 4 of chapter XI-1 2. LOAD LINES 1966 – article 212. LOAD LINES 1966 – article 21 3. MARPOL 73/78– Regulation 8A of Annex 1, Regulation 15 of Annex II,3. MARPOL 73/78– Regulation 8A of Annex 1, Regulation 15 of Annex II, Regulation 8 of Annex III and Regulation 8 of Annex V.Regulation 8 of Annex III and Regulation 8 of Annex V. 4. STCW 95 – Article X4. STCW 95 – Article X 5. TONNAGE MEASUREMENT OF SHIPS, 1969 – article 125. TONNAGE MEASUREMENT OF SHIPS, 1969 – article 12 6. MERCHANT SHIPPING MINIMUM STANDARDS, 1976 (ILO NO. 147)6. MERCHANT SHIPPING MINIMUM STANDARDS, 1976 (ILO NO. 147) When can PSC Inspection take place?When can PSC Inspection take place? PSC inspections of ships may be undertaken on the basis of:PSC inspections of ships may be undertaken on the basis of: 1 _ A request of, or on the basis of information regarding a ship provided by1 _ A request of, or on the basis of information regarding a ship provided by another party;another party; 2 _ Information regarding a ship provided by:2 _ Information regarding a ship provided by: •• A member of the crewA member of the crew •• A professional bodyA professional body •• An associationAn association •• A trade unionA trade union •• Any other individual with an interest in the safety of the shipAny other individual with an interest in the safety of the ship its crew and passengers, or the protection of the marine environmentits crew and passengers, or the protection of the marine environment Conduct andConduct and result of PSC Inspection _result of PSC Inspection _ The following steps briefly describe the conduct of inspection by PSCO andThe following steps briefly describe the conduct of inspection by PSCO and possible result of inspections.possible result of inspections. 1._1._ Initial InspectionInitial Inspection: - PSCO inspects certificates on board as required by: - PSCO inspects certificates on board as required by variousvarious Conventions and check if they are in order _Conventions and check if they are in order _ 2._2._ Report in Form AReport in Form A:- if the above are in order and PSCO’s general:- if the above are in order and PSCO’s general impression and visualimpression and visual observation confirm continued compliance, inspection will endobservation confirm continued compliance, inspection will end and PSCO will issue a Report (using Form A) of inspection in which observedand PSCO will issue a Report (using Form A) of inspection in which observed deficiencies will be reported.deficiencies will be reported. 3._3._ More detailed inspectionMore detailed inspection: An inspection conducted when there are clear: An inspection conducted when there are clear grounds forgrounds for believing that the condition of the ship, its equipment, or its crew doesbelieving that the condition of the ship, its equipment, or its crew does not correspond substantially with the particulars of the certificates.not correspond substantially with the particulars of the certificates. 4._4._ Clear GroundClear Ground: Evidence that the ship, its equipment, or its crew does not: Evidence that the ship, its equipment, or its crew does not correspondcorrespond substantially with the requirements of the relevant conventions or thatsubstantially with the requirements of the relevant conventions or that the master or crew members are not familiar with essential shipboard proceduresthe master or crew members are not familiar with essential shipboard procedures
    • relation to the safety of ships or the prevention of pollution. Some examples ofrelation to the safety of ships or the prevention of pollution. Some examples of clear grounds are:clear grounds are: Absence of principal equipment or arrangement as per Conventions CertificatesAbsence of principal equipment or arrangement as per Conventions Certificates clearly are invalid Logs, manuals and other required documentation not on board,clearly are invalid Logs, manuals and other required documentation not on board, not maintained or falsely maintained PSCO’s observation that serious hull ornot maintained or falsely maintained PSCO’s observation that serious hull or structural deficiencies existstructural deficiencies exist PSCO’s observation that serious deficiencies exist in navigational equipment, safetyPSCO’s observation that serious deficiencies exist in navigational equipment, safety and pollution prevention _Evidence that crew not familiar with essential shipboardand pollution prevention _Evidence that crew not familiar with essential shipboard functions related to safety and pollution prevention or are not able to communicatefunctions related to safety and pollution prevention or are not able to communicate with each other.with each other. 5._5._ Detention of ShipDetention of Ship:- If the ship presents a safety risk or risk of pollution,:- If the ship presents a safety risk or risk of pollution, the Port Statethe Port State is empowered to detain the vessel until she is repaired and/oris empowered to detain the vessel until she is repaired and/or deficiencies rectified. Such deficiencies are listed in IMO guidelines and are calleddeficiencies rectified. Such deficiencies are listed in IMO guidelines and are called “Detainable deficiencies”.“Detainable deficiencies”. 6._6._ Action on DetentionAction on Detention:- If the ship is detained, PSCO should state the fact:- If the ship is detained, PSCO should state the fact in report ofin report of inspection as per Form A. Master must inform Cie and Classificationinspection as per Form A. Master must inform Cie and Classification Society/Flag State Authorities. The PSCO is also expected to make a report called aSociety/Flag State Authorities. The PSCO is also expected to make a report called a “Notification of Detention of Ship” to the Flag State of the ship or Consulate by e-“Notification of Detention of Ship” to the Flag State of the ship or Consulate by e- mail, fax etc. to avoid unnecessary delay. The inspection report and the Notificationmail, fax etc. to avoid unnecessary delay. The inspection report and the Notification are expected to state the detainable deficiencies found. After the deficiencies areare expected to state the detainable deficiencies found. After the deficiencies are correct, re-inspection by PSCO may take place and another Report of Inspectioncorrect, re-inspection by PSCO may take place and another Report of Inspection (Form A) is issued. If the Ship is released, the form will mention the fact. Upon(Form A) is issued. If the Ship is released, the form will mention the fact. Upon release of the ship a “Notification of Release of Ship” is to be sent by the Port Staterelease of the ship a “Notification of Release of Ship” is to be sent by the Port State to the Flag State/Consulate as necessary.to the Flag State/Consulate as necessary. MASTER’S RIGHTS AND DUTIESMASTER’S RIGHTS AND DUTIES 1._ Master can ask for and the PSCO should provide a document giving the1._ Master can ask for and the PSCO should provide a document giving the result of inspection, details of any action taken by the PSCO and list of correctiveresult of inspection, details of any action taken by the PSCO and list of corrective action to be initiated. Such report is to be made as per form ‘A’. This form merelyaction to be initiated. Such report is to be made as per form ‘A’. This form merely informs if the ship has deficiencies or it ship is detained.informs if the ship has deficiencies or it ship is detained. 2._ A document in the form of Form “B” is to be given to ship’s master which2._ A document in the form of Form “B” is to be given to ship’s master which gives details of nature of deficiency, action to be taken etc.gives details of nature of deficiency, action to be taken etc. 3._ If ship is detained, copies of forms A and B to be sent to _3._ If ship is detained, copies of forms A and B to be sent to _ A._ Flag StateA._ Flag State B._ IMOB._ IMO C._ Recognized organization meaning the classification society issuingC._ Recognized organization meaning the classification society issuing certificates n behalf of the Flag State _certificates n behalf of the Flag State _ The following inspections re-carried out by the PSCOThe following inspections re-carried out by the PSCO 11._ A._ A PSCOPSCO may proceed to the ship and before boarding he should checkmay proceed to the ship and before boarding he should check vessel appearance in the water, an impression of its standard of maintenance fromvessel appearance in the water, an impression of its standard of maintenance from such items as the condition of its paintwork, corrosion or pitting or unrepairedsuch items as the condition of its paintwork, corrosion or pitting or unrepaired damage.damage. 22..__ PSCOPSCO should ascertain the year of build and size of the ship for theshould ascertain the year of build and size of the ship for the purpose of determining which provisions of the convention are applicable.purpose of determining which provisions of the convention are applicable. 33._._ On boardingOn boarding and introduction to the master or the responsible ship’sand introduction to the master or the responsible ship’s officer, the PSCO should examine the vessel’s relevant certificates and documents.officer, the PSCO should examine the vessel’s relevant certificates and documents. As a Master from the following preparation vessel will be ready for PSCO InitialAs a Master from the following preparation vessel will be ready for PSCO Initial Inspection.Inspection.
    • 1._ International Tonnage Certificate 19691._ International Tonnage Certificate 1969 2._ Passenger ship safety Certificate2._ Passenger ship safety Certificate 3._ Cargo ship Safety Construction Certificate.3._ Cargo ship Safety Construction Certificate. 4._ Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate4._ Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate 5._ Cargo Ship Safety Radiography Certificate5._ Cargo Ship Safety Radiography Certificate 6._ Cargo Ship Safety Radiotelephony Certificate6._ Cargo Ship Safety Radiotelephony Certificate 7._ Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate;7._ Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate; 8._ Exemption Certificate;8._ Exemption Certificate; 9._ Cargo Ship Safety certificate;9._ Cargo Ship Safety certificate; 10._ Document of Compliance10._ Document of Compliance 11.11._ International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Liquefied Gases in_ International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Liquefied Gases in Bulk;Bulk; 12._ Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Liquefied Gases in bulk12._ Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Liquefied Gases in bulk 13._ International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous13._ International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in BulkChemicals in Bulk 14._ Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in bulk14._ Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in bulk 15._ International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate15._ International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate 16._ International Pollution Prevention Certificate for the carriage of Noxious16._ International Pollution Prevention Certificate for the carriage of Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk.Liquid Substances in Bulk. 17._ International Load Line Certificate (1966)17._ International Load Line Certificate (1966) 18._ International Load Line Exemption Certificate18._ International Load Line Exemption Certificate 19._ Oil Record Book Part I & II19._ Oil Record Book Part I & II 20._ Cargo Record Book20._ Cargo Record Book 21._ Minimum Safe Manning document;21._ Minimum Safe Manning document; 22._ Certificate of Competency of officers22._ Certificate of Competency of officers 23._ Medical Certificates of Seafarers23._ Medical Certificates of Seafarers 24._ Stability information24._ Stability information 25._ Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan25._ Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan 26._ Certificates as to the ship’s hull strength and machinery installations26._ Certificates as to the ship’s hull strength and machinery installations issued by the classification society if the ship is classedissued by the classification society if the ship is classed 27._ Survey Report Files(in case of Bulk Carriers and Oil Tankers)27._ Survey Report Files(in case of Bulk Carriers and Oil Tankers) 28._ Report or previous Port State Control inspections28._ Report or previous Port State Control inspections 29._ Ro-Ro passenger ships, information on the A/Amax ratio.29._ Ro-Ro passenger ships, information on the A/Amax ratio. 44. _ If the certificates are valid and the PSCO’s general impression and visual. _ If the certificates are valid and the PSCO’s general impression and visual observations on board confirm a good standard of maintenance, the PSCO shouldobservations on board confirm a good standard of maintenance, the PSCO should generally confine the inspection to reported or observed deficiencies.generally confine the inspection to reported or observed deficiencies. 55.. _ If the ship does not carry valid certificates, or if the PSCO from general_ If the ship does not carry valid certificates, or if the PSCO from general impressions or observations on board has clear grounds for believing that the ship,impressions or observations on board has clear grounds for believing that the ship, its equipment does not correspond substantially with the particulars of theits equipment does not correspond substantially with the particulars of the certificates or that the master or its crew is not familiar with essential ship boardcertificates or that the master or its crew is not familiar with essential ship board procedure, the PSCO should proceed to more detailed inspection.procedure, the PSCO should proceed to more detailed inspection. a) Structurea) Structure b) Machinery spacesb) Machinery spaces c) Conditions of assignment of load linesc) Conditions of assignment of load lines d) Life-saving appliancesd) Life-saving appliances e) Fire safetye) Fire safety f) Regulations for preventing collisions at seaf) Regulations for preventing collisions at sea g) Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificateg) Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate h) Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificatesh) Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificates i) Muster Listi) Muster List j) Communicationj) Communication
    • k) Fire and abandon ship drillk) Fire and abandon ship drill l) DC plan and SOPEPl) DC plan and SOPEP m) Fire Control Planm) Fire Control Plan n) Bridge operationn) Bridge operation o) Cargo operationo) Cargo operation p) Operation of machineryp) Operation of machinery q) Manuals, instructionsq) Manuals, instructions r) Oil and oily mixtures from machinery spacesr) Oil and oily mixtures from machinery spaces s) Loading _ unloading and cleaning procedures for cargo spaces of tankerss) Loading _ unloading and cleaning procedures for cargo spaces of tankers t) Dangerous goods and harmful substances in packaged formt) Dangerous goods and harmful substances in packaged form u) Garbage Record Book/Garbage management Plan _u) Garbage Record Book/Garbage management Plan _ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ C _ SURVEY AND CERTIFICATIONC _ SURVEY AND CERTIFICATION Knowledge of details of certificates required on a passenger, bulk, oil, chemicalKnowledge of details of certificates required on a passenger, bulk, oil, chemical or gas carrier, the convention to which the certificates belong to. Damage controlor gas carrier, the convention to which the certificates belong to. Damage control plans. Provision and display of manoeuvring information on board _plans. Provision and display of manoeuvring information on board _ Certificates andCertificates and documents required to be carried on board shipsdocuments required to be carried on board ships (all certificates to be carried(all certificates to be carried onon board must be originals)board must be originals) A. __ All shipsA. __ All ships S.N. Details of Cert under which Convention.S.N. Details of Cert under which Convention. 1.__International Tonnage Certificate (1969)1.__International Tonnage Certificate (1969) - Tonnage Convention- Tonnage Convention 2.__International Load Line Certificate (1966)2.__International Load Line Certificate (1966) - Load Line Convention- Load Line Convention 3.__International Load Line Exemption Certificate3.__International Load Line Exemption Certificate - Load Line Convention- Load Line Convention 4.__Intact Stability Booklet4.__Intact Stability Booklet - SOLAS 1974- SOLAS 1974 5.__Damage control booklets5.__Damage control booklets - SOLAS 1974- SOLAS 1974 6.__Minimum safe manning document6.__Minimum safe manning document - SOLAS 1974- SOLAS 1974 7.__Certificates for masters, officers or ratings7.__Certificates for masters, officers or ratings - STCW 1995- STCW 1995 8.__International Oil Pollution Certificate8.__International Oil Pollution Certificate - MARPOL 73/78- MARPOL 73/78 9.__Oil Record Book9.__Oil Record Book - MARPOL 73/78- MARPOL 73/78 10.__Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan10.__Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan - MARPOL 73/78- MARPOL 73/78 11.__11.__Garbage Management PlanGarbage Management Plan - MARPOL 73/78- MARPOL 73/78 12.__Garbage Record Book12.__Garbage Record Book - MARPOL 73/78- MARPOL 73/78 13.__Cargo Securing Manual13.__Cargo Securing Manual - SOLAS 1974- SOLAS 1974 14.__Document of Compliance14.__Document of Compliance - SOLAS 1974- SOLAS 1974 15.__Safety Management Certificate15.__Safety Management Certificate - SOLAS 1974- SOLAS 1974
    • B. _ PASSENGER SHIPSB. _ PASSENGER SHIPS In addition to the certificates listed in section A above, shallIn addition to the certificates listed in section A above, shall carrycarry 1.__Passenger Ship Safety Certificate1.__Passenger Ship Safety Certificate - SOLAS 1974- SOLAS 1974 2.__Exemption certificate2.__Exemption certificate - SOLAS 1974- SOLAS 1974 3.__Special Trade Passenger ships3.__Special Trade Passenger ships - STP Agreement- STP Agreement 4.__Special Trade Passenger Ships Space Certificate - SSTP 734.__Special Trade Passenger Ships Space Certificate - SSTP 73 5.__Search and Rescue co-operation plan5.__Search and Rescue co-operation plan - SOLAS 1974- SOLAS 1974 6.__List of operational limitations6.__List of operational limitations - SOLAS 1974- SOLAS 1974 7.__Decision support system for masters7.__Decision support system for masters - SOLAS 1974- SOLAS 1974 C. _ CARGO SHIPSC. _ CARGO SHIPS In addition to the certificates listed in section A above, shall carryIn addition to the certificates listed in section A above, shall carry 1.__Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate1.__Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate - SOLAS 1974- SOLAS 1974 2.__Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate2.__Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate - SOLAS 1974- SOLAS 1974 3.__Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate3.__Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate - SOLAS 1974- SOLAS 1974 4.__Cargo Ship Safety Certificate4.__Cargo Ship Safety Certificate - SOLAS 1988 Protocol- SOLAS 1988 Protocol 5. __Exemption Certificate5. __Exemption Certificate 6.__Document of Compliance with the special requirements For ships carrying6.__Document of Compliance with the special requirements For ships carrying Dangerous GoodsDangerous Goods - SOLAS 1974- SOLAS 1974 7.__Dangerous Goods Manifest or Stowage Plan7.__Dangerous Goods Manifest or Stowage Plan - SOLAS 1974- SOLAS 1974 8.__Document of Authorization for the Carriage of Grain- SOLAS 19748.__Document of Authorization for the Carriage of Grain- SOLAS 1974 9.__Certificate of Insurance or other Financial Security in respect of Civil liability9.__Certificate of Insurance or other Financial Security in respect of Civil liability for Oil Pollution Damagefor Oil Pollution Damage - CLC 1969- CLC 1969 10.__Enhanced Survey Report File10.__Enhanced Survey Report File - MARPOL 73/78- MARPOL 73/78 11.__11.__Record of Oil Discharge Monitoring and ControlRecord of Oil Discharge Monitoring and Control System for the last Ballast VoyageSystem for the last Ballast Voyage - MARPOL 73/78- MARPOL 73/78 12.__Bulk Carrier Booklet12.__Bulk Carrier Booklet - SOLAS 1974- SOLAS 1974 D. _ SHIPS CARRY NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES IN BULKD. _ SHIPS CARRY NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES IN BULK In addition to theIn addition to the certificates listed in section A and C above, shall carrycertificates listed in section A and C above, shall carry 13.__International Pollution Prevention certificate for the Carriage of Noxious13.__International Pollution Prevention certificate for the Carriage of Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk (NLS Certificate)Liquid Substances in Bulk (NLS Certificate) - MARPOL 73/78- MARPOL 73/78 14.__Cargo Record Book14.__Cargo Record Book - MARPOL 73/78- MARPOL 73/78 15.__Procedures & Arrangements Manual (P&A Manual) - MARPOL 73/7815.__Procedures & Arrangements Manual (P&A Manual) - MARPOL 73/78
    • 16.__Shipboard Marine Pollution Emergency Plan for Noxious Liquid Substances16.__Shipboard Marine Pollution Emergency Plan for Noxious Liquid Substances - MARPOL 73/78- MARPOL 73/78 E. _ CHEMICAL TANKERE. _ CHEMICAL TANKER In addition to the certificates listed in sec. A and C above, shall carryIn addition to the certificates listed in sec. A and C above, shall carry 1._ Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk1._ Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk - BCH Code- BCH Code 2._ International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals2._ International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in Bulkin Bulk - IBC Code- IBC Code F. _ GAS CARRIERF. _ GAS CARRIER In addition to the certificates listed in section A and C above, shall carryIn addition to the certificates listed in section A and C above, shall carry 1._ Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Liquid Gases in Bulk - GC Code1._ Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Liquid Gases in Bulk - GC Code 2._ International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Liquid Gases in Bulk -2._ International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Liquid Gases in Bulk - IGC CodeIGC Code G. _ HIGH SPEED CRAFTG. _ HIGH SPEED CRAFT In addition to the certificates listed in section A and C above, shall carryIn addition to the certificates listed in section A and C above, shall carry 1._ High-Speed Craft Safety Certificate - SOLAS 1974/HSC Code1._ High-Speed Craft Safety Certificate - SOLAS 1974/HSC Code 2._ Permit to Operate High-Speed Craft - HSC Code2._ Permit to Operate High-Speed Craft - HSC Code H. _SHIP CARRYING INF (IRRADIATED NUCLEAR FUEL)H. _SHIP CARRYING INF (IRRADIATED NUCLEAR FUEL) In addition to the certificates listed in section A and C above, shall carryIn addition to the certificates listed in section A and C above, shall carry 1._ International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of INF Cargo-SOLAS 19741._ International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of INF Cargo-SOLAS 1974 I. _ OTHER MISCELLANEOUS CERTIFICATESI. _ OTHER MISCELLANEOUS CERTIFICATES 1._ SPECIAL PURPOSE SHIPS _ Special Purpose Ship Safety Certificate-SOLAS 741._ SPECIAL PURPOSE SHIPS _ Special Purpose Ship Safety Certificate-SOLAS 74 2._ OFFSHORE SUPPORT VESSELS _ Certificate of Fitness for Offshore Support2._ OFFSHORE SUPPORT VESSELS _ Certificate of Fitness for Offshore Support Vessels - MARPOL 73/78Vessels - MARPOL 73/78 3._ DIVING SYSTEMS _ Diving System Safety Certificate - Resolution A.536(13)3._ DIVING SYSTEMS _ Diving System Safety Certificate - Resolution A.536(13) 4._ DYNAMICALLY SUPPORTED CRAFT Dynamically Supported Craft Construction4._ DYNAMICALLY SUPPORTED CRAFT Dynamically Supported Craft Construction and Equipment Certificate - Resolution A.373(X)and Equipment Certificate - Resolution A.373(X) 5._ MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS _ Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Safety5._ MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS _ Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Safety Certificate - Resolution A. 414(XI)Certificate - Resolution A. 414(XI) NOISE LEVELS _ Noise Survey ReportNOISE LEVELS _ Noise Survey Report -- Resolution A.468(XII)Resolution A.468(XII) Harmonized System of Surveys and CertificationHarmonized System of Surveys and Certification The 1988 Protocol - Harmonized System of Surveys and CertificationThe 1988 Protocol - Harmonized System of Surveys and Certification ADOPTIONADOPTION: 11 November 1988 _: 11 November 1988 _ ENTRY INTO FORCEENTRY INTO FORCE: 12 months after being accepted by at least 15 states whose: 12 months after being accepted by at least 15 states whose combined merchant fleets represented at least 50% of world tonnage (but notcombined merchant fleets represented at least 50% of world tonnage (but not before 1 February 1992)before 1 February 1992) STATUSSTATUS: The above requirement was met on 2/2/1999 when the Bahamas and: The above requirement was met on 2/2/1999 when the Bahamas and Malta deposited their instruments of accession; hence the HSSC will come into forceMalta deposited their instruments of accession; hence the HSSC will come into force on 3on 3rdrd February 2000.February 2000. The protocol introduces a new system of surveys and certification which harmonizesThe protocol introduces a new system of surveys and certification which harmonizes with two other conventions = LOAD LINE and MARPOL. (Also IBC and IGC Codes)with two other conventions = LOAD LINE and MARPOL. (Also IBC and IGC Codes) Earlier requirements in the three instruments varied and as a result ships wereEarlier requirements in the three instruments varied and as a result ships were
    • obliged to go into dry dock for a survey required by his one convention shortly afterobliged to go into dry dock for a survey required by his one convention shortly after being surveyed in connection with another. By enabling the required surveys to bebeing surveyed in connection with another. By enabling the required surveys to be carried out at the same time the system reduces costs for ship owners andcarried out at the same time the system reduces costs for ship owners and administrations alike.administrations alike. *Main features:*Main features: ___ ONE year standard interval between surveys_ ONE year standard interval between surveys __ Flexibility for execution of each survey (± 3 months) renewal survey may__ Flexibility for execution of each survey (± 3 months) renewal survey may be Completed 3 months prior date of expiry of certificate with no loss of period ofbe Completed 3 months prior date of expiry of certificate with no loss of period of Validity _Validity _ __ 5 year validity period for all certificates of cargo ships; 1-year for passenger__ 5 year validity period for all certificates of cargo ships; 1-year for passenger shipship safety certificatesafety certificate __ 3 month extension of certificates to enable a ship to complete its voyage__ 3 month extension of certificates to enable a ship to complete its voyage (one month for ships engaged on short voyages). New certificate will start from(one month for ships engaged on short voyages). New certificate will start from date of expiry of existing certificate before extension.date of expiry of existing certificate before extension. DAMAGE CONTROL PLANSDAMAGE CONTROL PLANS:: SOLAS Chapter II-1 Part B Regulation 23 &23-1SOLAS Chapter II-1 Part B Regulation 23 &23-1 DamageDamage Control Plan shall be permanently exhibited, for the guidance of theControl Plan shall be permanently exhibited, for the guidance of the officer in charge of the ship, plans showing clearly for each deck and hold theofficer in charge of the ship, plans showing clearly for each deck and hold the boundaries of the watertight compartments, the openings therein with the means ofboundaries of the watertight compartments, the openings therein with the means of closure and position of any controls thereof, and the arrangements for correction ofclosure and position of any controls thereof, and the arrangements for correction of any list due to flooding. In addition, booklets containing the aforementionedany list due to flooding. In addition, booklets containing the aforementioned information shall be made available to the officers of the ship.information shall be made available to the officers of the ship. PROVISION AND DISPLAY OF MANEUVERING INFORMATIONPROVISION AND DISPLAY OF MANEUVERING INFORMATION ON BOARD:ON BOARD: ShipsShips set out in the annex to Resolution A.601 (15).set out in the annex to Resolution A.601 (15). The Marine Safety Agency recommended that manoeuvring information in theThe Marine Safety Agency recommended that manoeuvring information in the form of a pilot cad, wheel house poster and manoeuvring booklet should beform of a pilot cad, wheel house poster and manoeuvring booklet should be provided as follows:provided as follows: 1. _ The pilot cards on all ships to which the requirements of the 1974 SOLAS1. _ The pilot cards on all ships to which the requirements of the 1974 SOLAS Convention, as amended, applyConvention, as amended, apply 2. _ The pilot card, wheel house poster and manoeuvring booklet on all new2. _ The pilot card, wheel house poster and manoeuvring booklet on all new ships of 100 meters in length and over, and all new chemical tankers and gasships of 100 meters in length and over, and all new chemical tankers and gas carries Regardless of size; andcarries Regardless of size; and 3. _ The pilot card, wheelhouse poster and manoeuvring booklet on all new3. _ The pilot card, wheelhouse poster and manoeuvring booklet on all new ships that may pose a hazard due to unusual dimensions or characteristicsships that may pose a hazard due to unusual dimensions or characteristics 1. PILOT CARD1. PILOT CARD The pilot card, to be filled in by the master, is intended to provide informationThe pilot card, to be filled in by the master, is intended to provide information to pilot on boarding the ship. This information should describe the current conditionto pilot on boarding the ship. This information should describe the current condition of the ship, with regard to its loading, propulsion and manoeuvring equipment, andof the ship, with regard to its loading, propulsion and manoeuvring equipment, and other relevant equipment. e.g. ship’s name, C/S, DWT, DISPL, draft, air draft , yearother relevant equipment. e.g. ship’s name, C/S, DWT, DISPL, draft, air draft , year of built, ship’s particulars (LOA, breadth, bulbous bow, anchor chain) type ofof built, ship’s particulars (LOA, breadth, bulbous bow, anchor chain) type of engine, maximum power, manoeuvring engine order, steering particulars (type ofengine, maximum power, manoeuvring engine order, steering particulars (type of rudder, maximum angle, hard over to hard over, rudder angle for neutral effect,rudder, maximum angle, hard over to hard over, rudder angle for neutral effect, thrusters)thrusters) 2. WHEELHOUSE POSTER2. WHEELHOUSE POSTER The wheelhouse poster should be permanently displayed in the wheelhouse. ItThe wheelhouse poster should be permanently displayed in the wheelhouse. It should contain general particulars & detailed information describing theshould contain general particulars & detailed information describing the
    • manoeuvring characteristics of the ship, and be of such a size to ensure ease of usemanoeuvring characteristics of the ship, and be of such a size to ensure ease of use _ .e.g. ship’s name, C/S, GRT, NRT, DWT, DISPL, Block co-efficient, Draught_ .e.g. ship’s name, C/S, GRT, NRT, DWT, DISPL, Block co-efficient, Draught (loaded / ballast), steering particulars, Anchor chain, Propulsion particulars,(loaded / ballast), steering particulars, Anchor chain, Propulsion particulars, THRUSTER effect, Draught increase (loaded), turning circles at max. Rudder angles,THRUSTER effect, Draught increase (loaded), turning circles at max. Rudder angles, emergency manoeuvres’ (full ahead to full astern), stopping characteristics (trackemergency manoeuvres’ (full ahead to full astern), stopping characteristics (track reach), man overboard rescue manoeuvre.reach), man overboard rescue manoeuvre. 3. MANEUVERING BOOKLET3. MANEUVERING BOOKLET The manoeuvring booklet should be available on board and should containThe manoeuvring booklet should be available on board and should contain comprehensive details of ship’s manoeuvring characteristics & other relevant data.comprehensive details of ship’s manoeuvring characteristics & other relevant data. The manoeuvring booklet should include the information shown on the wheelhouseThe manoeuvring booklet should include the information shown on the wheelhouse poster together with other available manoeuvring information.poster together with other available manoeuvring information. __ e.g. General description (ship’s particulars, characteristics of main engine),__ e.g. General description (ship’s particulars, characteristics of main engine), manoeuvring characteristics in deep water (course change performance, turningmanoeuvring characteristics in deep water (course change performance, turning circles in deep water, accelerating turn, yaw checking tests, man overboard andcircles in deep water, accelerating turn, yaw checking tests, man overboard and parallel course manoeuvres’, lateral THRUSTER capabilities), stopping and speedparallel course manoeuvres’, lateral THRUSTER capabilities), stopping and speed control characteristics in deep water (stopping ability, deceleration/accelerationcontrol characteristics in deep water (stopping ability, deceleration/acceleration performance), manoeuvring characteristics in shallow water (turning circle inperformance), manoeuvring characteristics in shallow water (turning circle in shallow water, squat) manoeuvring characteristics in wind (wind forces andshallow water, squat) manoeuvring characteristics in wind (wind forces and moment, course-keeping limitations, drifting under wind influence) manoeuvringmoment, course-keeping limitations, drifting under wind influence) manoeuvring characteristics at low speed & additional information.characteristics at low speed & additional information. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ D. FIRE PROTECTIOND. FIRE PROTECTION Knowledge of Fire Appliance: _ Maintenance and ready availability, fire controlKnowledge of Fire Appliance: _ Maintenance and ready availability, fire control plan, fire drills, fixed fire fighting system, various FFA and its usage.plan, fire drills, fixed fire fighting system, various FFA and its usage. FIRE FIGHTING APPLIANCES, ITS MAINTENANCE AND ITS USAGEFIRE FIGHTING APPLIANCES, ITS MAINTENANCE AND ITS USAGE 1. _ Emergency Fire Pump: Run up and operate for at least 5 minutes. Check1. _ Emergency Fire Pump: Run up and operate for at least 5 minutes. Check remote starts and pressure at furthest Hydrant point.remote starts and pressure at furthest Hydrant point. 2. _ Fire Hose Boxes: check each hose box and contents – fire hose, jet/spray2. _ Fire Hose Boxes: check each hose box and contents – fire hose, jet/spray nozzle, hose key (spanner).nozzle, hose key (spanner). 3. _ Emergency generator: Run up and operate for at least 5 minutes. Check3. _ Emergency generator: Run up and operate for at least 5 minutes. Check remote start.remote start. 4. _ Fire Flaps: Test all fire flaps are free to operated and grease dogs and4. _ Fire Flaps: Test all fire flaps are free to operated and grease dogs and nipples. Check position of flap to see if OPEN or SHUT. Where necessary, paintnipples. Check position of flap to see if OPEN or SHUT. Where necessary, paint handles RED and re- stencil ‘OPEN’ and ‘SHUT’ as required..handles RED and re- stencil ‘OPEN’ and ‘SHUT’ as required.. 5. _ Alarms – E/R, CO2, hospital, cold room, bilge etc.: All alarms to be tested,5. _ Alarms – E/R, CO2, hospital, cold room, bilge etc.: All alarms to be tested, all CO2 alarm activating release boxes to be opened and alarms tested in theall CO2 alarm activating release boxes to be opened and alarms tested in the presence of the Chief Engineer.presence of the Chief Engineer. 6. _ Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) : A fully charged cylinder (2006. _ Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) : A fully charged cylinder (200 Bar) contains about 1235 litters of air. An average person in normal workingBar) contains about 1235 litters of air. An average person in normal working conditions consumes about 35 litters per minute. Therefore the effective duration ofconditions consumes about 35 litters per minute. Therefore the effective duration of the cylinder is about 35 minutes. The warning whistle is set at about 48 – 50 barthe cylinder is about 35 minutes. The warning whistle is set at about 48 – 50 bar pressure in the cylinder which makes an effective duration of about 8 minutes.pressure in the cylinder which makes an effective duration of about 8 minutes. Therefore the effective duration of a fully charged cylinder is only 35 – 8 =27Therefore the effective duration of a fully charged cylinder is only 35 – 8 =27 minutes as the air supply for 8 minutes duration (on blowing of warning whistle) isminutes as the air supply for 8 minutes duration (on blowing of warning whistle) is basically for retreat only. Check apparatus for leaks. Check Air Hoses for fraying orbasically for retreat only. Check apparatus for leaks. Check Air Hoses for fraying or cutting. Inspect Harness and Buckles to ensure shoulder straps are fully extendedcutting. Inspect Harness and Buckles to ensure shoulder straps are fully extended and in good condition. Face masks check:and in good condition. Face masks check: A. Face masks rubber for perforations.A. Face masks rubber for perforations.
    • B. Inner seal for correct inflation.B. Inner seal for correct inflation. C. Ensure head straps are fully extended.C. Ensure head straps are fully extended. DD.. Clean facemask with weak soap.Clean facemask with weak soap. With sets pressurized put on facemask correctly and breathe normally to checkWith sets pressurized put on facemask correctly and breathe normally to check warning whistle unit and mask sealing on face.warning whistle unit and mask sealing on face. 7. _ Oxygen Analyzers: Test equipment in accordance with manufactures7. _ Oxygen Analyzers: Test equipment in accordance with manufactures instructions to ensure instruments are reading correctly.instructions to ensure instruments are reading correctly. 8. _ Portable gas detection equipment: Test Detection Equipment with kit8. _ Portable gas detection equipment: Test Detection Equipment with kit provided. Check all ancillary equipment. Ensure fully operational.provided. Check all ancillary equipment. Ensure fully operational. 9. _ Portable Fire Extinguishers: (9 Litters Water, Foam, and 4.5 kg DCP & CO29. _ Portable Fire Extinguishers: (9 Litters Water, Foam, and 4.5 kg DCP & CO2 type) _ All extinguishers to be checked externally and made good where required.type) _ All extinguishers to be checked externally and made good where required. DCP extinguishers to be inverted to loosen powder / Nozzles to be tested / PlungersDCP extinguishers to be inverted to loosen powder / Nozzles to be tested / Plungers to be tested by turning by hand Check distribution of Portable Fire Extinguishers.to be tested by turning by hand Check distribution of Portable Fire Extinguishers. AFFF need to be recharged every three/four years as per Makers instructions. EveryAFFF need to be recharged every three/four years as per Makers instructions. Every 2 year inspection to be carried out by the Service Engineer2 year inspection to be carried out by the Service Engineer 10. _ Fire Hoses and Nozzles: Fire Hoses: All fire hoses to be visually inspected10. _ Fire Hoses and Nozzles: Fire Hoses: All fire hoses to be visually inspected for signs of deterioration and, if suspect, pressure tested to 6 kg/cm2. Coupling tofor signs of deterioration and, if suspect, pressure tested to 6 kg/cm2. Coupling to be inspected and lightly greased. Hose washers to be in place. All hoses to bebe inspected and lightly greased. Hose washers to be in place. All hoses to be pressure tested. Hose to be connected to Jet/Spray Nozzle and a pressure of 6pressure tested. Hose to be connected to Jet/Spray Nozzle and a pressure of 6 Kg/cm2 Hoses to be inspected for damage replaced as necessary. Check couplingsKg/cm2 Hoses to be inspected for damage replaced as necessary. Check couplings for thread damage and correct if necessary. Coupling to be lightly greased Inspectfor thread damage and correct if necessary. Coupling to be lightly greased Inspect washer in female connection or both if quick coupling type. Grease and/or replace.washer in female connection or both if quick coupling type. Grease and/or replace. Nozzles: All nozzles to be checked in position. Nozzles to be cleaned and a smallNozzles: All nozzles to be checked in position. Nozzles to be cleaned and a small quantity of grease applied to working parts.quantity of grease applied to working parts. __ Mid - joint to be tightened if slack Packing washer to be inspected and__ Mid - joint to be tightened if slack Packing washer to be inspected and tightened if loose. Washer and coupling to be inspected and the latter lightlytightened if loose. Washer and coupling to be inspected and the latter lightly greased. All nozzles to be cleaned and a small quantity of grease applied to thegreased. All nozzles to be cleaned and a small quantity of grease applied to the working parts only.working parts only. __ Mid - joint to be tightened if slack Packing washer to be inspected and__ Mid - joint to be tightened if slack Packing washer to be inspected and tightened if washer loose. Inspect washer at coupling. Lightly grease and/ortightened if washer loose. Inspect washer at coupling. Lightly grease and/or replace.replace. 11. _11. _ Fire Hydrants: Inspect all hydrants for ease of operation and waterFire Hydrants: Inspect all hydrants for ease of operation and water tightness. Refittightness. Refit leaking hydrants.leaking hydrants. All hydrant caps to be in position Replace missing caps. Inspect and lightly greaseAll hydrant caps to be in position Replace missing caps. Inspect and lightly grease threads on couplings.threads on couplings. 12. _ Foam Hoses & Boxes: Foam Hoses to be visually inspected for signs of12. _ Foam Hoses & Boxes: Foam Hoses to be visually inspected for signs of deterioration and pressure tested to 6 kg/cm2 if suspect. Foam Branch pipe anddeterioration and pressure tested to 6 kg/cm2 if suspect. Foam Branch pipe and extending pipe work to be checked. Inspect and lightly grease threads & couplings.extending pipe work to be checked. Inspect and lightly grease threads & couplings. Each box should contain:Each box should contain: 1-Foam Branch pipe,1-Foam Branch pipe, 1-Foam Spray Branch pipe1-Foam Spray Branch pipe +2- Hoses.+2- Hoses. 13. _ Fixed Foam Installation: Operate fixed foam system for a period of at13. _ Fixed Foam Installation: Operate fixed foam system for a period of at least ½ minute, making foam through one Monitor and one portable applicator.least ½ minute, making foam through one Monitor and one portable applicator. (a) Stop foam pump and flush through the entire system operating all(a) Stop foam pump and flush through the entire system operating all monitors in the system and pump room to spray.monitors in the system and pump room to spray. (b) Top up foam tank if necessary.(b) Top up foam tank if necessary. (c) Ensure system is set on ‘foam’ on completion.(c) Ensure system is set on ‘foam’ on completion. 14. _ Fixed CO2 System: Inspect all cylinders, pipe work, wires and pulls in14. _ Fixed CO2 System: Inspect all cylinders, pipe work, wires and pulls in
    • the CO2 room and Engine Room. Verify CO2 cylinders are securely clamed inthe CO2 room and Engine Room. Verify CO2 cylinders are securely clamed in position.position. 15. _ Emergency Alarm Bells, Siren and switches.15. _ Emergency Alarm Bells, Siren and switches. 1. Check alarm bells and lights are operating satisfactorily.1. Check alarm bells and lights are operating satisfactorily. 2. Ensure that all alarm switches are operated at least once every three2. Ensure that all alarm switches are operated at least once every three months.months. 16. _ Fire doors/Water Tight Doors : correct operation of fire doors/water tight16. _ Fire doors/Water Tight Doors : correct operation of fire doors/water tight doors to be checked.doors to be checked. 1. Remote operation1. Remote operation 2. Local operation2. Local operation 17. _ Emergency lighting: All lighting to be tested to ensure correct functioning17. _ Emergency lighting: All lighting to be tested to ensure correct functioning of bulbs.of bulbs. 18. _ Fire Detection Equipment:18. _ Fire Detection Equipment: a) Smoke and Rate of Rise Detectors are to be tested once every threea) Smoke and Rate of Rise Detectors are to be tested once every three months in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions.months in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions. b) Siren checked for operation and repaired/replaced as necessary.b) Siren checked for operation and repaired/replaced as necessary. 19. _ Fire Blankets: check blankets are free from grease, oil and paints. Refold19. _ Fire Blankets: check blankets are free from grease, oil and paints. Refold so that tag is clear check holder is secure.so that tag is clear check holder is secure. 20. _ Fire Man’s Outfits: Fire man’s outfits consists of fire proof clothing and20. _ Fire Man’s Outfits: Fire man’s outfits consists of fire proof clothing and breathing apparatus etc. which give protection from heat/fire and foul ambientbreathing apparatus etc. which give protection from heat/fire and foul ambient conditions to a fire fighter.conditions to a fire fighter. 21. _ Sprinkler system: Paint locker shall be protected by a water spraying or21. _ Sprinkler system: Paint locker shall be protected by a water spraying or sprinkler system, designed for 5lm2/ min. Water spraying systems may besprinkler system, designed for 5lm2/ min. Water spraying systems may be connected to the fire main of the ship.connected to the fire main of the ship. 22. _ Emergency Escape Breathing Device (EEBD)22. _ Emergency Escape Breathing Device (EEBD) 23. _ International Shore Connection.23. _ International Shore Connection. FIRE CONTROL PLANSFIRE CONTROL PLANS Fire control plan is the detailed drawings which give completeFire control plan is the detailed drawings which give complete details of ship’sdetails of ship’s total fire fighting equipment viz. portable fire extinguishers, mobile extinguisherstotal fire fighting equipment viz. portable fire extinguishers, mobile extinguishers and fixed fire fighting installations and their exact locations in each zone on boardand fixed fire fighting installations and their exact locations in each zone on board including the refills for the portable extinguishers where stored and location of fireincluding the refills for the portable extinguishers where stored and location of fire party lockers and their contents Fire control plan is displayed in the form of bigparty lockers and their contents Fire control plan is displayed in the form of big scale drawing in crew messes, officer’s saloon, bridge, machinery control room andscale drawing in crew messes, officer’s saloon, bridge, machinery control room and main alleyways.main alleyways. The fire control plans also indicates clearly the access and escape routes inThe fire control plans also indicates clearly the access and escape routes in different zones of the ship and the fire fighting equipment/fire hydrants/fire hoses-different zones of the ship and the fire fighting equipment/fire hydrants/fire hoses- nozzles etc. available in each zone and their exact location.nozzles etc. available in each zone and their exact location. The location of fire pumps/fire and bilge pumps/emergency fire pumps, theThe location of fire pumps/fire and bilge pumps/emergency fire pumps, the complete layout of the fire main system, the various main/bulkhead/isolating valvescomplete layout of the fire main system, the various main/bulkhead/isolating valves and the points/switches from where these pumps can be started in emergency.and the points/switches from where these pumps can be started in emergency. The plan also gives to complete layout of different machineryThe plan also gives to complete layout of different machinery compartments / spaces & accommodation, dinning and galley areas, main stores,compartments / spaces & accommodation, dinning and galley areas, main stores, various ventilation and exhaust blowers fitted and their dampers and the locationvarious ventilation and exhaust blowers fitted and their dampers and the location from where they can be operated/shutdown in case of emergency/fire.from where they can be operated/shutdown in case of emergency/fire. In case of a major fire, to assist the shore fire fighting organization, a copyIn case of a major fire, to assist the shore fire fighting organization, a copy of fire control plan is also kept safely in a steel tube painted red and marked “Fireof fire control plan is also kept safely in a steel tube painted red and marked “Fire Control Plan” in white. The steel tube is normally welded on bulkheads under coverControl Plan” in white. The steel tube is normally welded on bulkheads under cover near the gangway or on the wings of the Navigation Bridge. The steel tube is closednear the gangway or on the wings of the Navigation Bridge. The steel tube is closed
    • on one side and the other side has an easily opening threaded cap. In case of aon one side and the other side has an easily opening threaded cap. In case of a major fire on board ready help/information may not be available to the shore firemajor fire on board ready help/information may not be available to the shore fire fighting personnel or ship’s personnel may have abandoned the ship. In such cases,fighting personnel or ship’s personnel may have abandoned the ship. In such cases, the fire control plan kept in the steel tube becomes handy and guide for the shorethe fire control plan kept in the steel tube becomes handy and guide for the shore personnel in fighting the fire.personnel in fighting the fire. Fire control plan drawing is periodically checked and updated and is dulyFire control plan drawing is periodically checked and updated and is duly approved by the competent Shipping Authority (MMD/DGS).approved by the competent Shipping Authority (MMD/DGS). Any change in number of portable or mobile fire extinguishers or change inAny change in number of portable or mobile fire extinguishers or change in their locations on board or any modifications/alterations in fire main system oftheir locations on board or any modifications/alterations in fire main system of other fixed fire fighting installations are incorporated in the fire control plan andother fixed fire fighting installations are incorporated in the fire control plan and approval for the new fire control plan is taken from the approving authority.approval for the new fire control plan is taken from the approving authority. FIRE DRILLSFIRE DRILLS Each fire drill shall include:Each fire drill shall include: 1. Reporting to stations and preparing for the duties describe in the muster list1. Reporting to stations and preparing for the duties describe in the muster list 2. Starting of a fire pump, using at least the two required jets of water to show2. Starting of a fire pump, using at least the two required jets of water to show that the system is in proper working orderthat the system is in proper working order 3. Checking of fireman’s outfit and other personnel rescue equipment3. Checking of fireman’s outfit and other personnel rescue equipment 4. Checking of relevant communication equipment4. Checking of relevant communication equipment 5. Checking the operation of watertight doors, fire doors, fire dampers and5. Checking the operation of watertight doors, fire doors, fire dampers and main inlets of ventilation system in the drill areamain inlets of ventilation system in the drill area 6. Checking the necessary arrangements for subsequent abandoning of ship6. Checking the necessary arrangements for subsequent abandoning of ship The equipment used during drills shall immediately be brought back to its fullyThe equipment used during drills shall immediately be brought back to its fully operational condition and any faults and defects discovered during the drills shall beoperational condition and any faults and defects discovered during the drills shall be remedied as soon as possible Fire drills should be planned in such a way that dueremedied as soon as possible Fire drills should be planned in such a way that due consideration is given to regular practice in various emergencies that may occurconsideration is given to regular practice in various emergencies that may occur depending on the type of ship and its cargo.depending on the type of ship and its cargo. Drills should as far as practicable be conducted as if there were an emergency.Drills should as far as practicable be conducted as if there were an emergency. On board training and instructions in the use of the ship’s fire- extinguishingOn board training and instructions in the use of the ship’s fire- extinguishing appliances should be given as soon as possible but not later than two weeks after aappliances should be given as soon as possible but not later than two weeks after a crew member joins the ship. Individual instructions may cover different firecrew member joins the ship. Individual instructions may cover different fire extinguishing appliances, but all fire extinguishing appliances should be coveredextinguishing appliances, but all fire extinguishing appliances should be covered within any period of two months. Each member of the crew should be givenwithin any period of two months. Each member of the crew should be given instructions, which should include, but not necessarily be limited to the operationinstructions, which should include, but not necessarily be limited to the operation and use of fire-fighting appliances.and use of fire-fighting appliances. The date when the musters are held, details of fire drills and on-board trainingThe date when the musters are held, details of fire drills and on-board training should be recorded in the log book. If a full muster, drill of training session is notshould be recorded in the log book. If a full muster, drill of training session is not held at the appointed time an entry should be made in the log book stating theheld at the appointed time an entry should be made in the log book stating the circumstances and the extent of the muster, drill or training session held.circumstances and the extent of the muster, drill or training session held. E. _ RADIO COMMUNICATIONSE. _ RADIO COMMUNICATIONS Knowledge of Functional requirements, Radio Installations, Radio personnel andKnowledge of Functional requirements, Radio Installations, Radio personnel and Radio records _ Avoidance of false distress alerts.Radio records _ Avoidance of false distress alerts. __ GMDSS RULES WILL APPLY TO ALL VESSELS OVER 300 GRT__ GMDSS RULES WILL APPLY TO ALL VESSELS OVER 300 GRT __ INDIAN COASTAL WATERS HAVE BEEN DECLARED AS AREA ____ INDIAN COASTAL WATERS HAVE BEEN DECLARED AS AREA __ A 3A 3 ____ __ ALL VESSELS MUST COMPLY WITH THE GMDSS BY 01 FEBUARY 1999__ ALL VESSELS MUST COMPLY WITH THE GMDSS BY 01 FEBUARY 1999 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTSFUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS:: SOLAS 1974 Chapter IV Regulation 4 –: Every ship,SOLAS 1974 Chapter IV Regulation 4 –: Every ship, while at sea, shall be capable:while at sea, shall be capable: 1. _ Of transmitting ship-to-shore distress alerts by at least two separate1. _ Of transmitting ship-to-shore distress alerts by at least two separate and independent means, each using a different radio communication service.and independent means, each using a different radio communication service.
    • 2. _ Of receiving shore-to-ship distress alerts;2. _ Of receiving shore-to-ship distress alerts; 3. _ Of transmitting and receiving ship-to-ship distress alerts3. _ Of transmitting and receiving ship-to-ship distress alerts 4. _ Of transmitting and receiving search and rescue co-ordinating4. _ Of transmitting and receiving search and rescue co-ordinating communicationscommunications 5. _ Of transmitting and receiving on-scene communications;5. _ Of transmitting and receiving on-scene communications; 6. _ Of transmitting and, as required by regulation V/19.2.3.2 receiving6. _ Of transmitting and, as required by regulation V/19.2.3.2 receiving signal for locating; (Radar operating in the frequency band 9300-9500 (Mhz)signal for locating; (Radar operating in the frequency band 9300-9500 (Mhz) 7. _ Of transmitting and receiving maritime safety information;7. _ Of transmitting and receiving maritime safety information; 8. _ Of transmitting and receiving general radio communication to and from8. _ Of transmitting and receiving general radio communication to and from shore-based radio systems or networks subject to regulation 15.8; andshore-based radio systems or networks subject to regulation 15.8; and 9. _ Of transmitting and receiving bridge-to-bridge communications.9. _ Of transmitting and receiving bridge-to-bridge communications. GMDSS ConceptGMDSS Concept:: The basic concept of the GMDSS system is that search and rescue ((The basic concept of the GMDSS system is that search and rescue ((SARSAR)) authorities ashore as well as shipping in the vicinity of a vessel in distress will beauthorities ashore as well as shipping in the vicinity of a vessel in distress will be rapidly altered to a distress situation.rapidly altered to a distress situation. SEA AREA 3SEA AREA 3:: __ INMARSAT and/or HF DSC on 8414.5 KHz and All other HF DSC frequencies__ INMARSAT and/or HF DSC on 8414.5 KHz and All other HF DSC frequencies __ MF DSC ON 2187.5 KHz, MF R/T 2182 KHz__ MF DSC ON 2187.5 KHz, MF R/T 2182 KHz __ VHF DSC on Ch 70 and VHF R/T on Ch 16__ VHF DSC on Ch 70 and VHF R/T on Ch 16 __ EPIRB__ EPIRB GMDSS Carriage requirements (Sea Area 3):GMDSS Carriage requirements (Sea Area 3): 1. VHF with DSC1. VHF with DSC 2. SART (2)2. SART (2) 3. NAVTEX3. NAVTEX 4. EGC Receiver4. EGC Receiver 5. EPIRB (2) 6. VHF Portable (2-3)5. EPIRB (2) 6. VHF Portable (2-3) 7. MF R/T + DSC7. MF R/T + DSC 8. INMARSAT A, B or C8. INMARSAT A, B or C 9. H/F, R/T with DSC and Telex9. H/F, R/T with DSC and Telex RADIO INSTALLLATIONS:RADIO INSTALLLATIONS: Every ship shall be provided with radio installations capable of complying withEvery ship shall be provided with radio installations capable of complying with the functional requirements prescribed by regulation 4 throughout its intendedthe functional requirements prescribed by regulation 4 throughout its intended voyage and, unless exempted under regulation 3, complying with the requirementsvoyage and, unless exempted under regulation 3, complying with the requirements of regulations 7 and, as appropriate for the sea area or area through which I willof regulations 7 and, as appropriate for the sea area or area through which I will pass during its intended voyage, the requirements of either regulation 8,9,10 or 11.pass during its intended voyage, the requirements of either regulation 8,9,10 or 11. Every radio installation shall:Every radio installation shall: a. _ be so located that no harmful interference of mechanical, electrical ora. _ be so located that no harmful interference of mechanical, electrical or other origin affects its proper use and so as to ensure electromagnetic compatibilityother origin affects its proper use and so as to ensure electromagnetic compatibility andand avoidance of harmful interaction with other equipment and systems;avoidance of harmful interaction with other equipment and systems; b. _ Be so located as to ensure the greatest possible degree of safety andb. _ Be so located as to ensure the greatest possible degree of safety and operational availability;operational availability; c. _ Be protected against harmful effects of water, extremes of temperaturec. _ Be protected against harmful effects of water, extremes of temperature and other adverse environmental conditions;and other adverse environmental conditions; d. _ Be provided with reliable, permanently arranged electrical lighting,d. _ Be provided with reliable, permanently arranged electrical lighting, independent of the main and emergency sources of electrical power, for theindependent of the main and emergency sources of electrical power, for the adequate illumination of the radio controls for operating the radio installation; andadequate illumination of the radio controls for operating the radio installation; and e. _ Be clearly marked with the call sign, the ship station identity and othere. _ Be clearly marked with the call sign, the ship station identity and other codes as applicable for the use of the radio installation.codes as applicable for the use of the radio installation.
    • Control of the VHF radiotelephone channels, required for navigational safety,Control of the VHF radiotelephone channels, required for navigational safety, shall be immediately available on the navigation bridge convenient the conningshall be immediately available on the navigation bridge convenient the conning position and, where necessary, facilities should be available to permit radioposition and, where necessary, facilities should be available to permit radio communications for the wings of the navigation bridge. Portable VHF equipmentcommunications for the wings of the navigation bridge. Portable VHF equipment may be used to meet the latter provision inmay be used to meet the latter provision in passenger shipspassenger ships, a distress panel, a distress panel shall be installed at the conning position. This panel shall contain either on singleshall be installed at the conning position. This panel shall contain either on single button which, when pressed, initiates a distress alert using all radio communicationbutton which, when pressed, initiates a distress alert using all radio communication installations required on board for that purpose or one button for each individualinstallations required on board for that purpose or one button for each individual installation.installation. RADIO PERSONNELRADIO PERSONNEL 1. _ Every ship shall carry personnel qualified for distress and safety radio1. _ Every ship shall carry personnel qualified for distress and safety radio communication purposes to the satisfaction of the Administration. The personnelcommunication purposes to the satisfaction of the Administration. The personnel shall be holders of certificates specified in the Radio Regulations as appropriate, anyshall be holders of certificates specified in the Radio Regulations as appropriate, any one of whom shall be designated to have primary responsibility for radioone of whom shall be designated to have primary responsibility for radio communications during incidents.communications during incidents. 2. _ In passenger ships, at least one person qualified in accordance with2. _ In passenger ships, at least one person qualified in accordance with paragraph 1 shall be assigned to perform only radio communication duties duringparagraph 1 shall be assigned to perform only radio communication duties during incidents.incidents. RADIO RECORDSRADIO RECORDS A record shall be kept, to the satisfaction of the Administration and asA record shall be kept, to the satisfaction of the Administration and as requiredrequired by the Radio Regulations, of all incidents connected with the radio communicationby the Radio Regulations, of all incidents connected with the radio communication service which appear to be of importance to safety of life at sea.service which appear to be of importance to safety of life at sea. DOCUMENTS TO BE CARRIEDDOCUMENTS TO BE CARRIED a. Ships Radio Licensea. Ships Radio License b. Radio Operators Certificatesb. Radio Operators Certificates c. GMDSS Radio Log Bookc. GMDSS Radio Log Book d. ITU list of call signs and numerical identitiesd. ITU list of call signs and numerical identities e. ITU list of Coast Stations, and the charges appliede. ITU list of Coast Stations, and the charges applied f. ITU List of Ships Stationsf. ITU List of Ships Stations g. ITU List of Radio determination and Special servicesg. ITU List of Radio determination and Special services h. ITU Manual for use by the Maritime Mobile and Maritime Mobile-Satelliteh. ITU Manual for use by the Maritime Mobile and Maritime Mobile-Satellite Services _ Admiralty List of Radio Signals (A.L.R.S) Volume I – VIIIServices _ Admiralty List of Radio Signals (A.L.R.S) Volume I – VIII AVOIDANCE OF FALSE DISTRESS ALERTSAVOIDANCE OF FALSE DISTRESS ALERTS:: 1. Switch off equipment immediately.1. Switch off equipment immediately. 2. Switch on equipment and set VHF DSC Ch 16 and MF/HF RT 2182 KHz,2. Switch on equipment and set VHF DSC Ch 16 and MF/HF RT 2182 KHz, MF/HF RT. consecutively on 4, 6, 8, 12 & 16 MHz.MF/HF RT. consecutively on 4, 6, 8, 12 & 16 MHz. 3. Make broadcast to “All Stations” this is vessel name, C/S & MMSI NO.3. Make broadcast to “All Stations” this is vessel name, C/S & MMSI NO. Cancel the false distress Alert.Cancel the false distress Alert. Example:Example: All stations x 3;All stations x 3; This is M.V. AMBA __ VVWGThis is M.V. AMBA __ VVWG MMSI No. 419298000 x 3MMSI No. 419298000 x 3 Position __ 20 21 N _ 089 33 EPosition __ 20 21 N _ 089 33 E Cancel my Distress alert of date xyzCancel my Distress alert of date xyz Time/UTCTime/UTC
    • F _ LIFE SAVING_SEARCH AND RESCUEF _ LIFE SAVING_SEARCH AND RESCUE Knowledge of Muster list and emergency instructions, drills, on-board maintenanceKnowledge of Muster list and emergency instructions, drills, on-board maintenance Operational readiness, MERSAR manual, Various LSA and its usage.Operational readiness, MERSAR manual, Various LSA and its usage. MUSTER LIST AND EMERGENCY INSTRUCTIONSMUSTER LIST AND EMERGENCY INSTRUCTIONS: SOLAS 74, Chapter III,: SOLAS 74, Chapter III, RegulationRegulation 8 and 37.8 and 37. The muster list should specify details of the general alarm signal and also theThe muster list should specify details of the general alarm signal and also the action to be taken by the crew and passengers when this alarm is sounded. Theaction to be taken by the crew and passengers when this alarm is sounded. The muster list shall also specify how the order to abandon ship will be given.muster list shall also specify how the order to abandon ship will be given. The muster list should show the duties assigned to the different members of theThe muster list should show the duties assigned to the different members of the crew including:crew including: 1. _ Closing of watertight doors, fire doors, valves, scuppers, side scuttles,1. _ Closing of watertight doors, fire doors, valves, scuppers, side scuttles, skylights, portholes and similar openings in the ship.skylights, portholes and similar openings in the ship. 2. _ Equipping of the survival craft and other life saving appliances;2. _ Equipping of the survival craft and other life saving appliances; 3. _ Preparation and launching of survival craft;3. _ Preparation and launching of survival craft; 4. _ General preparations of other life-saving appliances4. _ General preparations of other life-saving appliances 5. _ Muster of passengers;5. _ Muster of passengers; 6. _ Use of communication equipment;6. _ Use of communication equipment; 7. _ Manning of fire parties assigned to deal with fires7. _ Manning of fire parties assigned to deal with fires 8. _ Special duties assigned in respect to the use of fire fighting equipment8. _ Special duties assigned in respect to the use of fire fighting equipment and installations _and installations _ Muster list should specify which officers are assigned to ensure that fireMuster list should specify which officers are assigned to ensure that fire appliances are maintained in good condition and ready for immediate use. Musterappliances are maintained in good condition and ready for immediate use. Muster list should specify substitutes for key persons who may become disabled, takinglist should specify substitutes for key persons who may become disabled, taking into account that different emergencies may call for different action.into account that different emergencies may call for different action. Muster list should be prepared before the vessel proceeds to sea and revisedMuster list should be prepared before the vessel proceeds to sea and revised whenever any changes in crew occur.whenever any changes in crew occur. Muster list and emergency instructions complying with the requirements ofMuster list and emergency instructions complying with the requirements of Regulation 37 shall be exhibited in conspicuous places throughout the ship includingRegulation 37 shall be exhibited in conspicuous places throughout the ship including the navigation bridge, engine room and crew accommodation spaces.the navigation bridge, engine room and crew accommodation spaces. Clear instruction to be followed in the event of an emergency should beClear instruction to be followed in the event of an emergency should be provided for every person on board. e.g. In the form of personal card showing theirprovided for every person on board. e.g. In the form of personal card showing their assembly stations, emergency duty and the lifeboat or life raft to which he isassembly stations, emergency duty and the lifeboat or life raft to which he is allocated. In ships with significant numbers of non-English speaking crew theallocated. In ships with significant numbers of non-English speaking crew the emergency instructions should be provided in the appropriate language of theemergency instructions should be provided in the appropriate language of the required by the ship’s flag State and in the English language.required by the ship’s flag State and in the English language. DRILLS:DRILLS: SOLAS 1974, Chapter III, Regulation 19-3.SOLAS 1974, Chapter III, Regulation 19-3. __ Drills shall, as far as practicable,Drills shall, as far as practicable, be conducted as if there were an actual emergency.be conducted as if there were an actual emergency. Each crew member shall participate in at least one abandon ship drill and oneEach crew member shall participate in at least one abandon ship drill and one fire drill every month. The drills of the crew shall take place within 24 h of the shipfire drill every month. The drills of the crew shall take place within 24 h of the ship leaving a port if more than 25% of the crew has not participated in abandon shipleaving a port if more than 25% of the crew has not participated in abandon ship and fire drills on board that particular ship in the previous month. When a shipand fire drills on board that particular ship in the previous month. When a ship enters service for the first time, after modification of a major character or when aenters service for the first time, after modification of a major character or when a new crew is engaged, these drills shall be held before sailing. The Administrationnew crew is engaged, these drills shall be held before sailing. The Administration may accept other arrangements that are at least equivalent for those classes ofmay accept other arrangements that are at least equivalent for those classes of ships for which are impracticable.ships for which are impracticable. ABANDON SHIP DRILLABANDON SHIP DRILL:: Each abandon ship drill shall include:Each abandon ship drill shall include:
    • 1. _ An abandon ship drill is announced by the general emergency alarm1. _ An abandon ship drill is announced by the general emergency alarm signal (Seven or more short blast and followed by the one long blast).signal (Seven or more short blast and followed by the one long blast). 2. _ All crew member and passengers are proceeds to their muster stations2. _ All crew member and passengers are proceeds to their muster stations and prepare for the duties describe in muster list;and prepare for the duties describe in muster list; 3. _ Checking that passengers and crew are suitably dressed;3. _ Checking that passengers and crew are suitably dressed; 4. _ Checking that lifejackets are correctly donned;4. _ Checking that lifejackets are correctly donned; 5. _ Lowering of at least one lifeboat after any necessary preparation for5. _ Lowering of at least one lifeboat after any necessary preparation for launchinglaunching 6. _ Starting and operating the life boat engine;6. _ Starting and operating the life boat engine; 7. _ Operation of davits used for launching life rafts;7. _ Operation of davits used for launching life rafts; 8. _ A mock search and rescue of passengers trapped in their staterooms8. _ A mock search and rescue of passengers trapped in their staterooms 9. _ Instruction in the use of radio life saving appliances9. _ Instruction in the use of radio life saving appliances Each life boats and Rescue boat shall be launched with its assigned operatingEach life boats and Rescue boat shall be launched with its assigned operating crew aboard and manoeuvred in the water at least once every three months duringcrew aboard and manoeuvred in the water at least once every three months during an abandon ship drill. Emergency lighting for mustering and abandonment shall bean abandon ship drill. Emergency lighting for mustering and abandonment shall be tested at each abandon ship drill.tested at each abandon ship drill. ON BOARD MAINTENANCEON BOARD MAINTENANCE SOLAS 1974, Chapter III, Regulation 36SOLAS 1974, Chapter III, Regulation 36 Instructions for on-board maintenance of life-saving appliances, shall be easilyInstructions for on-board maintenance of life-saving appliances, shall be easily understood, illustrated wherever possible, and, as appropriate, shall include theunderstood, illustrated wherever possible, and, as appropriate, shall include the following for each appliance;following for each appliance; 1. _ A checklist for use when carrying out the inspections required by1. _ A checklist for use when carrying out the inspections required by Regulation 20.7 (Inspection of the LSA including lifeboat equipment, shall beRegulation 20.7 (Inspection of the LSA including lifeboat equipment, shall be carried out monthly to ensure that they are complete in good order. A report of thecarried out monthly to ensure that they are complete in good order. A report of the inspection shall be entered in the log-book)inspection shall be entered in the log-book) 2. _ Maintenance and repair instructions;2. _ Maintenance and repair instructions; 3. _ Schedule of periodic maintenance3. _ Schedule of periodic maintenance 4. _ Diagram of lubrication points with the recommended lubricants4. _ Diagram of lubrication points with the recommended lubricants 5. _ List of replaceable parts;5. _ List of replaceable parts; 6.List of sources of spare parts;6.List of sources of spare parts; 7. _ Log for records of inspections and maintenance7. _ Log for records of inspections and maintenance OPERATIONAL READINESSOPERATIONAL READINESS SOLAS 1974, Chapter III, Regulation 20.2SOLAS 1974, Chapter III, Regulation 20.2 Before the ship leaves port and at all times during the voyage, all life-savingBefore the ship leaves port and at all times during the voyage, all life-saving appliances shall be in working order and ready for immediate use.appliances shall be in working order and ready for immediate use. VARIOUSVARIOUS L.S.AL.S.A AND ITS MAINTENANCEAND ITS MAINTENANCE:: 1. Lifeboat Winches Boats to be lowered to Embarkation level, weather1. Lifeboat Winches Boats to be lowered to Embarkation level, weather permitting, to ensure free runningpermitting, to ensure free running 2. Life/Rescue boat Lifeboat Engines to be run up and gear and throttle2. Life/Rescue boat Lifeboat Engines to be run up and gear and throttle Engine operated weekly. Fuel tanks to be checkedEngine operated weekly. Fuel tanks to be checked 3. Signalling Lamp3. Signalling Lamp a. lamp is operating correctlya. lamp is operating correctly b. The independent source of power from the ships main is operatingb. The independent source of power from the ships main is operating correctly.correctly. c. Battery is fully charged.c. Battery is fully charged. 4. Lifeboat Davits4. Lifeboat Davits a. Check condition of davits and ensure that the slides are greased.a. Check condition of davits and ensure that the slides are greased. b. Davits to be oiled and greasedb. Davits to be oiled and greased
    • c. davit limit switches to be checked and repaired if notc. davit limit switches to be checked and repaired if not functioning correctly.functioning correctly. 5. Emergency lighting All lighting to be tested to ensure correct functioning5. Emergency lighting All lighting to be tested to ensure correct functioning of bulbs.of bulbs. 6. Life Jackets _6. Life Jackets _ To check:To check: a. Condition of Life Jacket.a. Condition of Life Jacket. b. Whistle secured to Life Jacket by Lanyard and operating correctly .b. Whistle secured to Life Jacket by Lanyard and operating correctly . c. Life Jacket correctly marked.(ship’s name & POR)c. Life Jacket correctly marked.(ship’s name & POR) d. Retro Reflective Tape in good condition.d. Retro Reflective Tape in good condition. e. Light secured and battery exp. Date checked.e. Light secured and battery exp. Date checked. f. Stowage boxes in good condition and labelled ‘Life jackets”.f. Stowage boxes in good condition and labelled ‘Life jackets”. Renew/Repair as necessary.Renew/Repair as necessary. 7. Navigational Shapes Muster, Condition to be checked and shapes painted7. Navigational Shapes Muster, Condition to be checked and shapes painted asas necessary.necessary. 8. Navigational Lights8. Navigational Lights a. Check all Navigation Lights are operating correctly and sounda. Check all Navigation Lights are operating correctly and sound signals and that the wiring on the fitted lights is in good conditionsignals and that the wiring on the fitted lights is in good condition b. Check spare bulbs and slides.b. Check spare bulbs and slides. c. Check Fog Gong and Striker.c. Check Fog Gong and Striker. d. Check Bell and Striker.d. Check Bell and Striker. e. Check Fog Horn and the condition of spare vibrating reed.e. Check Fog Horn and the condition of spare vibrating reed. 9. Life rafts _ Life rafts are required to be landed annually for servicing.9. Life rafts _ Life rafts are required to be landed annually for servicing. Details of life rafts are to be entered below:Details of life rafts are to be entered below: = Serial Number= Serial Number = Date of Manufacture= Date of Manufacture = Manufacture By= Manufacture By = Capacity= Capacity = Date of last service= Date of last service = Date of next service due= Date of next service due 10. Lifebuoys10. Lifebuoys a. Inspect Lifebuoys and attachments to ensure correct position anda. Inspect Lifebuoys and attachments to ensure correct position and attachment.attachment. b. Lifebuoys to be painted as required.b. Lifebuoys to be painted as required. c. Buoyant Lifeline to be renewed as required 30 mts long.c. Buoyant Lifeline to be renewed as required 30 mts long. d. ‘Man overboard” signals should last for three (3) years from thed. ‘Man overboard” signals should last for three (3) years from the date of manufacture.date of manufacture. e. Mc MURDO S.I. lights should last for a minimum five (5) yearse. Mc MURDO S.I. lights should last for a minimum five (5) years from the date of manufacture. _ Ensure pins are free to move. Open top cover andfrom the date of manufacture. _ Ensure pins are free to move. Open top cover and inspect light. All plugs should be intact and the plastic case containing the batteryinspect light. All plugs should be intact and the plastic case containing the battery should not show any signs of distortion.should not show any signs of distortion. 11. Life/Rescue boat11. Life/Rescue boat a. Examine boats hulls for damagea. Examine boats hulls for damage b. Life boat is correctly marked as; Ship’s Name; Port of Registry;b. Life boat is correctly marked as; Ship’s Name; Port of Registry; Dimensions; Capacity.Dimensions; Capacity. 12. Life boat _ Remove and check all gears are in good condition Equipment12. Life boat _ Remove and check all gears are in good condition Equipment and working satisfactorily. Oars (painted orange colour)and working satisfactorily. Oars (painted orange colour) _ 04 Crutches_ 04 Crutches _ 06 Boat hooks_ 06 Boat hooks _ 02 Boat Plugs_ 02 Boat Plugs
    • _ 02 Buckets-2 gallons_ 02 Buckets-2 gallons _ 02 Bailer (8”dia)_ 02 Bailer (8”dia) _ 01 Hatchet_ 01 Hatchet _ 01 Compass in binnacle w/light_ 01 Compass in binnacle w/light _ 01 Sea anchor w/lines_ 01 Sea anchor w/lines _ 01 Parachute Signals_ 01 Parachute Signals _ 04 Hand Flare_ 04 Hand Flare _ 06 Buoyant Smoke Flares_ 06 Buoyant Smoke Flares _ 02 First Aid outfit in W/T case_ 02 First Aid outfit in W/T case _ 01 Electric torch, Spare batteries And bulbs_ 01 Electric torch, Spare batteries And bulbs _ 01 Daylight signalling mirror_ 01 Daylight signalling mirror _ 01 Jack knife_ 01 Jack knife _ 01 Buoyant Heaving Lines (30 m) _ With Rescue quoits_ 01 Buoyant Heaving Lines (30 m) _ With Rescue quoits _ 02 Manual pump_ 02 Manual pump _ 01 Whistle_ 01 Whistle _ 01 Fishing tackle with 6 hooks_ 01 Fishing tackle with 6 hooks _ 01 Lifeboat boarding ladder_ 01 Lifeboat boarding ladder _ 01 Life saving signalling table_ 01 Life saving signalling table _ 01 Portable Fire Ext_ 01 Portable Fire Ext _ 01 Survival Manual_ 01 Survival Manual _ 01 Radar Reflector_ 01 Radar Reflector _ 01 Engine Tools_ 01 Engine Tools _ 01 set_ 01 set T P AT P A 10% Capacity Immersion Suit10% Capacity Immersion Suit 13. Emergency Steering Check / try out Emergency Steering Gear before13. Emergency Steering Check / try out Emergency Steering Gear before departure Gear and entering harbour.departure Gear and entering harbour. 14. Immersion Suits14. Immersion Suits 15. Thermal Protective Aids15. Thermal Protective Aids 16. Anti-exposure suits16. Anti-exposure suits 17. Rocket parachute flares17. Rocket parachute flares 18. Hand Flares18. Hand Flares 19. Buoyant smoke signals19. Buoyant smoke signals 20. Rescue boats20. Rescue boats 21. Marine evacuation systems21. Marine evacuation systems 22. Line throwing appliances22. Line throwing appliances IAMSAR/MERSAR MANUALIAMSAR/MERSAR MANUAL:: G.SAFETY OF NAVIGATIONG.SAFETY OF NAVIGATION Knowledge of:Knowledge of: (a) Distress messages; Obligation and procedures,(a) Distress messages; Obligation and procedures, (b) Manning,(b) Manning, (c) Collision regulations,(c) Collision regulations, (d) Ships reporting system.(d) Ships reporting system. (e) Navigation in special areas such as offshore installation and structures.(e) Navigation in special areas such as offshore installation and structures. (f) Avoidance of dangerous situation in following and quartering sea.(f) Avoidance of dangerous situation in following and quartering sea. (g) Aspects of ships handling with or without tugs.(g) Aspects of ships handling with or without tugs. (h) Anchoring and berthing vessel under the influence of tide and wind.(h) Anchoring and berthing vessel under the influence of tide and wind. (i) Piracy and Armed robbery against ships.(i) Piracy and Armed robbery against ships. (j) Stowaway.(j) Stowaway. (k) National and International obligation following collision, grounding.(k) National and International obligation following collision, grounding. (l) Methods of re-floating ship,(l) Methods of re-floating ship,
    • (m) Survival procedures.(m) Survival procedures. (n) Precaution when beaching.(n) Precaution when beaching. DISTRESS MESSAGES: OBLIGATIONS AND PROCEDURESDISTRESS MESSAGES: OBLIGATIONS AND PROCEDURES:: SOLAS 1974, Chapter V,SOLAS 1974, Chapter V, Safety of Navigation, Regulation 33.Safety of Navigation, Regulation 33. 1. The master of a ship at sea which is in a position to be able to provide1. The master of a ship at sea which is in a position to be able to provide assistance, on receiving a signal from any source that persons are in distress atassistance, on receiving a signal from any source that persons are in distress at sea, is bound to proceed with all speed to their assistance, if possible informingsea, is bound to proceed with all speed to their assistance, if possible informing them or the search and rescue service that the ship is doing so. If the shipthem or the search and rescue service that the ship is doing so. If the ship receiving the distress alert is unable or, in the special circumstance of the casereceiving the distress alert is unable or, in the special circumstance of the case considers it unreasonable or unnecessary to proceed to their assistance, the masterconsiders it unreasonable or unnecessary to proceed to their assistance, the master must enter in the log-book the reason for failing to proceed to the assistance of themust enter in the log-book the reason for failing to proceed to the assistance of the persons in distress, taking into account the recommendation of the Organization topersons in distress, taking into account the recommendation of the Organization to inform the appropriate search and rescue service accordingly.inform the appropriate search and rescue service accordingly. 2. The master of a ship in distress or the SAR service concerned, after2. The master of a ship in distress or the SAR service concerned, after consultation, so far as may be possible, with the masters of ships which answer theconsultation, so far as may be possible, with the masters of ships which answer the distress alert, has the right to requisition one or more of those ships as the masterdistress alert, has the right to requisition one or more of those ships as the master of the ship in distress or the SAR service considers best able to render assistance,of the ship in distress or the SAR service considers best able to render assistance, and it shall be the duty of the master or masters of the ship or ships requisitionedand it shall be the duty of the master or masters of the ship or ships requisitioned to comply with the requisition by continuing to proceed with all speed to theto comply with the requisition by continuing to proceed with all speed to the assistance of persons in distress.assistance of persons in distress. 3. Masters of ships shall be released from the obligation imposed by3. Masters of ships shall be released from the obligation imposed by paragraph 1 on learning that their ships have not been requisitioned and that on orparagraph 1 on learning that their ships have not been requisitioned and that on or more other ships have been requisitioned and are complying with the requisition.more other ships have been requisitioned and are complying with the requisition. This decision shall, if possible, be communicated to the other requisitioned shipsThis decision shall, if possible, be communicated to the other requisitioned ships and to the SAR serviceand to the SAR service 4. The master of a ship shall be released from the obligation imposed by4. The master of a ship shall be released from the obligation imposed by paragraph 1 and, if his ship has been requisitioned, from the obligation imposed byparagraph 1 and, if his ship has been requisitioned, from the obligation imposed by paragraph 2 on being informed by the persons in distress or by the SAR service orparagraph 2 on being informed by the persons in distress or by the SAR service or by the master of another ship which has reached such persons that assistance is noby the master of another ship which has reached such persons that assistance is no longer necessary.longer necessary. SHIP’S MANNING:SHIP’S MANNING: 1. Contracting Governments undertake, each for its national ships, to maintain,1. Contracting Governments undertake, each for its national ships, to maintain, or, if is necessary, to adopt, measures for the purpose of ensuring that, from theor, if is necessary, to adopt, measures for the purpose of ensuring that, from the point of safety of life at sea, all ships shall be sufficiently and efficiently manned.point of safety of life at sea, all ships shall be sufficiently and efficiently manned. 2. Every ship to which chapter 1 applies shall be provided with an appropriate2. Every ship to which chapter 1 applies shall be provided with an appropriate minimum safe manning document or equivalent issued by the Administration asminimum safe manning document or equivalent issued by the Administration as evidence of the minimum safe, manning considered necessary to comply with theevidence of the minimum safe, manning considered necessary to comply with the provision of paragraph 1.provision of paragraph 1. 3. On all ships, to ensure effective crew performance in safety matters, a3. On all ships, to ensure effective crew performance in safety matters, a working language shall be established and recorded in the ship’s log book. Theworking language shall be established and recorded in the ship’s log book. The company, as defined in regulation IX/1, or the master, as appropriate, shallcompany, as defined in regulation IX/1, or the master, as appropriate, shall determine the appropriate working language, give orders and instructions and todetermine the appropriate working language, give orders and instructions and to report back in that language. If the working language is not an official language ofreport back in that language. If the working language is not an official language of
    • the State whose flag the ship is entitled to fly, all plans and lists required to bethe State whose flag the ship is entitled to fly, all plans and lists required to be posted shall include a translation into the working language.posted shall include a translation into the working language. 4. On ships to which chapter I applies, English shall be used on the bridge as4. On ships to which chapter I applies, English shall be used on the bridge as working language for bridge-to-bridge and bridge-to-shore safety communicationsworking language for bridge-to-bridge and bridge-to-shore safety communications as well as for communications on board between the pilot and bridge watch keepingas well as for communications on board between the pilot and bridge watch keeping personnel, unless those directly involved in the communication speak a commonpersonnel, unless those directly involved in the communication speak a common language other than English.language other than English. SHIPS REPORTING SYSTEMS:SHIPS REPORTING SYSTEMS: SOLAS 1974, Chapter V, Safety of Navigation Regulation 11.SOLAS 1974, Chapter V, Safety of Navigation Regulation 11. 1. Ships reporting systems contribute to safety of life at sea, safety and1. Ships reporting systems contribute to safety of life at sea, safety and efficiency of navigation and/or protection of the marine environment. A shipefficiency of navigation and/or protection of the marine environment. A ship reporting system, when adopted and implemented in accordance with thereporting system, when adopted and implemented in accordance with the guidelines and criteria developed by the organization pursuant to this regulation,guidelines and criteria developed by the organization pursuant to this regulation, shall be used by all ships or certain categories of ships or ships carrying certainshall be used by all ships or certain categories of ships or ships carrying certain cargoes in accordance with the provisions of each system so adopted.cargoes in accordance with the provisions of each system so adopted. 2. Ships reporting systems and reporting requirements are used to provide,2. Ships reporting systems and reporting requirements are used to provide, gather or exchange information through radio reports. The information is used togather or exchange information through radio reports. The information is used to provide data for many purposes including search and rescue, vessel traffic services,provide data for many purposes including search and rescue, vessel traffic services, weather forecasting and prevention of marine pollution.weather forecasting and prevention of marine pollution. 3.3. PROCEDURES _PROCEDURES _ Reports should be sent as followsReports should be sent as follows A.A. Sailing Plan (SP)Sailing Plan (SP) _ Before or as near as possible to the time of_ Before or as near as possible to the time of departure from adeparture from a port within system or when entering the area covered by aport within system or when entering the area covered by a system.system. B.B. Position Report (PR)Position Report (PR) – when necessary to ensure effective operation of– when necessary to ensure effective operation of the system.the system. C.C. Deviation Report (DR)Deviation Report (DR) – When the ship’s position varies significantly– When the ship’s position varies significantly from thefrom the position that would have been predicted from previous reports, whenposition that would have been predicted from previous reports, when changing the reported route, or as decided by the master.changing the reported route, or as decided by the master. D.D. Final Report (FR)Final Report (FR) – On arrival at destination and when leaving the area– On arrival at destination and when leaving the area covered bycovered by a system.a system. E.E. Dangerous goods report (DG)Dangerous goods report (DG) – When an incident takes place– When an incident takes place involving the loss orinvolving the loss or likely loss overboard of packaged dangerous goods, includinglikely loss overboard of packaged dangerous goods, including those in freight containers, portable tanks, road and rail vehicles and ship bornethose in freight containers, portable tanks, road and rail vehicles and ship borne barges, into sea.barges, into sea. F.F. Harmful substances report (HS)Harmful substances report (HS) – When incident takes place involving– When incident takes place involving thethe discharge of probable discharge of oil (Annex 1 of MARPOL 73/78) or noxiousdischarge of probable discharge of oil (Annex 1 of MARPOL 73/78) or noxious liquid substances (Annex II of MARPOL 73/78).liquid substances (Annex II of MARPOL 73/78). G.G. Marine pollutants report (MP)Marine pollutants report (MP) – in the case or likely loss overboard of– in the case or likely loss overboard of harmfulharmful substances in packaged form including those in freight containers, portablesubstances in packaged form including those in freight containers, portable tanks, road and rail vehicle and ship borne barges, identified in the Internationaltanks, road and rail vehicle and ship borne barges, identified in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code as marine pollutants (Annex III MARPOL 73/78).Maritime Dangerous Goods Code as marine pollutants (Annex III MARPOL 73/78). H.H. Any other reportAny other report – Any other report should made in accordance with– Any other report should made in accordance with the systemthe system procedures. Details of types of ships and areas of applicability of timesprocedures. Details of types of ships and areas of applicability of times and geographical positions for submitting reports, of shore establishmentsand geographical positions for submitting reports, of shore establishments responsible for operation of the system and of the services provided should beresponsible for operation of the system and of the services provided should be clearly specified.clearly specified. ASPECTS OF SHIPS HANDLINGASPECTS OF SHIPS HANDLING
    • SQUAT:SQUAT: As a ship moves in shallow water, then water pushed ahead by the vesselAs a ship moves in shallow water, then water pushed ahead by the vessel is replacedis replaced by water running down the sides and under the keel of the vessel. Theby water running down the sides and under the keel of the vessel. The increase speed of water flow causes a drop in pressure and therefore a loss ofincrease speed of water flow causes a drop in pressure and therefore a loss of buoyancy, hence the ship drops vertically in water, there is also a change in trim.buoyancy, hence the ship drops vertically in water, there is also a change in trim. This effect is known as “Squat”_ The Squat effect has always existed, however hasThis effect is known as “Squat”_ The Squat effect has always existed, however has acquired importance as the size and speed of ships has increased. The effect isacquired importance as the size and speed of ships has increased. The effect is more pronounced on large full form vessels and increases with increase in speed ofmore pronounced on large full form vessels and increases with increase in speed of the vessel.the vessel. Block coefficient is another factor governing squatBlock coefficient is another factor governing squat Formula for calculating Squat in confined waterFormula for calculating Squat in confined water Squat = 2 x Block coefficient x Speed/100 (in Knots in still water) And in openSquat = 2 x Block coefficient x Speed/100 (in Knots in still water) And in open shallow watershallow water Squat = Block coefficient x Speed/100 (in knots in still water)Squat = Block coefficient x Speed/100 (in knots in still water) Shallow water effectShallow water effect Ship behaviour changes with change in depth of water. The effects startShip behaviour changes with change in depth of water. The effects start showing as the under keel clearance is equal to draft. Ship moving through watershowing as the under keel clearance is equal to draft. Ship moving through water pushes water ahead of her. In order not ”hole” in the water the volume of waterpushes water ahead of her. In order not ”hole” in the water the volume of water pushed ahead of the ship must return down the sides and under the keel of thepushed ahead of the ship must return down the sides and under the keel of the ship. The stream lines of return flow are speeded up below the ship; this causes aship. The stream lines of return flow are speeded up below the ship; this causes a drop in pressure, resulting in the ship dropping vertically in the water. In deepdrop in pressure, resulting in the ship dropping vertically in the water. In deep water this flow of water has a vertical dimension. As the under keel clearancewater this flow of water has a vertical dimension. As the under keel clearance reduces the flow of water acquires a more horizontal movement signs that ship hasreduces the flow of water acquires a more horizontal movement signs that ship has entered shallow water can be:entered shallow water can be: 1. Wave making increases in the force end of ship.1. Wave making increases in the force end of ship. 2. Vessel becomes sluggish to man oeuvre.2. Vessel becomes sluggish to man oeuvre. 3. Draught increases due to squat.3. Draught increases due to squat. 4. RPM indicator will show a decrease – in open water may be up to 15%4. RPM indicator will show a decrease – in open water may be up to 15% and in narrow channels up to 20% of service RPM.and in narrow channels up to 20% of service RPM. 5. Drop in speed, in open waters up to 30% and in narrow channels may be5. Drop in speed, in open waters up to 30% and in narrow channels may be up to 60% drop in speed.up to 60% drop in speed. 6. Ship may start to vibrate suddenly because of the entrained water effect6. Ship may start to vibrate suddenly because of the entrained water effect causing the natural hull frequency to resonate with another frequency.causing the natural hull frequency to resonate with another frequency. BowBow cushioncushion When a ship is making headway, a positive pressure area builds up forwardWhen a ship is making headway, a positive pressure area builds up forward ofof the pivot point, this is known as bow cushion. Aft of the pivot point the flow ofthe pivot point, this is known as bow cushion. Aft of the pivot point the flow of water down the ship sides creates a low pressure area.water down the ship sides creates a low pressure area. Bank effectBank effect When ship closes into a vertical obstruction, such as a shoal or canal bank,When ship closes into a vertical obstruction, such as a shoal or canal bank, thethe positive pressure at the bow causes a bow cushion effect making the bowpositive pressure at the bow causes a bow cushion effect making the bow cushion away from the obstruction. The low pressure area abaft the pivot pointcushion away from the obstruction. The low pressure area abaft the pivot point causes a suction effect with the bank. Since this suction effect is working well aft ofcauses a suction effect with the bank. Since this suction effect is working well aft of the pivot point this is consequently a stronger force which will need to bethe pivot point this is consequently a stronger force which will need to be counteracted by a large corrective helm.counteracted by a large corrective helm. The higher the speed, greater is the bank suction effect because the magnitudeThe higher the speed, greater is the bank suction effect because the magnitude of the forces varies with the square of the water flow.of the forces varies with the square of the water flow. SHIP-TO-SHIP INTERACTIONSHIP-TO-SHIP INTERACTION A fundamental theorem of hydrodynamics –A fundamental theorem of hydrodynamics – Bernoulli’s theoremBernoulli’s theorem relates therelates the local velocity to the local pressure and states in essence that as the flow velocitylocal velocity to the local pressure and states in essence that as the flow velocity increases locally so the local pressure will decrease,. It in fact states more than thisincreases locally so the local pressure will decrease,. It in fact states more than this
    • as it relates the change in pressure to the change in the square of the velocity, soas it relates the change in pressure to the change in the square of the velocity, so that a change in flow velocity can have a pronounced effect on the local pressurethat a change in flow velocity can have a pronounced effect on the local pressure head.head. Head-on encounterHead-on encounter When two ships move in close accompany at the same speed the openWhen two ships move in close accompany at the same speed the open seasea pressure field around one ship is changed by the presence of the other. In a headpressure field around one ship is changed by the presence of the other. In a head on encounter where two ships approach each other on parallel courses the higheston encounter where two ships approach each other on parallel courses the highest passing speeds will occur. When two ships meet on a reciprocal courses the highpassing speeds will occur. When two ships meet on a reciprocal courses the high (positive) pressure regions near the bows tend to repel each other so that the ships(positive) pressure regions near the bows tend to repel each other so that the ships turn away, the low (negative) pressure regions over the mid body then causes theturn away, the low (negative) pressure regions over the mid body then causes the ships to be sucked together. As the passing speeds are high the pressure fieldsships to be sucked together. As the passing speeds are high the pressure fields have little time to change form their “open sea” configurations.have little time to change form their “open sea” configurations. Overtaking encounterOvertaking encounter As overtaking ship approaches the stern of ship being overtaken itsAs overtaking ship approaches the stern of ship being overtaken its bowbow pressure zone will put pressure on the rudder of overtaken ship causing it to shearpressure zone will put pressure on the rudder of overtaken ship causing it to shear across the path of overtaking ship. The overtaking vessel will also feel the lowacross the path of overtaking ship. The overtaking vessel will also feel the low pressure area astern of overtaken ship and will exhibit a tendency to turn into thepressure area astern of overtaken ship and will exhibit a tendency to turn into the stern of overtaken ship. When the two ships are abeam, a high pressure zone existsstern of overtaken ship. When the two ships are abeam, a high pressure zone exists between their bows and a low pressure zone at their mid ships and stern. This is abetween their bows and a low pressure zone at their mid ships and stern. This is a powerful force and a helm towards the other ship must be given to counteract thispowerful force and a helm towards the other ship must be given to counteract this force. As overtaking vessel passes vessel being overtaken, the vessel beingforce. As overtaking vessel passes vessel being overtaken, the vessel being overtaken bow may be influenced by overtaking vessels negative suction at theovertaken bow may be influenced by overtaking vessels negative suction at the same time vessel being overtaken stern could be sucked towards the bank due tosame time vessel being overtaken stern could be sucked towards the bank due to the bank effect.the bank effect. AXIAL THURSTAXIAL THURST:: Is the force which causes a ship to move ahead or astern through the water?Is the force which causes a ship to move ahead or astern through the water? The axial thrust is most efficient when the propeller is moving the ship aheadThe axial thrust is most efficient when the propeller is moving the ship ahead because the lines of a ship are designed for that purpose. It is less efficient whenbecause the lines of a ship are designed for that purpose. It is less efficient when the propeller is going astern (60 % or equivalent to half ahead) because thethe propeller is going astern (60 % or equivalent to half ahead) because the throwing up of water against the ship’s stern prevents the setting up of a smooththrowing up of water against the ship’s stern prevents the setting up of a smooth flow of water through the propeller.flow of water through the propeller. TRANSVERSE THRUSTTRANSVERSE THRUST:: Is the sideways thrust of the propeller blades as they rotate?Is the sideways thrust of the propeller blades as they rotate? Right handed propellers the resultant thrust tends to cant a vessel’s stern toRight handed propellers the resultant thrust tends to cant a vessel’s stern to starboard and her head to port when the engines are put ahead.starboard and her head to port when the engines are put ahead. __ When right handed propeller is put astern the result is a pronounced kick of__ When right handed propeller is put astern the result is a pronounced kick of the stern to port, so that the head cants to starboard.the stern to port, so that the head cants to starboard. __ Left handed propellers the resultant thrust tends to cant a vessel’s stern to__ Left handed propellers the resultant thrust tends to cant a vessel’s stern to port and her head to starboard when the engines are put ahead.port and her head to starboard when the engines are put ahead. __ When left handed propeller is put astern the result is a pronounced kick of__ When left handed propeller is put astern the result is a pronounced kick of the stern to starboard, so that the head cants to portthe stern to starboard, so that the head cants to port TURNING CIRCLETURNING CIRCLE When it is required to a/c precisely, it should be remembered that aWhen it is required to a/c precisely, it should be remembered that a rudderrudder acts on the stern of a vessel. The rudder should be put over as the bow comes upacts on the stern of a vessel. The rudder should be put over as the bow comes up to the point of turn to make allowance for this and for the “ADVANCE” which will beto the point of turn to make allowance for this and for the “ADVANCE” which will be made before the start of the turn proper.made before the start of the turn proper. When vessel rudder is put hard over with engine full ahead , the lines indicateWhen vessel rudder is put hard over with engine full ahead , the lines indicate
    • the path of the vessels pivoting point, the slightly smaller turning circle to portthe path of the vessels pivoting point, the slightly smaller turning circle to port being due to the effect of the transverse thrust. When the rudder is first put overbeing due to the effect of the transverse thrust. When the rudder is first put over the vessel begins to swing about its pivoting point which is usually a little forwardthe vessel begins to swing about its pivoting point which is usually a little forward of a amidships, the pivoting point however continues to trace a straight path forof a amidships, the pivoting point however continues to trace a straight path for about a ships length, this distance being known as the “ADVANCE”. As the vesselabout a ships length, this distance being known as the “ADVANCE”. As the vessel swings she loses speed over through the engines are kept at full ahead and afterswings she loses speed over through the engines are kept at full ahead and after 180 degree of turn, speed will have been reduced to about 75 % of full speed and180 degree of turn, speed will have been reduced to about 75 % of full speed and thereafter it will remain constant. The diameter of the turning circle also remainsthereafter it will remain constant. The diameter of the turning circle also remains constant after this point and in a typical 10,000 t ship it might measure three shipconstant after this point and in a typical 10,000 t ship it might measure three ship lengths.lengths. WILLIAMSON TURNWILLIAMSON TURN Has been developed to achieve a similar object i.e. to return to aHas been developed to achieve a similar object i.e. to return to a certain startingcertain starting position more quickly. If a man is lost overboard the wheel should again be putposition more quickly. If a man is lost overboard the wheel should again be put hard over towards the man and held hard over, when ship is heading about 70hard over towards the man and held hard over, when ship is heading about 70 degree form her original course, the wheel is put hard over in the opposite directiondegree form her original course, the wheel is put hard over in the opposite direction until the ship is on a course reciprocal to the first course. Steadying upon thisuntil the ship is on a course reciprocal to the first course. Steadying upon this course should bring the vessel back to the man in the water. This manoeuvrecourse should bring the vessel back to the man in the water. This manoeuvre depends for its success on the angle at which the helm is reversed and is notdepends for its success on the angle at which the helm is reversed and is not recommended for Merchant ships since the angle should be varied not only fromrecommended for Merchant ships since the angle should be varied not only from ship to ship but also with difference conditions of loading and trim. It is useful as anship to ship but also with difference conditions of loading and trim. It is useful as an approx method if the position of the man can be marked by lifebuoysapprox method if the position of the man can be marked by lifebuoys with light at night.with light at night. THE EFFECT OF WINDTHE EFFECT OF WIND When a vessel is going ahead her pivoting point is a little forwardsWhen a vessel is going ahead her pivoting point is a little forwards a mida mid ships and the effect of a beam wind depends upon the area presented to the windships and the effect of a beam wind depends upon the area presented to the wind forward and abaft this point. In most cargo ships the bow tends to fall off the wind,forward and abaft this point. In most cargo ships the bow tends to fall off the wind, but in vessels such as tankers with many superstructures aft the bow tends to flybut in vessels such as tankers with many superstructures aft the bow tends to fly up into the wind. The effect is generally slight and very little rudder is necessary toup into the wind. The effect is generally slight and very little rudder is necessary to counteract it. When vessel is affected by a beam wind she makes a certain amountcounteract it. When vessel is affected by a beam wind she makes a certain amount of “LEEWAY”.of “LEEWAY”. LEEWAYLEEWAY Leeway may be defined as the angle between the ship’s head and the courseLeeway may be defined as the angle between the ship’s head and the course sheshe makes through the water and it may be estimated when a ship steering amakes through the water and it may be estimated when a ship steering a steady course by noting the angle between the wake and her fore and aft line.steady course by noting the angle between the wake and her fore and aft line. When manoeuvring it is important to relies that the leeway angle increases as aWhen manoeuvring it is important to relies that the leeway angle increases as a ship’s speed decrease.ship’s speed decrease. THE EFFECT OF CURRENT OR TIDETHE EFFECT OF CURRENT OR TIDE Is to set a ship bodily? It is particularly importantIs to set a ship bodily? It is particularly important __ __ When setting across a ship’s course as it frequently does when approaching the__ When setting across a ship’s course as it frequently does when approaching the entrance to a harbour or channel. It is best allowed for if a leading line can beentrance to a harbour or channel. It is best allowed for if a leading line can be chose from fixed objects in transit ashore and the ship steered to keep them in line.chose from fixed objects in transit ashore and the ship steered to keep them in line. Falling this an estimate must be made of the strength of the current and the courseFalling this an estimate must be made of the strength of the current and the course set to counteract it. Moored objects such as buoys, vessel at anchor etc. give aset to counteract it. Moored objects such as buoys, vessel at anchor etc. give a good indication of current strength and direction.good indication of current strength and direction. __ When a vessel in a tideway is made fast to the ground by a line or anchor, the__ When a vessel in a tideway is made fast to the ground by a line or anchor, the ship can’t move bodily with the tide and the rudder may be used to deflect the flowship can’t move bodily with the tide and the rudder may be used to deflect the flow past the ship and thus to give the ship a sheer. The pressure of the tide on the shippast the ship and thus to give the ship a sheer. The pressure of the tide on the ship
    • may also create a couple with the tension on the mooring line thus tending to swingmay also create a couple with the tension on the mooring line thus tending to swing the ship round. These effects are made use of latter in various berthing and un-the ship round. These effects are made use of latter in various berthing and un- berthing manoeuvres.berthing manoeuvres. LOCAL EFFECTSLOCAL EFFECTS In narrow channels a vessel underway tends to find the centre ofIn narrow channels a vessel underway tends to find the centre of channel. Achannel. A vessel approaching one bank of the channel tends to be pushed away by the buildvessel approaching one bank of the channel tends to be pushed away by the build up of water on that side. For this reason a vessel needs very little helm to negotiateup of water on that side. For this reason a vessel needs very little helm to negotiate a bend in the channel and may in fact require opposite helm to prevent too violenta bend in the channel and may in fact require opposite helm to prevent too violent a swing developing.a swing developing. A gravitational attraction is experienced between ships and land masses, butA gravitational attraction is experienced between ships and land masses, but this is seldom important enough to be taken into consideration.this is seldom important enough to be taken into consideration. ALL MANOEUVRES –ALL MANOEUVRES – SINGLE RIGHT HANDED PROPELLER VESSELSINGLE RIGHT HANDED PROPELLER VESSEL BERTHING PORT SIDE TO (No wind or tide)BERTHING PORT SIDE TO (No wind or tide) 1. Slow ahead1. Slow ahead 2. Stop – half astern (when the engine is put astern to check the vessel’s2. Stop – half astern (when the engine is put astern to check the vessel’s way, the effect of transverse thrust is to swing the stern in towards the berth.way, the effect of transverse thrust is to swing the stern in towards the berth. 3. Stop.3. Stop. BERTHING STARBOARD SIDE TO (No wind or tide)BERTHING STARBOARD SIDE TO (No wind or tide) 1. Slow ahead, wheel to port;1. Slow ahead, wheel to port; 2. Stop – wheel mid ships – half astern - (when the engines are put astern2. Stop – wheel mid ships – half astern - (when the engines are put astern to check the vessel’s way is to swing the stern away from the berth.to check the vessel’s way is to swing the stern away from the berth. _ Using port wheel to swing the stern in towards the berth_ Using port wheel to swing the stern in towards the berth _ Judgment is necessary to ensure that the effect of transverse thrust when the_ Judgment is necessary to ensure that the effect of transverse thrust when the engines are put astern)engines are put astern) 3. Stop3. Stop BERTHING WITH TIDE AHEADBERTHING WITH TIDE AHEAD When a tide running, the approach to a berth shouldWhen a tide running, the approach to a berth should always be madealways be made stemming the tide _stemming the tide _ 1. Slow ahead - the vessel should be taken to a position about half a ship1. Slow ahead - the vessel should be taken to a position about half a ship length off the berth and about half a ship length ahead of the berth.length off the berth and about half a ship length ahead of the berth. 2. Stop engines. Let go offshore anchor - cable should be payout until the2. Stop engines. Let go offshore anchor - cable should be payout until the vessel has dropped back abreast of the berth (about 2 shackles). and the ruddervessel has dropped back abreast of the berth (about 2 shackles). and the rudder should then be put over towards the berth to sheer her alongside.should then be put over towards the berth to sheer her alongside. 3. Pay out cable - rudder to port - sheers vessel towards berth - and the3. Pay out cable - rudder to port - sheers vessel towards berth - and the rudder should then be put over towards the berth to sheer her alongside.rudder should then be put over towards the berth to sheer her alongside. BERTHING WITH WIND OFFSHOREBERTHING WITH WIND OFFSHORE To prevent excessive leeway, the approach should be made at a large angleTo prevent excessive leeway, the approach should be made at a large angle to the berth. A messenger line should be passed outside everything from aftto the berth. A messenger line should be passed outside everything from aft forward, on the shoreward side of the ship (forward, on the shoreward side of the ship (slow aheadslow ahead).). When the bow is in position, a headline and a back spring should be sent ashoreWhen the bow is in position, a headline and a back spring should be sent ashore and also the end of the messenger (and also the end of the messenger (stops if necessary, give touch asternstops if necessary, give touch astern)) By means of the messenger, two stern lines can be sent away and these may beBy means of the messenger, two stern lines can be sent away and these may be used to (used to (heave the vessel’s stern alongside)heave the vessel’s stern alongside).. BERTHING WITH WIND ONSHOREBERTHING WITH WIND ONSHORE
    • To prevent excessive leeway, approach is againTo prevent excessive leeway, approach is again made at a large angle to themade at a large angle to the berth. To control the bows and prevent them from being set down too heavily ontoberth. To control the bows and prevent them from being set down too heavily onto the berth, the offshore anchor is dropped under foot and dragged into the berth.the berth, the offshore anchor is dropped under foot and dragged into the berth. Sufficient cable should be pay out 1.5 shackle) to exert a drag which will enable theSufficient cable should be pay out 1.5 shackle) to exert a drag which will enable the engines to be kept going slow ahead although the ship makes very little way overengines to be kept going slow ahead although the ship makes very little way over the ground.the ground. The stream of water from the propeller enables the stern to be kept up intoThe stream of water from the propeller enables the stern to be kept up into the wind by using the rudder (slow ahead, let go offshore anchor onto bottom).the wind by using the rudder (slow ahead, let go offshore anchor onto bottom). Fenders should be rigged forward and the engines stopped in time to bring the bowFenders should be rigged forward and the engines stopped in time to bring the bow gently up against the berth (drag anchor into berth. Stop engines. Send away backgently up against the berth (drag anchor into berth. Stop engines. Send away back spring)spring) Once the engines are stopped the wind starts to take the stern down ontoOnce the engines are stopped the wind starts to take the stern down onto the berth. A back spring should be sent away from the forward as soon as possiblethe berth. A back spring should be sent away from the forward as soon as possible and when fast the engines should be put to slow ahead. By using the rudder andand when fast the engines should be put to slow ahead. By using the rudder and keeping the engines going at constant speed, the rate at which the stern dropskeeping the engines going at constant speed, the rate at which the stern drops alongside may be controlled (slow ahead. Use rudder to control rate at which sternalongside may be controlled (slow ahead. Use rudder to control rate at which stern drops).drops). Once all is fast alongside, it is generally preferable to have the anchor home.Once all is fast alongside, it is generally preferable to have the anchor home. PIRACY AND ARMED ROBBERY AGAINT SHIPSPIRACY AND ARMED ROBBERY AGAINT SHIPS The Maritime Safety Committee,The Maritime Safety Committee, circular 623 revisions 1 dated 16 June 1999.circular 623 revisions 1 dated 16 June 1999. (Guidance to ship owners and ship operators, shipmasters and crews on preventing(Guidance to ship owners and ship operators, shipmasters and crews on preventing and suppressing acts of piracy and armed robbery against ships). This circular aimsand suppressing acts of piracy and armed robbery against ships). This circular aims at bringing to the attention of ship-owners, masters and crews the precautions toat bringing to the attention of ship-owners, masters and crews the precautions to be taken to reduce the risks of piracy on the high seas and armed robbery againstbe taken to reduce the risks of piracy on the high seas and armed robbery against ships at anchor off ports or when underway through a coastal State’s territorialships at anchor off ports or when underway through a coastal State’s territorial waters. It outlines steps that should be taken to reduce the risk of such attacks,waters. It outlines steps that should be taken to reduce the risk of such attacks, possible reasons to them and the vital need to report attacks, both successful andpossible reasons to them and the vital need to report attacks, both successful and unsuccessful to the authorities of the relevant coastal State and to the ships ownunsuccessful to the authorities of the relevant coastal State and to the ships own maritime Administration. Such reports are to be made as soon as possible, tomaritime Administration. Such reports are to be made as soon as possible, to enable necessary action to be taken.enable necessary action to be taken. The pirates / robbers objectiveThe pirates / robbers objective In addition to hijacking of ships, and the theft of cargo, theIn addition to hijacking of ships, and the theft of cargo, the main targets ofmain targets of the South East Asian attackers appear to be cash in the ship’s safe, crewthe South East Asian attackers appear to be cash in the ship’s safe, crew possessions and any other portable ship’s equipment even including coils of rope.possessions and any other portable ship’s equipment even including coils of rope. In South America some piracy and armed robbery attacks are drug related. WhenIn South America some piracy and armed robbery attacks are drug related. When there has been evidence of tampering with containers, it has been suggested thatthere has been evidence of tampering with containers, it has been suggested that the raiders may initially have gained access when the ship was berthed in port andthe raiders may initially have gained access when the ship was berthed in port and then gone over the side, with what they could carry. Thorough checking of shipsthen gone over the side, with what they could carry. Thorough checking of ships compartments and securing before leaving ports is therefore recommended.compartments and securing before leaving ports is therefore recommended. Reducing the temptation for piracy and armed robbery by theReducing the temptation for piracy and armed robbery by the following _following _ 1. Watch over the ship and the cargo1. Watch over the ship and the cargo 2. Illuminate the ship and its side2. Illuminate the ship and its side 3. Establish communication for outside support3. Establish communication for outside support 4. Control of accesses to cargo & to living quarters _4. Control of accesses to cargo & to living quarters _ 5. Keep the portholes closed5. Keep the portholes closed 6. Do not leave valuables expose6. Do not leave valuables expose 7. Keep the gangway raised7. Keep the gangway raised 8. In case of assault8. In case of assault ii. does not hesitate to sound the ship’s general alarm in case of a threat. does not hesitate to sound the ship’s general alarm in case of a threat
    • of assault.of assault. iiii. Try to keep adequate lighting to permanently dazzle the opponents, in. Try to keep adequate lighting to permanently dazzle the opponents, in case of an attempt by strangers to climb the ship’s side;case of an attempt by strangers to climb the ship’s side; iiiiii. Raise the alarm, by VHF channel 16, to the ships in the area and to. Raise the alarm, by VHF channel 16, to the ships in the area and to the permanent watch system of the authorities ashore.the permanent watch system of the authorities ashore. iviv.. Sound the alarm with intermittent blasts on the siren and use visualSound the alarm with intermittent blasts on the siren and use visual alarms with floodlights and signalling rockets;alarms with floodlights and signalling rockets; v.v. If appropriate, to protect the lives of those onboard, use measures toIf appropriate, to protect the lives of those onboard, use measures to repel the boarding by employing powerful floodlights and dazzling the aggressors orrepel the boarding by employing powerful floodlights and dazzling the aggressors or using jets of water or signalling rockets against the areas of boarding;using jets of water or signalling rockets against the areas of boarding; vivi. Do not attempt any heroic acts.. Do not attempt any heroic acts. 9. Keep the contracted watchmen under the control of the officer of watch9. Keep the contracted watchmen under the control of the officer of watch 10. Communicate to the police any occurrence relating to robbery, theft or10. Communicate to the police any occurrence relating to robbery, theft or assault.assault. 11. Cash in the ship’s safe11. Cash in the ship’s safe 12. The pre-piracy/armed robbery phase- Ship Security Plan _12. The pre-piracy/armed robbery phase- Ship Security Plan _ 13. Routing and delaying anchoring _13. Routing and delaying anchoring _ 14. Practice the implementation of the ship security plan14. Practice the implementation of the ship security plan 15. Precautions at anchor or in port15. Precautions at anchor or in port 16. Watch keeping and vigilance _16. Watch keeping and vigilance _ 17. Communications procedures _17. Communications procedures _ 18. Radio watch keeping and responses18. Radio watch keeping and responses 19. Standard ships message formats19. Standard ships message formats 20. Secure areas20. Secure areas 21. Alarms21. Alarms 22. Use of distress flares22. Use of distress flares 23. Evasive manoeuvring and use of hoses23. Evasive manoeuvring and use of hoses 24. Fire arms24. Fire arms Q. Piracy/armed robbery attack is “DISTRESS ALERT”?Q. Piracy/armed robbery attack is “DISTRESS ALERT”? AnswerAnswer:: Yes, It is expected that this message will be a “DISTRESS” messageYes, It is expected that this message will be a “DISTRESS” message because thebecause the ship or persons will be in grave or imminent danger when undership or persons will be in grave or imminent danger when under attack.attack. ANCHORINGANCHORING: THE LENGTH OF CABLE TO USE when anchoring depends: THE LENGTH OF CABLE TO USE when anchoring depends __ 1. On the depth of water.1. On the depth of water. 2. On the length of time it is intended to stay at anchorage.2. On the length of time it is intended to stay at anchorage. 3. On the nature of holding ground.3. On the nature of holding ground. 4. On the strength of the tide.4. On the strength of the tide. 5. On the weather expected and the shelter available at the anchorage.5. On the weather expected and the shelter available at the anchorage. A scope of cableA scope of cable equal to four times the depth of water is generally sufficient.equal to four times the depth of water is generally sufficient. It should beIt should be noted that sandy or muddy bottoms provide good holding ground, butnoted that sandy or muddy bottoms provide good holding ground, but a rocky bottom is unreliable.a rocky bottom is unreliable. PREPARING TO ANCHORPREPARING TO ANCHOR:: The following procedure should be followed.The following procedure should be followed. 1. Order for electric power on deck.1. Order for electric power on deck. 2. Check and clear the hawse pipes and spurning pipes.2. Check and clear the hawse pipes and spurning pipes.
    • 3. Check that the brake is on.3. Check that the brake is on. 4. Come up on the bottle screws holding the claws, and remove from cable.4. Come up on the bottle screws holding the claws, and remove from cable. 5. Put the windlass into gear.5. Put the windlass into gear. 6. Unscrew the brake and walk cable out until the anchor clears the hawse6. Unscrew the brake and walk cable out until the anchor clears the hawse pipe.pipe. 7. If an anchor buoy is to be used, this should be connected ensuring that7. If an anchor buoy is to be used, this should be connected ensuring that sufficientsufficient Line is used for the depth of water in which it is proposed to anchor.Line is used for the depth of water in which it is proposed to anchor. 8. Ensure that the brake is firmly screwed up and take the windlass out of8. Ensure that the brake is firmly screwed up and take the windlass out of gear. The anchor is then ready for letting go.gear. The anchor is then ready for letting go. 9. Keep the anchor ball ready for use, and anchor light or lights ready to be9. Keep the anchor ball ready for use, and anchor light or lights ready to be switched on if required.switched on if required. EMERGENCY ANCHORINGEMERGENCY ANCHORING It is necessary that anchor should be ready for letting goIt is necessary that anchor should be ready for letting go when:when: 1. Nearing harbour1. Nearing harbour 2. In shallow water2. In shallow water 3. Visibility is poor3. Visibility is poor 4. Ship’s position is uncertain.4. Ship’s position is uncertain. In an emergency anchor can let go directly from the hawse pipe with out firstIn an emergency anchor can let go directly from the hawse pipe with out first walking it out.walking it out. SINGLE ANCHORSINGLE ANCHOR An anchor should be let go when a vessel has either sternway ofAn anchor should be let go when a vessel has either sternway of headwayheadway over the ground. If the vessel not moving, the cable tends to pile up on the bottomover the ground. If the vessel not moving, the cable tends to pile up on the bottom and may foul the anchor. If there is no wind or tide, the anchor may be let go andand may foul the anchor. If there is no wind or tide, the anchor may be let go and cable paid out when going either slow ahead or slow astern. If the tide is runningcable paid out when going either slow ahead or slow astern. If the tide is running either stem the tide, stop engines, and let go anchor while making sternway overeither stem the tide, stop engines, and let go anchor while making sternway over the ground, or else lay out the cable across the tide while making headway.the ground, or else lay out the cable across the tide while making headway. The brake is used to check the cable as the scope paid out approaches that withThe brake is used to check the cable as the scope paid out approaches that with which it is finally desired to bring up. The vessel will not then fall back too heavilywhich it is finally desired to bring up. The vessel will not then fall back too heavily on the cable when the brake is screwed right up.on the cable when the brake is screwed right up. When the vessel is lying quietly with a steady strain on the cable she is saidWhen the vessel is lying quietly with a steady strain on the cable she is said to be brought up.to be brought up. TWO ANCHORSTWO ANCHORS May be used when anchoring in an open roadstead _ It is generally best toMay be used when anchoring in an open roadstead _ It is generally best to let go the weather anchor first, and in the northern hemisphere it is preferable tolet go the weather anchor first, and in the northern hemisphere it is preferable to bring up with more cable on the port anchor than the starboard anchor. The spreadbring up with more cable on the port anchor than the starboard anchor. The spread between the cable should be sufficient to prevent the vessel yawing, but it shouldbetween the cable should be sufficient to prevent the vessel yawing, but it should not generally be more than 60° otherwise the anchors tend to pull against eachnot generally be more than 60° otherwise the anchors tend to pull against each other and the benefit of the extra holding power is loss.other and the benefit of the extra holding power is loss. MOORINGMOORING Consists of securing a vessel by means of two anchors laid out in oppositeConsists of securing a vessel by means of two anchors laid out in opposite direction _ This has the advantage that the space occupied by the vessel whendirection _ This has the advantage that the space occupied by the vessel when swinging in a Tideway is much less than that taken up by a vessel at single anchor.swinging in a Tideway is much less than that taken up by a vessel at single anchor. STANDING OR DROPPING MOORSTANDING OR DROPPING MOOR 1. The tide must always be stemmed when mooring and for a standing moor1. The tide must always be stemmed when mooring and for a standing moor the vessel should steam up about a ship’s length ahead of the position in which it isthe vessel should steam up about a ship’s length ahead of the position in which it is desired to finally bring up.desired to finally bring up.
    • 2. The engines should than stopped and as the vessel starts to make2. The engines should than stopped and as the vessel starts to make sternway over the ground the lee anchor should be let go.sternway over the ground the lee anchor should be let go. 3. A scope of cable should be paid out; equal to the sum of that required on3. A scope of cable should be paid out; equal to the sum of that required on the two anchors together and then this side of the windlass should be put into gear.the two anchors together and then this side of the windlass should be put into gear. Heave away on the lee cable.Heave away on the lee cable. 4. Let go the weather anchor as the vessel starts to move ahead. Continue4. Let go the weather anchor as the vessel starts to move ahead. Continue to heave away on the lee cable and to pay out on the weather cable until the vesselto heave away on the lee cable and to pay out on the weather cable until the vessel is middle between the two.is middle between the two. 5. When mooring, about three or four shackles of cable are used on each5. When mooring, about three or four shackles of cable are used on each anchor.anchor. 6. If moor close to bank the offshore anchor should be let go first. The6. If moor close to bank the offshore anchor should be let go first. The vessel swinging away from the bank at each turn will keep an open hawse.vessel swinging away from the bank at each turn will keep an open hawse. RUNNING MOORRUNNING MOOR 1. Stem the tide with engines slow ahead and let go the weather anchor about1. Stem the tide with engines slow ahead and let go the weather anchor about a ship length before arriving at the position in which it is desired to finally bring up.a ship length before arriving at the position in which it is desired to finally bring up. 2. Continue slow ahead past this position until a scope of cable has been paid out2. Continue slow ahead past this position until a scope of cable has been paid out equal to the sum of that required on the two anchors together.equal to the sum of that required on the two anchors together. 4. Should the vessel have sustained damage aft there a stem first approach4. Should the vessel have sustained damage aft there a stem first approach would be desirable? In that case it should be made in the form of a Mediterraneanwould be desirable? In that case it should be made in the form of a Mediterranean moor, letting go both anchors which may be used to heave the vessel off when themoor, letting go both anchors which may be used to heave the vessel off when the time comes.time comes. 5. Anti slew wires should be used in conjunction with the anchor.5. Anti slew wires should be used in conjunction with the anchor. 6. On taking the ground take on more ballast prevent pounding by driving the6. On taking the ground take on more ballast prevent pounding by driving the vessel on.vessel on. 7. Make a complete sound round all tanks together with a complete sound7. Make a complete sound round all tanks together with a complete sound round the vessel’s hull to find out depth of water.round the vessel’s hull to find out depth of water. COLLISIONCOLLISION 1. Take the con1. Take the con 2. Stop / manoeuvre the ship so as to minimize the effect of collision2. Stop / manoeuvre the ship so as to minimize the effect of collision 3. Sound general emergency alarm3. Sound general emergency alarm 4. Call the master, inform Engine Room.4. Call the master, inform Engine Room. 5. Mustering all crew/head count, Establish communication.5. Mustering all crew/head count, Establish communication. 6. Close water tight door and automatic fire doors.6. Close water tight door and automatic fire doors. 7. Maintain VHF watch on Ch 16 and if appropriate on Ch 13.7. Maintain VHF watch on Ch 16 and if appropriate on Ch 13. 8. Hoist NUC lights or shapes.8. Hoist NUC lights or shapes. 9. Switch on deck lights at night.9. Switch on deck lights at night. 10. Muster passengers if carried, at emergency station.10. Muster passengers if carried, at emergency station. 11. Check for fire/damage.11. Check for fire/damage. 12. Sound and monitor the effected areas, bilges and tanks.12. Sound and monitor the effected areas, bilges and tanks. 13. Make ships position available at Radio Room/GMDSS Station.13. Make ships position available at Radio Room/GMDSS Station. 14. Chief Officer visually inspect compartment where possible.14. Chief Officer visually inspect compartment where possible. 15. Minimise the ingress of water, using bilge/other pumps15. Minimise the ingress of water, using bilge/other pumps 16. Offer assistance to other ships.16. Offer assistance to other ships. 17. Make the hospital stand by for medical emergency.17. Make the hospital stand by for medical emergency. 18. Kept lifeboat ready for embarkation18. Kept lifeboat ready for embarkation 19. If any compartment damaged and ingress water exists:-19. If any compartment damaged and ingress water exists:- a. List the vessel over to raise damage area above water line.a. List the vessel over to raise damage area above water line. b. Build and position collision patch/mat.b. Build and position collision patch/mat. c. Co-ordinate pumping out onto effected areas.c. Co-ordinate pumping out onto effected areas. 20. Transmit urgency signal if appropriate.20. Transmit urgency signal if appropriate.
    • 21. Transmit Distress signal if appropriate21. Transmit Distress signal if appropriate 22. Investigate safe port operation, and/or beaching situation in order to save22. Investigate safe port operation, and/or beaching situation in order to save the vessel for being totally lost.the vessel for being totally lost. 23. If delay prepare for Abandon ship.23. If delay prepare for Abandon ship. 24. Calculate Damage Stability.24. Calculate Damage Stability. 25. Inform owner, P&I, Classification Society, Flag State Control, Charter,25. Inform owner, P&I, Classification Society, Flag State Control, Charter, Agent and Contracting Government.Agent and Contracting Government. MASTER __ ACTION __ DUTIESMASTER __ ACTION __ DUTIES 1. To evaluate extent of impact & manoeuvre vessel in order to minimize the1. To evaluate extent of impact & manoeuvre vessel in order to minimize the effect of Collision.effect of Collision. 2. Remember – it is NOT advisable to go astern & pull out the vessel, especially2. Remember – it is NOT advisable to go astern & pull out the vessel, especially when there is damage below Water Line.when there is damage below Water Line. 3. Establish Contact with the Master of other vessel, obtained SATCOM ID &3. Establish Contact with the Master of other vessel, obtained SATCOM ID & send message to them relating to liability, immediately.send message to them relating to liability, immediately. 4. Broadcast URGENCY or DISTRESS ALERT message.4. Broadcast URGENCY or DISTRESS ALERT message. 5. Evaluate the requirement/possibility of Rigging a Collision Mat, if any ingress5. Evaluate the requirement/possibility of Rigging a Collision Mat, if any ingress ofof water.water. 6. Stand by for render assistance provides own vessel and crew are safe.6. Stand by for render assistance provides own vessel and crew are safe. 7. Exchange information between both the vessel, name of vessel, c/s, and IMO7. Exchange information between both the vessel, name of vessel, c/s, and IMO No. port of registry, last Port of Call, Next Port of Call.No. port of registry, last Port of Call, Next Port of Call. 8. Entry into the Official Log Book.8. Entry into the Official Log Book. 9. Inform _ M A I B.9. Inform _ M A I B. GROUNDING OR STRANDINGGROUNDING OR STRANDING 1. Stop engines immediately1. Stop engines immediately 2. Sound general alarm.2. Sound general alarm. 3. Call Master inform Engine Room.3. Call Master inform Engine Room. 4. Close water tight door4. Close water tight door 5.Check depth/sounding. Using echo sounder, draft considers.5.Check depth/sounding. Using echo sounder, draft considers. 6. Maintain VHF watch on Ch 16, if appropriate on Ch 13.6. Maintain VHF watch on Ch 16, if appropriate on Ch 13. 7. Exhibit lights/shapes and make any appropriate sound signal in case7. Exhibit lights/shapes and make any appropriate sound signal in case restrictedrestricted visibility.visibility. 8. Switch on deck lights at night.8. Switch on deck lights at night. 9. Check hull for damage.9. Check hull for damage. 10. Sound bilges and tanks (DB, FW & F.O/D.O)10. Sound bilges and tanks (DB, FW & F.O/D.O) 11.11. Visually inspection of compartment where possibleVisually inspection of compartment where possible 12. Sound around ship12. Sound around ship 13. Determine which way deep water lies.13. Determine which way deep water lies. 14. Determine the nature of the seabed14. Determine the nature of the seabed 15. Damage control party to access the damage15. Damage control party to access the damage 16. Obtain information on local currents and tides, particularly the details of16. Obtain information on local currents and tides, particularly the details of time of rise & fall of the tide.time of rise & fall of the tide. 17. Reduce the draft of the ship17. Reduce the draft of the ship 18.Make ships position available to Radio Room/GMDSS STATION.18.Make ships position available to Radio Room/GMDSS STATION. 19. Broadcast distress alert and message if the ship is in grave and imminent19. Broadcast distress alert and message if the ship is in grave and imminent danger & immediate assistance required otherwise broadcast an urgency messagedanger & immediate assistance required otherwise broadcast an urgency message to ships in the vicinity.to ships in the vicinity. 20. Entry must be made in Official Log Book.20. Entry must be made in Official Log Book. 21. Inform Port and obey the port orders.21. Inform Port and obey the port orders. 22. Check for pollution.22. Check for pollution. MASTER _ ACTION _ DUTIESMASTER _ ACTION _ DUTIES:: 1. Over all in charge.1. Over all in charge.
    • 2. Inform port authorities, coast guard, company etc.2. Inform port authorities, coast guard, company etc. 3. Broadcast security and or appropriate message3. Broadcast security and or appropriate message 4. Coordinate communications onboard and assess damage4. Coordinate communications onboard and assess damage 5. Evaluate pollution if any or potential and necessary preventive action.5. Evaluate pollution if any or potential and necessary preventive action. 6. Evaluate possibility / necessity to transfer cargo, ballast or bunker.6. Evaluate possibility / necessity to transfer cargo, ballast or bunker. 7. Verify from charts if any danger of sliding off the ground. Evaluate need7. Verify from charts if any danger of sliding off the ground. Evaluate need to prevent vessel from sliding by use of filling ballast.to prevent vessel from sliding by use of filling ballast. 8. Evaluate danger of vessel being broken down by heavy seas or swells or if8. Evaluate danger of vessel being broken down by heavy seas or swells or if vessel is exposed to TORSIONAL forces.vessel is exposed to TORSIONAL forces. 9. Check if the tidal range in the area is very large _ Possibility of the vessel9. Check if the tidal range in the area is very large _ Possibility of the vessel drifting further inshore due to tide/weatherdrifting further inshore due to tide/weather 10. Evaluate the possibility and consequences of re-floating by own means.10. Evaluate the possibility and consequences of re-floating by own means. 11. Condition of engine to be considered.11. Condition of engine to be considered. 12. Evaluate necessity of salvage requirement.12. Evaluate necessity of salvage requirement. METHODS OF RE-FLOATINGMETHODS OF RE-FLOATING Vessel can be refloat by the following methodsVessel can be refloat by the following methods 1. Ground tackles1. Ground tackles 2.2.TugsTugs 3.Dredging craft3.Dredging craft 4.Even lighters into which to discharge of cargo.4.Even lighters into which to discharge of cargo. 5. Perhaps the hauling power of large vessels.5. Perhaps the hauling power of large vessels. GROUND – TACKLEGROUND – TACKLE If vessel not in tidal water, secure vessel with ground tackle. This isIf vessel not in tidal water, secure vessel with ground tackle. This is meant formeant for the use of anchors, carefully placed at considerable distances from the ship, andthe use of anchors, carefully placed at considerable distances from the ship, and connected to her by heavy wire hawsers, possibly using some lengths of her chainconnected to her by heavy wire hawsers, possibly using some lengths of her chain cable. Heavy purchases are then rigged, often one secured to the hauling part ofcable. Heavy purchases are then rigged, often one secured to the hauling part of the other to give greater mechanical advantage and lower stresses on the finalthe other to give greater mechanical advantage and lower stresses on the final hauling part, to impose a stress upon these anchors. This stress, which must behauling part, to impose a stress upon these anchors. This stress, which must be applied continuously, is beneficial in re-floating the ship.applied continuously, is beneficial in re-floating the ship. STATE OF TIDESTATE OF TIDE While re-floating must be rising tideWhile re-floating must be rising tide TIDAL RANGETIDAL RANGE Check the draft of the ship and compare it with the estimated draught priorCheck the draft of the ship and compare it with the estimated draught prior toto impact. The difference in cm multiplied by the tones per cm immersion indicatesimpact. The difference in cm multiplied by the tones per cm immersion indicates the amount of lost of buoyancy. The tidal range may provide this requiredthe amount of lost of buoyancy. The tidal range may provide this required buoyancy at high water or even before.buoyancy at high water or even before. DISCHARGEDDISCHARGED Water tanks may be discharged in order to provide the required buoyancy.Water tanks may be discharged in order to provide the required buoyancy. NATURE OF BOTTOMNATURE OF BOTTOM Ideally, a survey should be made of the surrounding sea-bed, notingIdeally, a survey should be made of the surrounding sea-bed, noting depths anddepths and material. The sea-bed formation in some localities changes with every tide,material. The sea-bed formation in some localities changes with every tide, 1. Check whether carriage is allowed as per certificate of fitness.1. Check whether carriage is allowed as per certificate of fitness. 2. Refer to IBC/BCH Code, Ch 17/18 (if any special requirement as per Ch.2. Refer to IBC/BCH Code, Ch 17/18 (if any special requirement as per Ch. 15 say that P/V Valve etc is required & if V/V is under repair, then can’t carry that15 say that P/V Valve etc is required & if V/V is under repair, then can’t carry that cargo)cargo) 3. If all requirements are met, check the ship type I, II & III required.3. If all requirements are met, check the ship type I, II & III required. 4. If COF says that the cargo can’t be loaded, do not reject out right. Consult4. If COF says that the cargo can’t be loaded, do not reject out right. Consult
    • owner who will check with Administration. If Administration says ‘yes” than checkowner who will check with Administration. If Administration says ‘yes” than check all precautions _ i. e. IBC/BCH/ICS/Data Sheets/Shipper’s instructionsall precautions _ i. e. IBC/BCH/ICS/Data Sheets/Shipper’s instructions 5. Check segregation of cargo.5. Check segregation of cargo. 6. Check tank coating compatibility from the tank coating guide.6. Check tank coating compatibility from the tank coating guide. 7. If all criteria are satisfied, load the cargo.7. If all criteria are satisfied, load the cargo. 8. Tank cleaning are to be discharged as per “ P&A Manual & MARPOL8. Tank cleaning are to be discharged as per “ P&A Manual & MARPOL Regulations (Annex II)”.Regulations (Annex II)”. INFORMATION REQUIRED TO LOAD CHEMICAL CARGOINFORMATION REQUIRED TO LOAD CHEMICAL CARGO 1. Physical properties1. Physical properties 2. Chemical properties2. Chemical properties 3. Hazards3. Hazards 4. Compatibility4. Compatibility 5. Fire fighting agent requirement5. Fire fighting agent requirement 6. Inhibition requirement6. Inhibition requirement 7. IBC/BCH Ch 17, minimum requirement7. IBC/BCH Ch 17, minimum requirement 8. Check ship type (C O F)8. Check ship type (C O F) 9. Inform Company/Administration.9. Inform Company/Administration. 10. Tank coating for compatibility.10. Tank coating for compatibility. INTERNATION SAFETYINTERNATION SAFETY GUIDEGUIDE FORFOR OIL TANKEROIL TANKER AND TERMINALS (ISGOTT)AND TERMINALS (ISGOTT) IsIs published by the Int. Chamber of Shipping (ICS), Oil Companies Int. Marinepublished by the Int. Chamber of Shipping (ICS), Oil Companies Int. Marine Forum (OCIMF) and Int. Association of Ports And Harbour (IAPH). The generalForum (OCIMF) and Int. Association of Ports And Harbour (IAPH). The general scope of the guide is to make recommendations for practices to be adopted byscope of the guide is to make recommendations for practices to be adopted by tanker and terminal personnel to ensure safety in operation relating to the carriagetanker and terminal personnel to ensure safety in operation relating to the carriage by sea and the handling at terminal of crude oil and petroleum products.by sea and the handling at terminal of crude oil and petroleum products. COAL HAZARDSCOAL HAZARDS 1. Spontaneous Heating1. Spontaneous Heating 2. Emission of Methane2. Emission of Methane 3. Corrosion 4. Liquefaction3. Corrosion 4. Liquefaction Whenever coal is shipped from any place, the history of previous shipmentsWhenever coal is shipped from any place, the history of previous shipments must be known, so as to be aware of the hazards of that particular type of coal.must be known, so as to be aware of the hazards of that particular type of coal. Spontaneous HeatingSpontaneous Heating Coal is very liable to spontaneous heating. Freshly mixed coal absorbsCoal is very liable to spontaneous heating. Freshly mixed coal absorbs oxygen,oxygen, forming peroxides which break up into CO & CO2. Oxidation depends on the surfaceforming peroxides which break up into CO & CO2. Oxidation depends on the surface area available for absorption of O2.area available for absorption of O2. Emission of MethaneEmission of Methane Coal emits methane or marsh gas (CH4) particularly immediatelyCoal emits methane or marsh gas (CH4) particularly immediately after loadingafter loading and when newly worked or freshly broken. Methane is a flammable gas and whenand when newly worked or freshly broken. Methane is a flammable gas and when mixed with air forms an explosive mixture. It is lighter than air; accumulate uppermixed with air forms an explosive mixture. It is lighter than air; accumulate upper regions of hold and other spaces.regions of hold and other spaces. CorrosionCorrosion ““Pond Coal” is the term given to coal left over form earlier mining which hasPond Coal” is the term given to coal left over form earlier mining which has been dumped into fresh water ponds and later reclaimed for shipment. It is highbeen dumped into fresh water ponds and later reclaimed for shipment. It is high moisture content (MC) with high sulphur content, coal gives high temperaturesmoisture content (MC) with high sulphur content, coal gives high temperatures from self heating and release H2SO4 resulting in corrosion of the ships holds.from self heating and release H2SO4 resulting in corrosion of the ships holds. Ph value must be measuring of the bilge regularly.Ph value must be measuring of the bilge regularly.
    • LiquefactionLiquefaction Is the process whereby moisture in the cargo migrates to the surface due toIs the process whereby moisture in the cargo migrates to the surface due to compaction and vibration resulting in the development of a flow state.compaction and vibration resulting in the development of a flow state. This is particular in the case of coal slurry, coal duff and mud coal.This is particular in the case of coal slurry, coal duff and mud coal. The surface of the cargo behaves like liquid and a transverse shift of cargo resultsThe surface of the cargo behaves like liquid and a transverse shift of cargo results in reduced ship stability which can be extremely dangerous.in reduced ship stability which can be extremely dangerous. PRECAUTIONSPRECAUTIONS 1. Ventilation1. Ventilation 2. Temperature2. Temperature 3. Fire 4, Shifting3. Fire 4, Shifting VENTILATIONVENTILATION Surface ventilation (one vent is put on supply & other on exhaust,Surface ventilation (one vent is put on supply & other on exhaust, windward ventwindward vent turned into wind and the leeward vent turn away from the wind) is an importantturned into wind and the leeward vent turn away from the wind) is an important necessity during the carriage of coal for two reasons:necessity during the carriage of coal for two reasons: 1. To carry away any methane gas which may be given out by coal?1. To carry away any methane gas which may be given out by coal? 2. To dissipate any heat formed by oxidation of the coal.2. To dissipate any heat formed by oxidation of the coal. First five days after loading all ventilators should be utilized for removing theFirst five days after loading all ventilators should be utilized for removing the gas. There after lower holds vent to be plugged and open only for 6 hours everygas. There after lower holds vent to be plugged and open only for 6 hours every two days. Each hold should have 2 ventilators. In fine weather hatches may betwo days. Each hold should have 2 ventilators. In fine weather hatches may be opened to facilitate surface ventilation. Attention to be paid to store rooms, tanksopened to facilitate surface ventilation. Attention to be paid to store rooms, tanks and other spaces where Methane or CO can accumulate.and other spaces where Methane or CO can accumulate. TEMPERATURETEMPERATURE Monitoring of temperature at three levels in the hold to be done at leastMonitoring of temperature at three levels in the hold to be done at least once aonce a day _ Particular attention to be paid to cargo stowed against hot bulkheads. Deckday _ Particular attention to be paid to cargo stowed against hot bulkheads. Deck to be kept cool in tropical areas by rigging awnings covering with dunnage orto be kept cool in tropical areas by rigging awnings covering with dunnage or running deck water _ Spontaneous heating in some coal as low as 38°C (100°F). atrunning deck water _ Spontaneous heating in some coal as low as 38°C (100°F). at temperature 55°C, strongly suspect of Fire. Cargo space should be sealed againsttemperature 55°C, strongly suspect of Fire. Cargo space should be sealed against entry of air. The master should seek advice immediately and should considerentry of air. The master should seek advice immediately and should consider making for a suitable Port Of Refuge.making for a suitable Port Of Refuge. FIREFIRE 1. Sufficient safety lamps to be carried.1. Sufficient safety lamps to be carried. 2. Electric cable free of defects.2. Electric cable free of defects. 3. Where gas suspected, electric circuit to be isolated.3. Where gas suspected, electric circuit to be isolated. 4. If cargo burning, closed the hold and sealed for prevent the entry of air.4. If cargo burning, closed the hold and sealed for prevent the entry of air. 5. Introduce the CO2, Inert gas or high expansion foam.5. Introduce the CO2, Inert gas or high expansion foam. 6. Boundary cooling.6. Boundary cooling. 7. No salt water to be used in cargo.7. No salt water to be used in cargo. 8. Regular monitoring of Methane, O2 & CO with suitably calibrated8. Regular monitoring of Methane, O2 & CO with suitably calibrated instruments.instruments. SHIFTINGSHIFTING A certificate is obtained for shippers stating the moisture content of the cargo.A certificate is obtained for shippers stating the moisture content of the cargo. Moisture Content should not higher than Transportable Moisture Content.Moisture Content should not higher than Transportable Moisture Content. Precautions should be taken to prevent ingress of water into the cargo. Hold bilgePrecautions should be taken to prevent ingress of water into the cargo. Hold bilge to be pumped out regularly. Coal shipped wet = less 3% by weight.to be pumped out regularly. Coal shipped wet = less 3% by weight. CONTINGENCY PLAN FOR CARGO WHICH MAY LIQUIFIEDCONTINGENCY PLAN FOR CARGO WHICH MAY LIQUIFIED 1. Flow state, FSM, FSE1. Flow state, FSM, FSE
    • 2. FSC creates loss of GM2. FSC creates loss of GM 3. Bilge pumping out3. Bilge pumping out 4. Reduce FSC, shift of cargo4. Reduce FSC, shift of cargo 5. Port of refuse, to be plan, in the voyage plan5. Port of refuse, to be plan, in the voyage plan GRAIN CODEGRAIN CODE Grain Code is mandatory as per SOLAS Ch. VI Carriage of Cargoes Part-CGrain Code is mandatory as per SOLAS Ch. VI Carriage of Cargoes Part-C Regulation 8 & 9. Grain includes wheat, maize, rye, barley, pulses, seeds, rice,Regulation 8 & 9. Grain includes wheat, maize, rye, barley, pulses, seeds, rice, sunflower, pear, hemp, poppy, oats and processed forms thereof where behavioursunflower, pear, hemp, poppy, oats and processed forms thereof where behaviour is similar to grain in its natural state. Ships carrying grain to comply with aboveis similar to grain in its natural state. Ships carrying grain to comply with above code and also hold a Document of Authorization _Ships without Document ofcode and also hold a Document of Authorization _Ships without Document of Authorization shall not load grain until master satisfies the Administration that theAuthorization shall not load grain until master satisfies the Administration that the ship will comply with the code’s requirements in its loaded condition.ship will comply with the code’s requirements in its loaded condition. Lay out of the code:Lay out of the code: Part A _ specific requirements (18 regulations)Part A _ specific requirements (18 regulations) Part B _ calculation of assumed heeling moments and general assumptionsPart B _ calculation of assumed heeling moments and general assumptions Regulations)Regulations) Appendix SOLAS Ch. VI Part C (Regulations 8 & 9)Appendix SOLAS Ch. VI Part C (Regulations 8 & 9) CODE OF SAFE PRECTICE FOR CARGO STOWAGE AND SECURINGCODE OF SAFE PRECTICE FOR CARGO STOWAGE AND SECURING CARE _ SAFETY OF CARGOCARE _ SAFETY OF CARGO Cargoes must be stowed in such a way so as to preventCargoes must be stowed in such a way so as to prevent damage due to anydamage due to any reason such as:reason such as: 1. Chafing or crushing.1. Chafing or crushing. 2. Moisture & sweat, cargoes like salt, oil cakes & dry skins absorb moisture.2. Moisture & sweat, cargoes like salt, oil cakes & dry skins absorb moisture. 3. Leakage or drainage, wet or moist cargoes should not be stowed on top of3. Leakage or drainage, wet or moist cargoes should not be stowed on top of dry goodsdry goods 4. Fire _ Any substances with vegetable oil or animal oil will heat up4. Fire _ Any substances with vegetable oil or animal oil will heat up spontaneously & hence should not be stowed near hot bulkheads. Proper ventilationspontaneously & hence should not be stowed near hot bulkheads. Proper ventilation is tot be carried out for such cargoes.is tot be carried out for such cargoes. 5. Tainting, contamination or incompatibility.5. Tainting, contamination or incompatibility. 6. Pilferage or theft.6. Pilferage or theft. LOADICATOLOADICATO Is used to calculate SF / BM?Is used to calculate SF / BM? 1. It can show in harbour and sea condition.1. It can show in harbour and sea condition. 2. Normally used in sea, because any time can proceed to sea.2. Normally used in sea, because any time can proceed to sea. 3. Tanker loads only at sea condition.3. Tanker loads only at sea condition. 4. For bulk carrier uses harbour condition.4. For bulk carrier uses harbour condition. SULPHERSULPHER BC Code – Appendix ‘B’BC Code – Appendix ‘B’ UN No. 1350 _ IMO class 4.1 _ MFAG table no. 635 _ Approx S.F. 0.74 m³/ tUN No. 1350 _ IMO class 4.1 _ MFAG table no. 635 _ Approx S.F. 0.74 m³/ t _ EMS No._ EMS No. B 9B 9 PROPERTIESPROPERTIES 1. Ignites readily1. Ignites readily 2. When involved in a fire, a very irritating & suffocating gas is evolved.2. When involved in a fire, a very irritating & suffocating gas is evolved. 3. Forms explosive & sensitive mixtures with most oxidizing materials.3. Forms explosive & sensitive mixtures with most oxidizing materials. 4. Bulk SULPHAR is liable to dust explosion, when may occur especially after4. Bulk SULPHAR is liable to dust explosion, when may occur especially after discharge and during cleaning.discharge and during cleaning. 5. Dust may explode due to static electricity.5. Dust may explode due to static electricity.
    • PRECAUTIONSPRECAUTIONS 1. Fine grained sulphur (flows of sulphur) should NOT be transported in bulk1. Fine grained sulphur (flows of sulphur) should NOT be transported in bulk (only lump & coarse grained powder is shipped in bulk).(only lump & coarse grained powder is shipped in bulk). 2. Carry out mechanical ventilation or adequate ventilation, or hose down2. Carry out mechanical ventilation or adequate ventilation, or hose down instead of sweeping (preferably with fresh water to minimize risk of dust explosion.instead of sweeping (preferably with fresh water to minimize risk of dust explosion. 3. SULPHER residues are highly corrosive to steel particularly in presence of3. SULPHER residues are highly corrosive to steel particularly in presence of moisture.moisture. SEGREGATION AND STOWAGE REQUIREMENTSSEGREGATION AND STOWAGE REQUIREMENTS ““SEPERATED FROM” _ FOOD STUFFSSEPERATED FROM” _ FOOD STUFFS SPECIAL REQUIREMENTSSPECIAL REQUIREMENTS 1. Protect from sparks & open flames.1. Protect from sparks & open flames. 2. Electrical fuses in cargo spaces should be extracted.2. Electrical fuses in cargo spaces should be extracted. 3. Sparks arresting screens should be fitted to ventilators.3. Sparks arresting screens should be fitted to ventilators. In case of SULPHER fireIn case of SULPHER fire Smothering with more SULPHER or a very fine fresh water spray _ AlsoSmothering with more SULPHER or a very fine fresh water spray _ Also refer torefer to MS notice MS 22/98 regarding “ARCADIA PRIDE”.MS notice MS 22/98 regarding “ARCADIA PRIDE”. 1. No metal objects that could be picked by grabs should be there in hold.1. No metal objects that could be picked by grabs should be there in hold. 2. Bilges to be caulked & use burlaps.2. Bilges to be caulked & use burlaps. 3. After discharge proper cleaning of hold, particularly ledges, box beams.3. After discharge proper cleaning of hold, particularly ledges, box beams. PROPERTIES OF SULPHER AS PER IMDG CODEPROPERTIES OF SULPHER AS PER IMDG CODE:: 1. Forms extremely sensitive & explosive mixtures with most oxidizing1. Forms extremely sensitive & explosive mixtures with most oxidizing substances like chlorates, nitrates, per-chlorates or per-magnates.substances like chlorates, nitrates, per-chlorates or per-magnates. 2. Corrosive to steel especially in presence of moisture. should not be carried2. Corrosive to steel especially in presence of moisture. should not be carried as a bulk cargo.as a bulk cargo. 3. The provisions of IMDG Code not to apply to SULPHER when it is –3. The provisions of IMDG Code not to apply to SULPHER when it is – transported in a quantity less than 400 kg per package.transported in a quantity less than 400 kg per package. 4. Formed to a specific shape (like PRILLER, GRANKLER, PELLERTER,4. Formed to a specific shape (like PRILLER, GRANKLER, PELLERTER, PASTILLER etc.)PASTILLER etc.) PACKING GROUP IIIPACKING GROUP III Class 4.1 – Flammable solid- combustible solids and solid which may causeClass 4.1 – Flammable solid- combustible solids and solid which may cause fire through friction. Readily combustible solids mean- pondered, granular or pastryfire through friction. Readily combustible solids mean- pondered, granular or pastry substances which are dangerous if they can be easily ignited by brief contract withsubstances which are dangerous if they can be easily ignited by brief contract with an ignition source. Danger in fire due to toxic gas.an ignition source. Danger in fire due to toxic gas. STOWAGE & SEGREGATIONSTOWAGE & SEGREGATION Category A – protect from spark and open flame.Category A – protect from spark and open flame. Separated from class 5.1Separated from class 5.1 DOCUMENTATIONDOCUMENTATION 1.1. DOCDOC for carriage of dangerous goods as per regulations II- 2, Partfor carriage of dangerous goods as per regulations II- 2, Part G/19.4, SOLAS.G/19.4, SOLAS. 2. Signed2. Signed cargo declarationcargo declaration from shipper giving stowage factor, angle offrom shipper giving stowage factor, angle of repose, trimming procedures, moisture contents, Flow moisture point, transportedrepose, trimming procedures, moisture contents, Flow moisture point, transported moisture limit, IMO CLASS & UN No. technical name, MFAG, EMS.moisture limit, IMO CLASS & UN No. technical name, MFAG, EMS. 3. Detailed information of hazards based on past carriage history of cargo to3. Detailed information of hazards based on past carriage history of cargo to be obtained (if possible).be obtained (if possible). 4. If required, consult competent authority at load port regarding the4. If required, consult competent authority at load port regarding the requirements in force in the port.requirements in force in the port.
    • PUBLICATION FOR CONSULTATIONPUBLICATION FOR CONSULTATION 1. BC CODE1. BC CODE 2. BLU CODE2. BLU CODE 3. IMDG CODE3. IMDG CODE 4.4. LOADING MANUALLOADING MANUAL 5. STABILITY BOOKLET5. STABILITY BOOKLET 6. EMS6. EMS 7. MFAG7. MFAG SULPHAR HAZARDSSULPHAR HAZARDS 1. FIRE1. FIRE 2. DUST EXPLOSION2. DUST EXPLOSION 3. CORROSION3. CORROSION MBH (Material Hazards Bulk)MBH (Material Hazards Bulk) PrecautionsPrecautions 1. Loss of stability1. Loss of stability 2. Shift of cargo2. Shift of cargo 3. Cargo liquefaction3. Cargo liquefaction 4. Structural damage4. Structural damage 5. Chemical reaction.5. Chemical reaction. LOADING PIPESLOADING PIPES 1. Amount and numbers of pipes to be loaded should be known. So that1. Amount and numbers of pipes to be loaded should be known. So that accordingly I can check the load density of the deck (normally 5-6 t/m²) and theaccordingly I can check the load density of the deck (normally 5-6 t/m²) and the space availability.space availability. 2. The height on the deck should not be such that it may reduces the GM.2. The height on the deck should not be such that it may reduces the GM. 3. Adequate dunnage and lashing materials of enough strength should be3. Adequate dunnage and lashing materials of enough strength should be available.available. 4. Lashing materials should be certified by the competent authority and4. Lashing materials should be certified by the competent authority and having certificate of the SWL, Annealing, thorough examination and testing.having certificate of the SWL, Annealing, thorough examination and testing. 5. As the pipes taking on deck bottom tanks should be fully filled up so that5. As the pipes taking on deck bottom tanks should be fully filled up so that adequate GM is available and their will be no FSE.adequate GM is available and their will be no FSE. 6. The chain for lashing and old ropes should be spreader on the deck in6. The chain for lashing and old ropes should be spreader on the deck in athwart ship direction to facilitate anti- rolling of the pipes and the lashing. Theathwart ship direction to facilitate anti- rolling of the pipes and the lashing. The chain should be of enough length so that they can be secured on top of the pipes.chain should be of enough length so that they can be secured on top of the pipes. 7. All pipes mouth should be closed with appropriate device to avoid ingress7. All pipes mouth should be closed with appropriate device to avoid ingress of water in the pipe and some time to avoid rats and snakes house.of water in the pipe and some time to avoid rats and snakes house. 8. Lashing of these pipes should be on the strong points on the crash8. Lashing of these pipes should be on the strong points on the crash rail/guard rails.rail/guard rails. 9. All people working on the deck should be cautious of rolling of pipes and9. All people working on the deck should be cautious of rolling of pipes and they shall be in proper PPE.they shall be in proper PPE. 10. Manifest to be checked for the quality and quantity10. Manifest to be checked for the quality and quantity 8. Discharge of ballast voyage8. Discharge of ballast voyage 9. Changing cargo if required.9. Changing cargo if required. LNG SHIPSLNG SHIPS Methane, Ethane (-104ºC) is carried fully refrigerated at -160º.Methane, Ethane (-104ºC) is carried fully refrigerated at -160º. Tank made fromTank made from aluminium nickel steel or stainless steel (austenitic) insulation is fitted.aluminium nickel steel or stainless steel (austenitic) insulation is fitted. Re-liquefaction plant usually not installed. Boil off gas is neither vented nor burnt inRe-liquefaction plant usually not installed. Boil off gas is neither vented nor burnt in the main machinery _ 4 - 6 cargo tanks. 40,000 to 135000 m³ cargo _ Full DB, sidethe main machinery _ 4 - 6 cargo tanks. 40,000 to 135000 m³ cargo _ Full DB, side ballast tank _ Loaded / unloaded under shower due very low temperatureballast tank _ Loaded / unloaded under shower due very low temperature
    • IMDG CODE: (2000 EDITION)IMDG CODE: (2000 EDITION) 1. Entry into force 01.01.2001 with a 12 month implementation period.1. Entry into force 01.01.2001 with a 12 month implementation period. 2. The code will be updated on a two yearly basis.2. The code will be updated on a two yearly basis. 3. Annex III of MARPOL is also implemented thru the IMDG Code.3. Annex III of MARPOL is also implemented thru the IMDG Code. 4. SOLAS, Ch VII – Part A-Carriage of D.G in packaged form or in solid form4. SOLAS, Ch VII – Part A-Carriage of D.G in packaged form or in solid form in bulkin bulk 5. Reformatted IMDG Code lays down basic principle, details recommendation5. Reformatted IMDG Code lays down basic principle, details recommendation for individual substances materials and articles in a “Dangerous Goods List””for individual substances materials and articles in a “Dangerous Goods List”” 6. There is an “ORANGE BOOK” which makes “Recommendations on the6. There is an “ORANGE BOOK” which makes “Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods and is up dated every two year.Transport of Dangerous Goods and is up dated every two year. 7. In Dec’96 the Orange book was reformatted as UN “ model Regulations”7. In Dec’96 the Orange book was reformatted as UN “ model Regulations” 8. The IMDG Code was reformatted to be consistent with UN model Rags.8. The IMDG Code was reformatted to be consistent with UN model Rags. LAYOUT OF THE IMDG CODELAYOUT OF THE IMDG CODE There is 2 volumes and one supplement. _ Volume I has 7 parts except part 3There is 2 volumes and one supplement. _ Volume I has 7 parts except part 3 _ Volume II has only part 3 In the contents as in Volume I, but in effect all chapter_ Volume II has only part 3 In the contents as in Volume I, but in effect all chapter except part 3 are reefed to Volume I so, actually Volume 2 consists of the followingexcept part 3 are reefed to Volume I so, actually Volume 2 consists of the following _ DGs list and limited quantity exceptions _ Ch 3.1_ DGs list and limited quantity exceptions _ Ch 3.1 _ General, scope and_ General, scope and _ General provisions, proper shipping name_ General provisions, proper shipping name SUPPLEMENT CONSIST OFSUPPLEMENT CONSIST OF 1. Emergency procedures (Ems)1. Emergency procedures (Ems) 2. Medical First Aid Guide (MFAG)2. Medical First Aid Guide (MFAG) 3. Reporting procedures3. Reporting procedures 4. Packing cargo transport unit use of pesticides on board4. Packing cargo transport unit use of pesticides on board 5. I N F code.5. I N F code. CLASSIFICATION OF IMDG (REGS 2)CLASSIFICATION OF IMDG (REGS 2) osiveosive 2. Gases, compressed, liquidities or dissolved under pressure2. Gases, compressed, liquidities or dissolved under pressure 3. Flammable liquids3. Flammable liquids 4. 1Flammable solids4. 1Flammable solids 4.2 Substances liable to spontaneous combustion4.2 Substances liable to spontaneous combustion 4.3 Substances which emits flammable gases in contact with water4.3 Substances which emits flammable gases in contact with water 5.1 Oxidizing substances5.1 Oxidizing substances 5.2 Organic peroxides5.2 Organic peroxides 6.1 Toxic (poisonous) substances6.1 Toxic (poisonous) substances 6.2 Infectious substances6.2 Infectious substances 7. Radio active materials7. Radio active materials 8. Corrosives8. Corrosives 9. Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles.9. Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles. PACKING (REGS 3)PACKING (REGS 3) Packing to be well made and good conditionsPacking to be well made and good conditions 1. Liquids in receptacles.1. Liquids in receptacles. 2. ULLAGE allow for expansion2. ULLAGE allow for expansion 3. Cylinders for gases under pressure should be adequately constructed,3. Cylinders for gases under pressure should be adequately constructed, tested, maintained and correctly filled.tested, maintained and correctly filled. 4. Empty unclean receptacles to be treated as filled.4. Empty unclean receptacles to be treated as filled. MARKING, LABELLING, PLACARDINGMARKING, LABELLING, PLACARDING 1. Correct Technical name1. Correct Technical name
    • 2. Provide with label, stencil of the labels2. Provide with label, stencil of the labels DOCUMENTATIONS (REGS 5)DOCUMENTATIONS (REGS 5) 1. Correct Technical name is to be used in documents and correct description1. Correct Technical name is to be used in documents and correct description given according to classification.given according to classification. 2. Documents are to include a signed certificate or declaration from the2. Documents are to include a signed certificate or declaration from the shipper that the shipment is properly packed and marked, labelled or placarded andshipper that the shipment is properly packed and marked, labelled or placarded and in proper conditions for carriage by sea.in proper conditions for carriage by sea. 3. Every ship shall have a special list or manifest or stowage plan for D Gs3. Every ship shall have a special list or manifest or stowage plan for D Gs showing class and location of goods on board.showing class and location of goods on board. STOWAGE REQUIREMENTS: (REGS 6)STOWAGE REQUIREMENTS: (REGS 6) 1. D Gs are to be stowed safety.1. D Gs are to be stowed safety. 2. Explosives are to be stowed in Magazine2. Explosives are to be stowed in Magazine 3. Stowed in Mechanical ventilated compartment3. Stowed in Mechanical ventilated compartment 4. Precautions against fire and explosion4. Precautions against fire and explosion SEGREGATIONSEGREGATION 1.1. AWAY FROM _AWAY FROM _ Carried same compartment and deck, horizontal separationCarried same compartment and deck, horizontal separation of 3mof 3m projected vertically is maintained.projected vertically is maintained. 2.2. SEPARATED FROM _SEPARATED FROM _ Carried in same compartment, if the intervening deckCarried in same compartment, if the intervening deck isis resistant to fire and liquids otherwise separate compartment. One deck –resistant to fire and liquids otherwise separate compartment. One deck – horizontal separation = 6m.horizontal separation = 6m. 3.3. SEPARATED BY A COMPLETE COMPARTMENT OR HOLD FROMSEPARATED BY A COMPLETE COMPARTMENT OR HOLD FROM : Separate: Separate compartment or hold and two bulkhead or deck.compartment or hold and two bulkhead or deck. 4.4. SEPARATED LONGITUDINALLY BY AN INTERVENING COMPLETESEPARATED LONGITUDINALLY BY AN INTERVENING COMPLETE COMPARTMENT OR HOLD FROMCOMPARTMENT OR HOLD FROM = Vertical separation not allowed.= Vertical separation not allowed. = On deck horizontal separation 24 m.= On deck horizontal separation 24 m. BALE CAPACITYBALE CAPACITY It is the cubic capacity of a space when the breadth is taken from theIt is the cubic capacity of a space when the breadth is taken from the insideinside of the cargo battens, the depth from the top of the wood sheathing on the TT toof the cargo battens, the depth from the top of the wood sheathing on the TT to thunder side of the deck beams and the length from the inside of the bulkheadthunder side of the deck beams and the length from the inside of the bulkhead stiffeners or spar ceiling where fitted.stiffeners or spar ceiling where fitted. GRAIN CAPACITYGRAIN CAPACITY It is the cubic capacity of a space when the length, breadth and depthIt is the cubic capacity of a space when the length, breadth and depth areare taken right to the plating. Allowance is made for the volume occupied by thetaken right to the plating. Allowance is made for the volume occupied by the frames, beams and stiffeners.frames, beams and stiffeners. STOWAGE FACTORSTOWAGE FACTOR It is the volume occupied by a unit weight of cargo usually expressedIt is the volume occupied by a unit weight of cargo usually expressed in cubicin cubic meters/tonne (metric) or cubic feet/long ton It will be noticed that S.F. is themeters/tonne (metric) or cubic feet/long ton It will be noticed that S.F. is the reciprocal of density. High density cargo have low S.F. and vice versa.reciprocal of density. High density cargo have low S.F. and vice versa. BROKEN STOWAGEBROKEN STOWAGE It is the space between packages which remains unfilled. This factorIt is the space between packages which remains unfilled. This factor variesvaries with the type of cargo and the shape of the hold. It is greatest when packages arewith the type of cargo and the shape of the hold. It is greatest when packages are of a large and irregular shape. B.S. always add with S.F to get realistic space thatof a large and irregular shape. B.S. always add with S.F to get realistic space that cargo will occupy.cargo will occupy.
    • LOAD DENSITYLOAD DENSITY It is the maximum weight that can be safely loaded on a unit area. It isIt is the maximum weight that can be safely loaded on a unit area. It is expressed in tones / m². The height to which cargo can be stowed on a deck willexpressed in tones / m². The height to which cargo can be stowed on a deck will depend on the load density of the deck and the S.F of the cargo.depend on the load density of the deck and the S.F of the cargo. Load density can be finding in capacity plan or stability booklet.Load density can be finding in capacity plan or stability booklet. ANGLE OF REPOSEANGLE OF REPOSE It is the angle between a horizontal plane and the cone slope obtainedIt is the angle between a horizontal plane and the cone slope obtained whenwhen bulk cargo is loaded on this plane.bulk cargo is loaded on this plane. SAFE WORKING LOAD (SWLSAFE WORKING LOAD (SWL:: Is the stress that a component of a lifting apparatus canIs the stress that a component of a lifting apparatus can safely bear in normalsafely bear in normal use.use. BREAKING STRESS OR BREAKING STRENGTH (B.S.):BREAKING STRESS OR BREAKING STRENGTH (B.S.): is the stress at which ais the stress at which a component will fracture.component will fracture. FACTOR OF SAFETY (F. S.)FACTOR OF SAFETY (F. S.) Is a factor used to divide the Breaking Strength to obtain theIs a factor used to divide the Breaking Strength to obtain the SWL.SWL. __ Protest should be noted as soon as possible after arrival and always withProtest should be noted as soon as possible after arrival and always with in 24 hrs of-arrival.in 24 hrs of-arrival. __ If in connection with cargo it should be noted before breaking bulk.If in connection with cargo it should be noted before breaking bulk. DRAFT SURVEYDRAFT SURVEY The displacement of ship can be calculated from the drafts of the vesselThe displacement of ship can be calculated from the drafts of the vessel suchsuch procedures are known as draft survey. The draft taken on port & Starboard sidesprocedures are known as draft survey. The draft taken on port & Starboard sides (Forward, amidships & aft). After making correction for:(Forward, amidships & aft). After making correction for: 1. Hog & Sag (mean of means)1. Hog & Sag (mean of means) 2. 1st trim correction2. 1st trim correction 3. 2nd trim correction3. 2nd trim correction 4. List (heel) correction4. List (heel) correction 5. Density correction5. Density correction The displacement is obtained. Two draft surveys are carried out. On Arrival andThe displacement is obtained. Two draft surveys are carried out. On Arrival and after completion of cargo _ The difference in displacement after making allowancesafter completion of cargo _ The difference in displacement after making allowances for changes in – bunkers, ballast, fresh water and other known weight of cargofor changes in – bunkers, ballast, fresh water and other known weight of cargo loaded or discharged. When a ship arrives at the load port a draft survey is carriedloaded or discharged. When a ship arrives at the load port a draft survey is carried out and from the displacement so obtained, the weight on board such as – bunkers,out and from the displacement so obtained, the weight on board such as – bunkers, fresh water, ballast, light ship etc are subtracted. The remaining figure gives weightfresh water, ballast, light ship etc are subtracted. The remaining figure gives weight of the ships constant. Constant means unused stores, sludge in tanks, rust, otherof the ships constant. Constant means unused stores, sludge in tanks, rust, other things which are not accounted. The displacement is obtained and after subtractingthings which are not accounted. The displacement is obtained and after subtracting the known weights for the departure condition and the constants as obtained fromthe known weights for the departure condition and the constants as obtained from the initial draft survey the balance figures gives us the cargo loaded at that port.the initial draft survey the balance figures gives us the cargo loaded at that port. The procedure is same but the figure obtained reversed during discharged.The procedure is same but the figure obtained reversed during discharged. TYPES OF CONTAINERTYPES OF CONTAINER 1. Closed box and general purpose container1. Closed box and general purpose container 2. One sided container2. One sided container 3. Dry bulk container3. Dry bulk container 4. Tank container4. Tank container 5. Half height container5. Half height container 6. Refer container6. Refer container
    • 7. Other special type container: TILTABLE, open top, collapsible container.7. Other special type container: TILTABLE, open top, collapsible container. HANDLING OF CONTAINERHANDLING OF CONTAINER 1. Single or multi legged sling not to be used.1. Single or multi legged sling not to be used. 2. Avoid swinging or dragging a container572. Avoid swinging or dragging a container57 3. When being lifted from or lowered on the chassis of a vehicle no one to be3. When being lifted from or lowered on the chassis of a vehicle no one to be inside its cabin.inside its cabin. 4. No one to stand on a container adjacent to it , it being lifted4. No one to stand on a container adjacent to it , it being lifted 5. Proper ladder to be used when climbing on top of the container5. Proper ladder to be used when climbing on top of the container IF LOADED BY SHIPS GEARIF LOADED BY SHIPS GEAR 1. SWL of derrick should not be exceeded1. SWL of derrick should not be exceeded 2. If using a spreader, corner fittings should be held tight.2. If using a spreader, corner fittings should be held tight. 3. If by bridle arrangements all four leg to be equal length3. If by bridle arrangements all four leg to be equal length 4. Container should not be dragged.4. Container should not be dragged. 5. Deck space over which the container is swung should be kept free of5. Deck space over which the container is swung should be kept free of personnelpersonnel 6. Heights of container above deck not interfere with navigation or lookout6. Heights of container above deck not interfere with navigation or lookout 7. Container should be lifted from above four corners, using container sling.7. Container should be lifted from above four corners, using container sling. 8. Container stored in the fore and aft direction with the door facing aft.8. Container stored in the fore and aft direction with the door facing aft. 9. Container should be secured on top and as well as bottom9. Container should be secured on top and as well as bottom 10.the container door should be locked and sealed container having10.the container door should be locked and sealed container having dangerous goods to be properly marked and labelled.dangerous goods to be properly marked and labelled. LOADING REFER CONTAINERLOADING REFER CONTAINER 1. Ensure container is loaded close to ship’s socket for power1. Ensure container is loaded close to ship’s socket for power 2. Loaded on hatch top 1 tier high to enable read temperature and if2. Loaded on hatch top 1 tier high to enable read temperature and if necessary for repairsnecessary for repairs 3. Plug in temperature recorded on graph by duty officer and initiated.3. Plug in temperature recorded on graph by duty officer and initiated. Electrical officer also present while plug in and also during unpluggingElectrical officer also present while plug in and also during unplugging 4. Check temperature graph for any discrepancy4. Check temperature graph for any discrepancy 5. If vast differences in set temperature and plug in temperature consult5. If vast differences in set temperature and plug in temperature consult master _master _ 6. Temperature should be recorded in temperature record book6. Temperature should be recorded in temperature record book 7. Adequate power supply available for refer container and required7. Adequate power supply available for refer container and required temperature to be maintained.temperature to be maintained. MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT SYSTEMMULTIMODAL TRANSPORT SYSTEM DEFINITIONDEFINITION:: A multimodal transport operator is any person by whom or in whose name aA multimodal transport operator is any person by whom or in whose name a contract of multimodal transport has been concluded with a shipper. A contractcontract of multimodal transport has been concluded with a shipper. A contract whereby a multimodal transport operator undertakes, against payment to freight,whereby a multimodal transport operator undertakes, against payment to freight, to perform or to procure performance of international multimodal transport. Int.to perform or to procure performance of international multimodal transport. Int. multimodal is the carriage of goods by at least two different modes of transportmultimodal is the carriage of goods by at least two different modes of transport between two different countries.between two different countries. Contracts of multimodal transport between places in two different states if:Contracts of multimodal transport between places in two different states if: 1. The place of taking charge of the goods is in a contracting state; or1. The place of taking charge of the goods is in a contracting state; or 2. The place of delivery of the goods is in a contracting state.2. The place of delivery of the goods is in a contracting state. BASIS OF LIABILITYBASIS OF LIABILITY Carrier liable if the occurrence which cause the loss, damage or delay inCarrier liable if the occurrence which cause the loss, damage or delay in delivery of the cargo took place while the goods were in his charge, unless hedelivery of the cargo took place while the goods were in his charge, unless he proves that he,proves that he,
    • his servants of agents took all measures that could reasonably be required to avoidhis servants of agents took all measures that could reasonably be required to avoid the occurrence and its consequences.the occurrence and its consequences. HAGUE RULESHAGUE RULES A set of Rules were drafted at the Hague in1921 and were adopted by aA set of Rules were drafted at the Hague in1921 and were adopted by a numbernumber of countries at a meeting called the “International convention for the unification ofof countries at a meeting called the “International convention for the unification of certain Rules Relating to Bills of Lading signed at Brussels on 25certain Rules Relating to Bills of Lading signed at Brussels on 25thth August 1924 andAugust 1924 and known as the Hague Rules, gained wide acceptance and a number maritimeknown as the Hague Rules, gained wide acceptance and a number maritime countries, gave sanction to them by enacting their provisions in their municipalcountries, gave sanction to them by enacting their provisions in their municipal laws. Hague Rules do not apply to charter-parties unless incorporated therein bylaws. Hague Rules do not apply to charter-parties unless incorporated therein by agreement. Also wherever Hague Rules have been adopted into the nationalagreement. Also wherever Hague Rules have been adopted into the national statutes, they apply only to outward cargoes (except under the U.S. Carriage tostatutes, they apply only to outward cargoes (except under the U.S. Carriage to Goods by Sea Act, 1936). In case of inward cargoes, the Hague Rules areGoods by Sea Act, 1936). In case of inward cargoes, the Hague Rules are incorporated into Bills of Lading by agreement. Similarly if cargoes are carried fromincorporated into Bills of Lading by agreement. Similarly if cargoes are carried from or between countries that have not incorporated the Hague Rules in their nationalor between countries that have not incorporated the Hague Rules in their national legislation, then the Rules are generally incorporated into Bills of Lading bylegislation, then the Rules are generally incorporated into Bills of Lading by agreement.agreement. THE HUGUE VISBY RULESTHE HUGUE VISBY RULES 1. The Hague Rules met the needs of the shipping industry and the1. The Hague Rules met the needs of the shipping industry and the merchant community satisfactorily – till about the late fifties when a need a amendmerchant community satisfactorily – till about the late fifties when a need a amend them was felt. This was mainlythem was felt. This was mainly = due to difficulties faced consequent to the pound sterling losing its= due to difficulties faced consequent to the pound sterling losing its convertibility to gold,convertibility to gold, = due to certain court decisions and perhaps most significantly= due to certain court decisions and perhaps most significantly = due to the advent of containerization and multimodal transportation= due to the advent of containerization and multimodal transportation goods.goods. 2. Consequently, in 1968 the Hague Rules were amended and when adopted2. Consequently, in 1968 the Hague Rules were amended and when adopted in 1977 came to be called the Hague -Visby Rules.in 1977 came to be called the Hague -Visby Rules. The Hague -Visby Rules were further amended by a protocol in 1979. The amendedThe Hague -Visby Rules were further amended by a protocol in 1979. The amended Hague -Visby Rules came into force in 1984.Hague -Visby Rules came into force in 1984. 3. The main difference in the Hague and Hague -Visby Rules concern the3. The main difference in the Hague and Hague -Visby Rules concern the definition of voyages to which the Rules compulsorily apply, the carrier’s right todefinition of voyages to which the Rules compulsorily apply, the carrier’s right to limit his liability in terms of pecuniary limit and the extension of such protection tolimit his liability in terms of pecuniary limit and the extension of such protection to non-carriers.non-carriers. 4. India has adopted a number of provisions of The Hague -Visby Rules by4. India has adopted a number of provisions of The Hague -Visby Rules by amending “The Carriage of Goods by Sea Act, 1925”amending “The Carriage of Goods by Sea Act, 1925” HAMBURG RULESHAMBURG RULES IOPP CERTIFICATE (REGULATION 8)IOPP CERTIFICATE (REGULATION 8) An International Oil Pollution PreventionAn International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate shall be issued for a period specified by the Administration, which shallCertificate shall be issued for a period specified by the Administration, which shall not exceednot exceed fivefive years.years. DISCHARGE CRITERIA OF OIL (REGS 9) __DISCHARGE CRITERIA OF OIL (REGS 9) __ (CARGO SPACE)(CARGO SPACE) __ a. The tanker is not within a special area.a. The tanker is not within a special area. b. The tanker is more than 50 NM form the nearest land;b. The tanker is more than 50 NM form the nearest land; c. The tanker is proceeding en route;c. The tanker is proceeding en route; d. The instantaneous rate of discharge of oil content does not exceed 30d. The instantaneous rate of discharge of oil content does not exceed 30 litters/NM;litters/NM; e. The total quantity of oil discharged into the sea does not exceed 1/30,000e. The total quantity of oil discharged into the sea does not exceed 1/30,000 of the total quantity of the particular cargo of which the residue formed a part.of the total quantity of the particular cargo of which the residue formed a part.
    • f. The tanker has in operation an oil discharge monitoring and control systemf. The tanker has in operation an oil discharge monitoring and control system and a slop tank arrangement.and a slop tank arrangement. MACHINERY SPACE BILGES (OTHER SHIPS)MACHINERY SPACE BILGES (OTHER SHIPS) a. The ship is not within a special area;a. The ship is not within a special area; b. The ship is proceed en route;b. The ship is proceed en route; c. The oil content of the effluent without dilution does not exceed 15 PPM;c. The oil content of the effluent without dilution does not exceed 15 PPM; d. The ship has in operation ODMCS (up to 10,000GT) & Oil filteringd. The ship has in operation ODMCS (up to 10,000GT) & Oil filtering equipment (more than 10,000 GT)equipment (more than 10,000 GT) SPECIAL AREAS (REGS 10)SPECIAL AREAS (REGS 10) a. The Mediterranean Seaa. The Mediterranean Sea b. The Baltic Seab. The Baltic Sea c. The Black Seac. The Black Sea d. The Red Sead. The Red Sea e. The Persian Gulfe. The Persian Gulf f. The Gulf of Adenf. The Gulf of Aden g. The Antarctic Seag. The Antarctic Sea h. The North-West Europeanh. The North-West European i. Oman sea area of Arabian Sea (New)i. Oman sea area of Arabian Sea (New) OIL RECORD BOOK (REGS 20)OIL RECORD BOOK (REGS 20) Every oil tanker of 150 GRT and above and every ship of 400 GRT and aboveEvery oil tanker of 150 GRT and above and every ship of 400 GRT and above other than an oil tanker shall provide with an Oil Record Book Part I (other than an oil tanker shall provide with an Oil Record Book Part I (MachineryMachinery SpaceSpace OperationsOperations). Every oil tanker of 150 GRT and above shall also be provided). Every oil tanker of 150 GRT and above shall also be provided with an Oilwith an Oil Record Book Part II (Record Book Part II (cargo/ballast operations).cargo/ballast operations). PART I -PART I - FOR MACHINERY SPACE OPERATIONSFOR MACHINERY SPACE OPERATIONS (ALL SHIPS)(ALL SHIPS) a. Ballasting or cleaning of oil fuel tanks;a. Ballasting or cleaning of oil fuel tanks; b. Discharge of dirty ballast or cleaning water from tanks;b. Discharge of dirty ballast or cleaning water from tanks; c. Disposal of oily residues (sludge);c. Disposal of oily residues (sludge); d. Discharge overboard or disposal otherwise of bilge water which isd. Discharge overboard or disposal otherwise of bilge water which is accumulated in machinery spaces;accumulated in machinery spaces; PART II –PART II – FOR CARGO / BALLAST OPERATIONSFOR CARGO / BALLAST OPERATIONS (OIL TANKERS):(OIL TANKERS): a. Loading of oil cargoa. Loading of oil cargo b. Internal transfer of oil cargo during voyage;b. Internal transfer of oil cargo during voyage; c. Unloading of oil cargoc. Unloading of oil cargo d. Ballasting of cargo tanks and dedicated clean ballast tanks;d. Ballasting of cargo tanks and dedicated clean ballast tanks; e. Cleaning of cargo tanks including crude oil washing;e. Cleaning of cargo tanks including crude oil washing; f. Discharge of ballast except from segregated ballast tanks;f. Discharge of ballast except from segregated ballast tanks; g. Discharge of water from slop tanksg. Discharge of water from slop tanks h. Closing of all applicable valves or similar devices after slop tank dischargeh. Closing of all applicable valves or similar devices after slop tank discharge operations;operations; i. Closing of valves necessary for isolation of dedicated clean ballast tanksi. Closing of valves necessary for isolation of dedicated clean ballast tanks from cargo and stripping lines after slop tank discharge operations;from cargo and stripping lines after slop tank discharge operations; j. Disposal of residues.j. Disposal of residues. SHIPBOARD OIL POLLUTION EMERGENCY PLANSHIPBOARD OIL POLLUTION EMERGENCY PLAN ((SOPEPSOPEP)) MARPOL 73/78,MARPOL 73/78, Chapter IV– Prevention of pollution arising from an oil pollutionChapter IV– Prevention of pollution arising from an oil pollution incident, Regulation 26.incident, Regulation 26. 1. Every oil tanker of 150 tons gross tonnage and above and every ship1. Every oil tanker of 150 tons gross tonnage and above and every ship
    • other than an oil tanker of 400 tons gross tonnage and above shall carry on board aother than an oil tanker of 400 tons gross tonnage and above shall carry on board a shipboard oil pollution emergency plan approved by the Administration. In the caseshipboard oil pollution emergency plan approved by the Administration. In the case of ships built before 4 Apr 1993 this requirement shall apply 24 months after thatof ships built before 4 Apr 1993 this requirement shall apply 24 months after that date. SOPEP shall be in accordance with organization and written in the workingdate. SOPEP shall be in accordance with organization and written in the working language of the master and officers. The plan shall consist at least of:language of the master and officers. The plan shall consist at least of: a. The procedure to be followed by the master or other persons havinga. The procedure to be followed by the master or other persons having charge of the ship to report an oil pollution incident, as per guidelines developed bycharge of the ship to report an oil pollution incident, as per guidelines developed by the Organization.the Organization. b. The list of authorities or persons to be contacted in the event of an oilb. The list of authorities or persons to be contacted in the event of an oil pollution incidentpollution incident c. A detailed description of the action to be taken immediately by persons onc. A detailed description of the action to be taken immediately by persons on board to reduce or control the discharge of oil following the incidents;board to reduce or control the discharge of oil following the incidents; d. The procedures and point of contact on the ship for coordinatingd. The procedures and point of contact on the ship for coordinating shipboard action with national and local authorities in combating the pollution.shipboard action with national and local authorities in combating the pollution. CARGO RECORD BOOKCARGO RECORD BOOK (Annex II, Regulation 9)(Annex II, Regulation 9) The Cargo Record Book shall be completed, on a tank-to-tank basis, wheneverThe Cargo Record Book shall be completed, on a tank-to-tank basis, whenever and of the following operations with respect to a noxious liquid substance takeand of the following operations with respect to a noxious liquid substance take place in the ship:place in the ship: 1. Loading of cargo1. Loading of cargo 2. Internal transfer of cargo;2. Internal transfer of cargo; 3. Unloading of cargo3. Unloading of cargo 4. Cleaning of cargo tanks4. Cleaning of cargo tanks 5. Ballasting of cargo tanks5. Ballasting of cargo tanks 6. Discharge of ballast from cargo tanks6. Discharge of ballast from cargo tanks 7. Disposal of residues to reception facilities;7. Disposal of residues to reception facilities; 8. Discharge into the sea or removal8. Discharge into the sea or removal CLC CONVENTIONCLC CONVENTION (International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution(International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage,Damage, 1969 as amended by the Protocol of 1992): In force : 30/5/1996.1969 as amended by the Protocol of 1992): In force : 30/5/1996. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES 1. Ensure adequate compensation is available to persons who suffer form oil1. Ensure adequate compensation is available to persons who suffer form oil pollution by ships even if the Owner is unable to pay the same;pollution by ships even if the Owner is unable to pay the same; 2. Adopt uniform international rules & procedures to determine Civil Liability2. Adopt uniform international rules & procedures to determine Civil Liability etc. for losses due to pollution of oil from ships.etc. for losses due to pollution of oil from ships. 3. To encourage Governments and others to feel more confident in taking3. To encourage Governments and others to feel more confident in taking early and decisive action in containing/minimizing the adverse effects of oilearly and decisive action in containing/minimizing the adverse effects of oil pollution.pollution. APPLICATIONAPPLICATION 1. The Convention applies to all oil tankers in situations where pollution1. The Convention applies to all oil tankers in situations where pollution results from in Territorial Seas & Exclusive Economic Zones up to 200 miles (asresults from in Territorial Seas & Exclusive Economic Zones up to 200 miles (as established under UNCLOS).established under UNCLOS). 2. It does not apply to war ships and to State-owned ships provided such2. It does not apply to war ships and to State-owned ships provided such ships not engaged in commercial operations.ships not engaged in commercial operations. LIABILITY _LIABILITY _ 1. The owner of every tanker is liable for pollution damage caused by his tanker1. The owner of every tanker is liable for pollution damage caused by his tanker unless the damage is caused by reasons external to the ownership and operation ofunless the damage is caused by reasons external to the ownership and operation of the tanker. This strict liability is based on the principle “polluter must pay”the tanker. This strict liability is based on the principle “polluter must pay” 2. The owner of every tanker may limit is total liability in the following manner:2. The owner of every tanker may limit is total liability in the following manner: ___ For tanker up to 5000 GRT: Liability is limited to 4.51 million SDR (US$5.78___ For tanker up to 5000 GRT: Liability is limited to 4.51 million SDR (US$5.78 million)million)
    • __ For tanker 5000 to 140000 GRT: liability is limited to 4.51 million SDR (US$__ For tanker 5000 to 140000 GRT: liability is limited to 4.51 million SDR (US$ 5.78 million) plus 631 SDR (US$ 807) for each additional per Tones over 5000 GT.5.78 million) plus 631 SDR (US$ 807) for each additional per Tones over 5000 GT. For a ship over 140000 GRT liabilities is limited to 89.77 million SDR (US$ 115For a ship over 140000 GRT liabilities is limited to 89.77 million SDR (US$ 115 million) Provided that the damage is not caused by the actual fault or priormillion) Provided that the damage is not caused by the actual fault or prior knowledge of the Owner himself.knowledge of the Owner himself. 3. No claim can be made against the Charterer (including bare-boat chatterer),3. No claim can be made against the Charterer (including bare-boat chatterer), Master, Pilot, Crew, SALVOR or Agent of the ship.Master, Pilot, Crew, SALVOR or Agent of the ship. 4. After a pollution incident, if the Owner wishes to avail of the benefit of4. After a pollution incident, if the Owner wishes to avail of the benefit of limitation aslimitation as describe above, he deposits a sum (equal to his maximum liability) either with thedescribe above, he deposits a sum (equal to his maximum liability) either with the Court or with any other competent authority of the country where legal cases haveCourt or with any other competent authority of the country where legal cases have been/can be started against him.been/can be started against him. 5. If the Owner incurs any expenses to prevent or minimise pollution damage,5. If the Owner incurs any expenses to prevent or minimise pollution damage, then such expenses are deductible from the amount deposited by the Owner in thethen such expenses are deductible from the amount deposited by the Owner in the same ratio as other claims on the “Fund”. The object of this provision is tosame ratio as other claims on the “Fund”. The object of this provision is to encourage immediate measures by the Owner to minimise/contain damage and beencourage immediate measures by the Owner to minimise/contain damage and be willing to spend money therefore.willing to spend money therefore. INSURANCE / OTHER FINANCIAL SECURITYINSURANCE / OTHER FINANCIAL SECURITY Every tanker of 2000 GT and above has to maintain an insurance or otherEvery tanker of 2000 GT and above has to maintain an insurance or other financial security (such as a bank guarantee) to ensure that the tanker can meetfinancial security (such as a bank guarantee) to ensure that the tanker can meet her pollution damage liabilities to the extent indicated above.her pollution damage liabilities to the extent indicated above. The flag state shall issue a certificate to each ship after she has compliedThe flag state shall issue a certificate to each ship after she has complied with the above condition regarding financial security. The certificate must be carriedwith the above condition regarding financial security. The certificate must be carried on the ship and must show the name of the insurer etc. giving security in respect ofon the ship and must show the name of the insurer etc. giving security in respect of the ship. Certificates so issued shall be recognized and accepted by all countriesthe ship. Certificates so issued shall be recognized and accepted by all countries that have ratified the convention.that have ratified the convention. The liability insurer (meaning the P&I Clubs) of the Ship-owner usuallyThe liability insurer (meaning the P&I Clubs) of the Ship-owner usually provides the proof of insurance policy/financial security. On the basis of thisprovides the proof of insurance policy/financial security. On the basis of this document the flag state issue the “Certificate of Civil Liability for oil pollutiondocument the flag state issue the “Certificate of Civil Liability for oil pollution damage” (called CLC Certificate).damage” (called CLC Certificate). The certificate shall not be valid beyond the validity of the insurance policy.The certificate shall not be valid beyond the validity of the insurance policy. Any one who suffers loss due to oil pollution from a ship may sue either the ownerAny one who suffers loss due to oil pollution from a ship may sue either the owner of the vessel or even the insurer who have issued the policy within three years ofof the vessel or even the insurer who have issued the policy within three years of the loss. Even if the Owner goes into liquidation the insurer continues to be liable tothe loss. Even if the Owner goes into liquidation the insurer continues to be liable to those who may have suffered a loss.those who may have suffered a loss. THE FUND CONVENTIONTHE FUND CONVENTION (International Convention on the establishment of an(International Convention on the establishment of an International Fund of compensation for oil pollution damage, 1992) – In force fromInternational Fund of compensation for oil pollution damage, 1992) – In force from 30.5.1996 _ The aim of the Fund Convention is to provide compensation for losses30.5.1996 _ The aim of the Fund Convention is to provide compensation for losses due to pollution to the extent and in cases where the security provided by the 1992due to pollution to the extent and in cases where the security provided by the 1992 Liability Convention is inadequate. In other words, the fund provides supplementaryLiability Convention is inadequate. In other words, the fund provides supplementary compensation to victims of oil pollution damage are borne not by the shippingcompensation to victims of oil pollution damage are borne not by the shipping industry, but are in part also borne by the cargo interests.industry, but are in part also borne by the cargo interests. FUNDFUND For the above purpose, a fund, called the International Oil Pollution CompensationFor the above purpose, a fund, called the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund 1992 has been established. All persons/companies in any country importingFund 1992 has been established. All persons/companies in any country importing more than 150000 tons of oil in any year shall make contributions to the Fund asmore than 150000 tons of oil in any year shall make contributions to the Fund as may be called upon to do so from time to time. The Fund is managed as anmay be called upon to do so from time to time. The Fund is managed as an independent entity under the overall supervision of a Director who is appointed byindependent entity under the overall supervision of a Director who is appointed by and is responsible to the IMO.and is responsible to the IMO. SALIENT FEATURESSALIENT FEATURES::
    • The new 1992 Fund Convention was so named and adopted on 27 NovemberThe new 1992 Fund Convention was so named and adopted on 27 November 1992 and entered into force on 30 May 1996.1992 and entered into force on 30 May 1996. 1. The Convention established a separate, 1992 International Oil Pollution1. The Convention established a separate, 1992 International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund, known as the 1992 Fund, which is managed in London by aCompensation Fund, known as the 1992 Fund, which is managed in London by a Secretariat.Secretariat. 2. Under the 1992 regime, the maximum amount of compensation payable2. Under the 1992 regime, the maximum amount of compensation payable from the Fund for a single incident, including the limit established under the 1992from the Fund for a single incident, including the limit established under the 1992 CLC Protocol, is 203 million SDR (about US$260 million). However, if three StatesCLC Protocol, is 203 million SDR (about US$260 million). However, if three States contributing to the Fund receive more than 600 million tones of oil per annum, thecontributing to the Fund receive more than 600 million tones of oil per annum, the maximum amount is raised to 300.74 million SDR (US$386 million).maximum amount is raised to 300.74 million SDR (US$386 million). 3. From 16 May 1998, Parties to the 1992 Protocol ceased to be Parties to3. From 16 May 1998, Parties to the 1992 Protocol ceased to be Parties to the 1971 Fund Convention due to a mechanism for compulsory denunciation of thethe 1971 Fund Convention due to a mechanism for compulsory denunciation of the ‘old’ regime established in the 1992 Protocol. However, for the time being, two‘old’ regime established in the 1992 Protocol. However, for the time being, two Funds (the 1971 Fund and the 1992 Fund) are in operation, since there are someFunds (the 1971 Fund and the 1992 Fund) are in operation, since there are some States which have not yet acceded to the 1992 Protocol, which is intended toStates which have not yet acceded to the 1992 Protocol, which is intended to completely replace the 1971regimes.completely replace the 1971regimes. 4. IMO and the IOPC Fund Secretariat are actively encouraging Governments4. IMO and the IOPC Fund Secretariat are actively encouraging Governments who have not already done so to accede to the 1992 Protocol s and to denouncewho have not already done so to accede to the 1992 Protocol s and to denounce the 1969 and 1971 regimes. Member States who remain in the 1971 Fund will facethe 1969 and 1971 regimes. Member States who remain in the 1971 Fund will face financial disadvantages, since the financial burden is spread over fewerfinancial disadvantages, since the financial burden is spread over fewer contributors.contributors. 5. For both the 1971 and 1992 Funds, annual contributions are levied on the5. For both the 1971 and 1992 Funds, annual contributions are levied on the basis of anticipated payments of compensations and estimated administrationbasis of anticipated payments of compensations and estimated administration expenses during the forthcoming year.expenses during the forthcoming year. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ J __ MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONSJ __ MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS Knowledge of:Knowledge of: a. Safety measures helicopter operations on ships.a. Safety measures helicopter operations on ships. b. National and international provision of Registration of ships.b. National and international provision of Registration of ships. c. Official log books and its maintenance.c. Official log books and its maintenance. d. National provision on shipping causalities, Investigation and Inquiries.d. National provision on shipping causalities, Investigation and Inquiries. e. Salvage. LOF 95e. Salvage. LOF 95 f. Towage.f. Towage. ‘‘Official Log Book’Official Log Book’ Q _Q _ What entries are made in it? Give an example of such an entry.What entries are made in it? Give an example of such an entry. Answer: As per MSA 1958, section 212:Answer: As per MSA 1958, section 212: a) - An Official Log Book is a official document endorse by the Shippinga) - An Official Log Book is a official document endorse by the Shipping Master to every Indian ship except a home-trade ship less than 200 tons gross. TheMaster to every Indian ship except a home-trade ship less than 200 tons gross. The official log may, at the discretion of the master or owner, be kept distinct from orofficial log may, at the discretion of the master or owner, be kept distinct from or united with the ordinary ship’s log so that in all cases the spaces in the official logunited with the ordinary ship’s log so that in all cases the spaces in the official log book be duly filled up. Following entries required to be made in official log books asbook be duly filled up. Following entries required to be made in official log books as per MSA 1958, section 214. The master of a ship for which an official log is requiredper MSA 1958, section 214. The master of a ship for which an official log is required shall enter of cause to be entered in the official log book:-shall enter of cause to be entered in the official log book:- b) Signed On/Signed Off crew: While joining/ leaving the vessel entries shallb) Signed On/Signed Off crew: While joining/ leaving the vessel entries shall be made in OLB.be made in OLB. c) Load Line details: Date , Leaving /Entering Port, Draft (fwd, m/s & aft),c) Load Line details: Date , Leaving /Entering Port, Draft (fwd, m/s & aft), Free Board, Water density and signed by Mate and Master,Free Board, Water density and signed by Mate and Master, d) Every conviction by a legal tribunal of a member of his crew and the punishmentd) Every conviction by a legal tribunal of a member of his crew and the punishment Inflicted;Inflicted; e) every offence committed by a member of his crew for which it ise) every offence committed by a member of his crew for which it is intended to prosecute or to enforce a forfeiture or exact a fine, together with suchintended to prosecute or to enforce a forfeiture or exact a fine, together with such
    • statement concerning the reading over of that entry and concerning the reply (ifstatement concerning the reading over of that entry and concerning the reply (if any) made to the charge as is by this Act required;any) made to the charge as is by this Act required; f) Every offence for which punishment is inflicted on board and thef) Every offence for which punishment is inflicted on board and the punishment inflected;punishment inflected; g) A report on the quality of work of each member of his crew, or ag) A report on the quality of work of each member of his crew, or a statement that the master declines to give an opinion thereon with a statement ofstatement that the master declines to give an opinion thereon with a statement of his reasons forhis reasons for declining;declining; h) Every case of illness, hurt or injury happening to a member of the crewh) Every case of illness, hurt or injury happening to a member of the crew with the nature thereof and the medical treatment adopted (if any)with the nature thereof and the medical treatment adopted (if any) i) Every case of death happening on board and the cause thereof, togetheri) Every case of death happening on board and the cause thereof, together with such particulars as may be prescribed;with such particulars as may be prescribed; j) Every berth happening on board with the sex of the infant, the names ofj) Every berth happening on board with the sex of the infant, the names of the parents and such other particulars as may be prescribed;the parents and such other particulars as may be prescribed; k) Every marriage taking place on board with the names and ages of thek) Every marriage taking place on board with the names and ages of the parties;parties; l) the name of every seaman who ceases to he a member of the crewl) the name of every seaman who ceases to he a member of the crew otherwise than by death, with the place, time e, manner and cause thereof;otherwise than by death, with the place, time e, manner and cause thereof; m) The wages due to any seaman or apprentice who dies during the voyagem) The wages due to any seaman or apprentice who dies during the voyage and the gross amount of all deductions to be made there from;and the gross amount of all deductions to be made there from; n) the money or other property taken over of any seaman who dies duringn) the money or other property taken over of any seaman who dies during the voyage;the voyage; o) any other matter which is to be or may be prescribed for entry in theo) any other matter which is to be or may be prescribed for entry in the official log.official log. p) Inspection of Provision’s store/crew accommodationp) Inspection of Provision’s store/crew accommodation q) Record of Safety Drillsq) Record of Safety Drills r) Radio Batteries inspectionr) Radio Batteries inspection s) Watertight door inspection/ opening and closing date and signed by Mates) Watertight door inspection/ opening and closing date and signed by Mate and Master.and Master. Q. WITH REFERENCE TO MSA, EXPLAINQ. WITH REFERENCE TO MSA, EXPLAIN a) Registration of shipsa) Registration of ships b) Disciplinary action in case of various offences made by seaman.b) Disciplinary action in case of various offences made by seaman. Registration of ships : Every Indian ship, more than fifteen tons net and isRegistration of ships : Every Indian ship, more than fifteen tons net and is employed solely in navigation on the coasts of India, shall be registered underemployed solely in navigation on the coasts of India, shall be registered under Merchant Shipping Act 1958 Part V, Registration of Indian Ships, section 20-33. ForMerchant Shipping Act 1958 Part V, Registration of Indian Ships, section 20-33. For the purposes of this Act, persons registered the Indian ship should be:the purposes of this Act, persons registered the Indian ship should be: a. A citizen of India ; ora. A citizen of India ; or b. A company or a body established by or under any Central or State Actb. A company or a body established by or under any Central or State Act which has its principal place of business in India;which has its principal place of business in India; c. A co-operative society which is registered or deemed to be registeredc. A co-operative society which is registered or deemed to be registered under the Co- operative Societies for the time being in force in any State, Anunder the Co- operative Societies for the time being in force in any State, An application for the registry of an Indian ship shall be madeapplication for the registry of an Indian ship shall be made d. In the case of an individual, by the person requiring to registered asd. In the case of an individual, by the person requiring to registered as owner or by his agent; In the case of more than one individual requiring to beowner or by his agent; In the case of more than one individual requiring to be registered as owner or by his agent;registered as owner or by his agent; e. In the case of more than one individual requiring to be registered, bye. In the case of more than one individual requiring to be registered, by some one or more of the persons so requiring or by his or their agent; andsome one or more of the persons so requiring or by his or their agent; and f. In the case of a company (or a co-operative) requiring to be so registered,f. In the case of a company (or a co-operative) requiring to be so registered, by its agent _by its agent _ Declaration of ownership on registryDeclaration of ownership on registry::
    • A declaration of ownership shall be made in theA declaration of ownership shall be made in the prescribed form of theprescribed form of the certificate of the surveyor and containing the following particulars:certificate of the surveyor and containing the following particulars: a. A statement whether he is or is not a citizen of India.a. A statement whether he is or is not a citizen of India. b. A statement of the time when and the place where the ship was built ofb. A statement of the time when and the place where the ship was built of if the ship is built outside India and the time and place of building is not known, aif the ship is built outside India and the time and place of building is not known, a statement to that effect; and in addition in the case of a ship previously registeredstatement to that effect; and in addition in the case of a ship previously registered outside India, a statement of the name by which she was registeredoutside India, a statement of the name by which she was registered INDIAN MERCHANT SHIPPING ACT SECTION 358INDIAN MERCHANT SHIPPING ACT SECTION 358 1. For the purpose of investigations and inquiries under this part, a shipping1. For the purpose of investigations and inquiries under this part, a shipping casualty shall deem to occur when:casualty shall deem to occur when: a) On or near the coasts of India, any ship is lost, abandoned, stranded ora) On or near the coasts of India, any ship is lost, abandoned, stranded or materially damaged:materially damaged: b) On or near the coasts of India, any ship causes loss or material damageb) On or near the coasts of India, any ship causes loss or material damage to any other ship:to any other ship: c) Any loss of life ensues by reason of any casualty happening to or onboardc) Any loss of life ensues by reason of any casualty happening to or onboard any ship on or near the coasts of India;any ship on or near the coasts of India; d) In any place, any such loss, abandonment, stranding, material damaged) In any place, any such loss, abandonment, stranding, material damage oror casualty as above mentioned occurs to or on board any Indian ship, and anycasualty as above mentioned occurs to or on board any Indian ship, and any competent witness thereof is found in India.competent witness thereof is found in India. e) Any Indian ship is lost or is supposed to have been lost, and anye) Any Indian ship is lost or is supposed to have been lost, and any evidence is obtainable in India as to the circumstances under which she proceededevidence is obtainable in India as to the circumstances under which she proceeded to sea or was last heard of.to sea or was last heard of. Q. What are the Master’s responsibilities as per MSA in case of a collision withQ. What are the Master’s responsibilities as per MSA in case of a collision with another ship?another ship? As per MSA 1958, section 348: Duty of master of ship to assist in case ofAs per MSA 1958, section 348: Duty of master of ship to assist in case of collision – In every case of collision between two ships it shall be the duty of thecollision – In every case of collision between two ships it shall be the duty of the master or person in charge of each ship, if and so far as he can do so withoutmaster or person in charge of each ship, if and so far as he can do so without danger to his own ship, crew and passengers, if anydanger to his own ship, crew and passengers, if any a) To tender to the other ship, her master, crew and passengers, if any,a) To tender to the other ship, her master, crew and passengers, if any, such assistance as may be practicable and may be necessary to save them fromsuch assistance as may be practicable and may be necessary to save them from any danger caused by the collision and to stay by the collision and to stay by theany danger caused by the collision and to stay by the collision and to stay by the other ship he has ascertained that she has no need of further assistance andother ship he has ascertained that she has no need of further assistance and b) To give to the masters or persons in change of the other ships the nameb) To give to the masters or persons in change of the other ships the name of his own ship and of the port to which she belongs and also the names of theof his own ship and of the port to which she belongs and also the names of the ports from she comes and to which she is bound.ports from she comes and to which she is bound. Q. What is the Master’s role in collecting evidence in this? How will he get about it?Q. What is the Master’s role in collecting evidence in this? How will he get about it? As per MSA 1958, section350 – report to Central Government of accidents to shipsAs per MSA 1958, section350 – report to Central Government of accidents to ships When a ship has sustained or caused any accident occasioning loss of life or anyWhen a ship has sustained or caused any accident occasioning loss of life or any serious injury of any person or has received any material damage affecting herserious injury of any person or has received any material damage affecting her seaworthiness or her efficiency either in her hull or is so altered in any part of herseaworthiness or her efficiency either in her hull or is so altered in any part of her machinery as not to correspond with the particulars contained in any of themachinery as not to correspond with the particulars contained in any of the certificates issued under this Act in respect of the ship, the owner or master shall,certificates issued under this Act in respect of the ship, the owner or master shall, within twenty-four hours after the happening of the accident of damage or as soonwithin twenty-four hours after the happening of the accident of damage or as soon thereafter as possible, transmit to the Central Government or the nearest Principlethereafter as possible, transmit to the Central Government or the nearest Principle Officer a report of the accident or damage and or the probable cause thereof statingOfficer a report of the accident or damage and or the probable cause thereof stating the name of the ship, her official number, if any, her port of registry and the placethe name of the ship, her official number, if any, her port of registry and the place where she is.where she is.
    • Q: Keeping in mind the commercial interests of owner, discuss the role of aQ: Keeping in mind the commercial interests of owner, discuss the role of a shipmaster inshipmaster in respect of his duties OR Why Master’s role is very important inrespect of his duties OR Why Master’s role is very important in safeguarding the commercial interests of owner?safeguarding the commercial interests of owner? The role of ship master is very important in safe guarding the commercialThe role of ship master is very important in safe guarding the commercial interests of owner because the master is the owner representative and take care ofinterests of owner because the master is the owner representative and take care of the ship, its crew and cargo for the commercial benefit of the owner by thethe ship, its crew and cargo for the commercial benefit of the owner by the following:following: 1. Voyage Planning: As soon as owner informed about next load port voyage1. Voyage Planning: As soon as owner informed about next load port voyage planning should be prepared, the route must be the proper and shortest so thatplanning should be prepared, the route must be the proper and shortest so that vessel will reach next port as early as possible. All the information regardingvessel will reach next port as early as possible. All the information regarding ROB/Required F.O. / D.O. / L.O./F.W. / Provision and ETA to be sent to owner wellROB/Required F.O. / D.O. / L.O./F.W. / Provision and ETA to be sent to owner well in advance so that he can arranged all things available when vessel reach to loadin advance so that he can arranged all things available when vessel reach to load port. Owner or agent must informed the master regarding availability ofport. Owner or agent must informed the master regarding availability of berth/anchor position/ bunker berth/what is going to load and how much to beberth/anchor position/ bunker berth/what is going to load and how much to be load, according holds/tanks can cleaned and time can be saved.load, according holds/tanks can cleaned and time can be saved. 2. Time management: time management is very important in the2. Time management: time management is very important in the commercial aspect. Master should delegate the jobs to all the crew members andcommercial aspect. Master should delegate the jobs to all the crew members and authority must be given as per their rank/position. E.g. Chief Officer is in-charge ofauthority must be given as per their rank/position. E.g. Chief Officer is in-charge of cargo loading and calculation, 2/O in charge of to make the passage plan etc.cargo loading and calculation, 2/O in charge of to make the passage plan etc. 3. Vessel should be seaworthy: All Certificates & Documentation should be in3. Vessel should be seaworthy: All Certificates & Documentation should be in order and valid. Survey will be carried out before departure.order and valid. Survey will be carried out before departure. 4. Planned Maintenance Schedule: Proper maintenance of hull and all4. Planned Maintenance Schedule: Proper maintenance of hull and all machinery to be carried out as per the planned maintenance schedule to avoid themachinery to be carried out as per the planned maintenance schedule to avoid the any breakdown & incident.any breakdown & incident. 5. Complying National/International Rules & Regulation: When vessel at port5. Complying National/International Rules & Regulation: When vessel at port and at sea the National/international rules and REGS must be complied with.and at sea the National/international rules and REGS must be complied with. 6. Safe loading, carrying and discharging of cargo and care must be taken6. Safe loading, carrying and discharging of cargo and care must be taken 7. Documentation: Weather reports/Navigational warnings must be obtained7. Documentation: Weather reports/Navigational warnings must be obtained so that proper action may be taken in advance. Information/instruction/orders fromso that proper action may be taken in advance. Information/instruction/orders from owner / charter party must be followed.owner / charter party must be followed. 8. Budget: Budget for the financial year should be made e.g. Provisions,8. Budget: Budget for the financial year should be made e.g. Provisions, tanks/holds cleaning money, any other requirements/authority given to master andtanks/holds cleaning money, any other requirements/authority given to master and forwarded toforwarded to owner.owner. 9. ISM Code: Safety of crew, environment and property must be taken in9. ISM Code: Safety of crew, environment and property must be taken in account and proper drills, training to be carried out as per schedule to avoid anyaccount and proper drills, training to be carried out as per schedule to avoid any emergency situation. All crew must have proper certificates and medically fit.emergency situation. All crew must have proper certificates and medically fit. 10. Human Resources Management: crew must be motivated and their10. Human Resources Management: crew must be motivated and their welfares regarding their wages, provisions, PPE etc.welfares regarding their wages, provisions, PPE etc. 11.11. Leadership quality: All officers and crew must obey the master’sLeadership quality: All officers and crew must obey the master’s instruction.instruction. 12. Bill of Lading : Cargo loaded on board must be checked and remarks can12. Bill of Lading : Cargo loaded on board must be checked and remarks can be written on the bill of lading in case cargo are less or damaged.be written on the bill of lading in case cargo are less or damaged. 13. Proper communication There are two type of communication:13. Proper communication There are two type of communication: a) Routinea) Routine b) Non- routine.b) Non- routine. Communication must be clear and understandable from the owner /Communication must be clear and understandable from the owner / chatterer / surveyor / port control e.g. fax, e-mail, verbal etc. Verbal order alwayschatterer / surveyor / port control e.g. fax, e-mail, verbal etc. Verbal order always written in the log books and time and senders name to be written downwritten in the log books and time and senders name to be written down 14. Bunker Management: Bunker should be calculated for the voyage and 2-14. Bunker Management: Bunker should be calculated for the voyage and 2- 3 days extra in case of emergency, proper quantity & quality, proper speed and3 days extra in case of emergency, proper quantity & quality, proper speed and cost effects. There should be no oil pollution while bunkering.cost effects. There should be no oil pollution while bunkering.
    • 15. Charter party: Know the various clauses of the charter party. Time of15. Charter party: Know the various clauses of the charter party. Time of arrived ship, vessel ready for loading and time of NOR and statement of facts.arrived ship, vessel ready for loading and time of NOR and statement of facts. Q1.Q1.When you came on watch error was 2 degree suddenly after some time itWhen you came on watch error was 2 degree suddenly after some time it become 9 – 10become 9 – 10 degree what is the cause and action?degree what is the cause and action? AnswerAnswer: the main cause is magnetic anomalies, if crossing through rock containing: the main cause is magnetic anomalies, if crossing through rock containing iron oriron or when passing iron ore loaded vessel. Effect can be felt around 250 cables.when passing iron ore loaded vessel. Effect can be felt around 250 cables. ActionAction: continuous checking of deviation till magnetic compass becomes normal: continuous checking of deviation till magnetic compass becomes normal and recording compass error book also plot the position in the chart.and recording compass error book also plot the position in the chart. Q2:Q2: how a new danger marked?how a new danger marked? AnswerAnswer: one or more cardinal or lateral buoy. If the danger is graved one of the: one or more cardinal or lateral buoy. If the danger is graved one of the buoy will bebuoy will be duplicated one of those will have reckon with Morse ‘d’ (- . .) With theduplicated one of those will have reckon with Morse ‘d’ (- . .) With the signal length 1 NM at least on radar PPI. Light on the buoys must be quick or verysignal length 1 NM at least on radar PPI. Light on the buoys must be quick or very quick.quick. Q3: if you see a white light on night time what it could be?Q3: if you see a white light on night time what it could be? 1. Astern light of a vessel1. Astern light of a vessel 2. Life raft light2. Life raft light 3. Vessel less than 7 nm long & whose maximum speed should not exceed3. Vessel less than 7 nm long & whose maximum speed should not exceed more than 7 knots.more than 7 knots. 4. Vessel less than 50m at anchor4. Vessel less than 50m at anchor 5. Vessel under oars.5. Vessel under oars. Q4. Your vessel’s heading south and you see a south cardinal buoy on right ahead,Q4. Your vessel’s heading south and you see a south cardinal buoy on right ahead, what is your action?what is your action? 1. Stop engine1. Stop engine 2. Take all her way off2. Take all her way off 3. Echo sounder on3. Echo sounder on 4. Check the position of buoy on chart4. Check the position of buoy on chart 5. Check the vessel position5. Check the vessel position 6. Make a full appraisal of the situation6. Make a full appraisal of the situation 7. Decide the best course of action7. Decide the best course of action Q5. What is the provision of magnetic compasses onboard ships as per SOLAS ?Q5. What is the provision of magnetic compasses onboard ships as per SOLAS ? SOLAS chapter v regulation 12 requires all ships of 150 gt and over to be fitted withSOLAS chapter v regulation 12 requires all ships of 150 gt and over to be fitted with 1. Standard magnetic compass if exemption the steering magnetic compass1. Standard magnetic compass if exemption the steering magnetic compass 2. Steering magnetic compass unless heading information provided by the2. Steering magnetic compass unless heading information provided by the standard compass is available at the main steering position.standard compass is available at the main steering position. 3. A spare magnetic compass interchangeable with the standard compass3. A spare magnetic compass interchangeable with the standard compass shall be carried unless a steering magnetic compass or a gyro compass is fittedshall be carried unless a steering magnetic compass or a gyro compass is fitted Q6. Occasions when a full correction is necessary in magnetic compassQ6. Occasions when a full correction is necessary in magnetic compass 1. First installed1. First installed 2. Large structural alteration/repairs2. Large structural alteration/repairs 3. Alterations of any electrical apparatus or magnetic materials in the vicinity3. Alterations of any electrical apparatus or magnetic materials in the vicinity of compass.of compass. 4. Struck by lighting4. Struck by lighting 5. Major fire5. Major fire 6. After collision or stranding.6. After collision or stranding.
    • Q7. Occasions when an adjustment is necessary in magnetic compassQ7. Occasions when an adjustment is necessary in magnetic compass 1. 3 – 4 month after the first correction1. 3 – 4 month after the first correction 2. Once every year as a routine2. Once every year as a routine 3. After carriage and discharge of cargoes of a magnetic nature.3. After carriage and discharge of cargoes of a magnetic nature. 4. After loading or discharging by electromagnets4. After loading or discharging by electromagnets 5.When ship enters service after being laid up for some period.5.When ship enters service after being laid up for some period. Q _ 8: information required when passage planQ _ 8: information required when passage plan 1. arrival/departure draft1. arrival/departure draft 2. Tide depth of water while entering and leaving taking allowance of tide2. Tide depth of water while entering and leaving taking allowance of tide 3. Zones to pass (zone allowance) tropical, summer, winter3. Zones to pass (zone allowance) tropical, summer, winter 4. Expected weather – rough/calm, cold weather precautions4. Expected weather – rough/calm, cold weather precautions 5. Duration of voyage to calculate – bunker, fresh water , provision etc.5. Duration of voyage to calculate – bunker, fresh water , provision etc. 6. Ballast water management6. Ballast water management 7. Check the route plotted on various chart7. Check the route plotted on various chart 8. Time of arrival/departure port (stations/pilot ladder etc.)8. Time of arrival/departure port (stations/pilot ladder etc.) 9. All navigational dangerous (wreck, shoal, buoys) are marked/ high9. All navigational dangerous (wreck, shoal, buoys) are marked/ high lighted.lighted. 10. Contingencies plans.10. Contingencies plans. Q _ 9. What is the principle of navigational watch?Q _ 9. What is the principle of navigational watch? Answer:Answer: 1. Safe navigation (look out)1. Safe navigation (look out) 2. Environment protection2. Environment protection 3. Shortest route (commercial aspect)3. Shortest route (commercial aspect) Q _ 10. What is tide, tidal stream and current?Q _ 10. What is tide, tidal stream and current? Tide: vertical movement of water due to moon/sun/planet.Tide: vertical movement of water due to moon/sun/planet. Tidal stream: horizontal movement due to moon/sun/planet.Tidal stream: horizontal movement due to moon/sun/planet. Current: horizontal movement due to change of temperature , salinity, wind andCurrent: horizontal movement due to change of temperature , salinity, wind and local disturbance.local disturbance. Q _ 11. Emergency towing arrangementQ _ 11. Emergency towing arrangement AnswerAnswer: SOLAS chapter II-1 REG 3-4 Oil, chemical & gas carrier tankers of not less: SOLAS chapter II-1 REG 3-4 Oil, chemical & gas carrier tankers of not less than 20,000 tons dwt, const after 1than 20,000 tons dwt, const after 1stst Jan 1996 & const before 1st Jan 96 scheduleJan 1996 & const before 1st Jan 96 schedule 11stst dry dock but not alter than 1st Jan 99 must have e t a fwd and aft position.dry dock but not alter than 1st Jan 99 must have e t a fwd and aft position. The E T A should be designed as to facilitate salvage & emergency towing operationThe E T A should be designed as to facilitate salvage & emergency towing operation on tankers primary to reduce the risk of pollution. The arrangements should at allon tankers primary to reduce the risk of pollution. The arrangements should at all times be capable of rapid development in the absence of main power as the ship totimes be capable of rapid development in the absence of main power as the ship to be towed & easy connection to the towing vessel.be towed & easy connection to the towing vessel. Towing gears:Towing gears: 1. Pick up gear1. Pick up gear 2. Towing pendants2. Towing pendants 3. Chafing gear3. Chafing gear 4. Fair lead4. Fair lead 5. Strong point5. Strong point 6. Roller pedestal6. Roller pedestal Length of towing pendent:Length of towing pendent: At least twice the lightest sea going ballast freeboard at the fairlead + 50 mAt least twice the lightest sea going ballast freeboard at the fairlead + 50 m Ready availability of towing arrangementReady availability of towing arrangement 1. Aft ETA can deployed in 15 min time.1. Aft ETA can deployed in 15 min time. 2. Fwd ETA should be capable deployed not more than 1 hours.2. Fwd ETA should be capable deployed not more than 1 hours.
    • Q._12 What is an AIS?Q._12 What is an AIS? 1. AIS provides automatically ships identity, type , position, course, speed1. AIS provides automatically ships identity, type , position, course, speed and other safety related information to shore station, other ships and aircraft.and other safety related information to shore station, other ships and aircraft. 2. Received automatically such information from similarly fitted ships.2. Received automatically such information from similarly fitted ships. 3. Monitor and track ships.3. Monitor and track ships. 4. Exchange Data with shore based facilities.4. Exchange Data with shore based facilities. Q._ 13 What is VDR?Q._ 13 What is VDR? 1. VDR should be able to maintained information in a secured and retainable1. VDR should be able to maintained information in a secured and retainable formform concerning the position, movement, physical status, command and control a vesselconcerning the position, movement, physical status, command and control a vessel over the period leading to and following an accident.over the period leading to and following an accident. 2. The S-VDR which is to be fitted on cargo ships is not required to restore2. The S-VDR which is to be fitted on cargo ships is not required to restore the same level of data as the standard VDR but should none the less be able tothe same level of data as the standard VDR but should none the less be able to maintained and provide the information are given above over a period leading tomaintained and provide the information are given above over a period leading to and following an incident.and following an incident. Q._ 14 Chapter XII – Additional safety for Bulk CarrierQ._ 14 Chapter XII – Additional safety for Bulk Carrier Due to several loses of Bulk Carriers during the period 1985-95 investigationDue to several loses of Bulk Carriers during the period 1985-95 investigation relevant the causes and the need for strengthen of regulations with resultant inrelevant the causes and the need for strengthen of regulations with resultant in inclusion in Ch XII SOLAS.inclusion in Ch XII SOLAS. The causes for losses is a combination several reasons the mean one beingThe causes for losses is a combination several reasons the mean one being corrosion attack High Tensile Steel the same extent the ordinary steel and thecorrosion attack High Tensile Steel the same extent the ordinary steel and the excessive use of high tensile steel to reduce the scantly and light ship weightexcessive use of high tensile steel to reduce the scantly and light ship weight resultant in extremely weak structures over a period of time corrosion was enhanceresultant in extremely weak structures over a period of time corrosion was enhance due to the presence of corrosion elements in cargo as specially coal, SULPHAR,due to the presence of corrosion elements in cargo as specially coal, SULPHAR, Fertilizer, Cement, iron ores etc.Fertilizer, Cement, iron ores etc. The carries of this cargo with the cleaning of that following and lack theThe carries of this cargo with the cleaning of that following and lack the improper paint coating inside the compartment due to the inherent nature ofimproper paint coating inside the compartment due to the inherent nature of discharge bulk cargoes by scrapping with grabs, bulldozers and SOWELS providesdischarge bulk cargoes by scrapping with grabs, bulldozers and SOWELS provides the poor maintenance high chances of corrosion. Additionally the hatch coverthe poor maintenance high chances of corrosion. Additionally the hatch cover watertight ingress the water specially in forward hold lead to corrosive dynamicwatertight ingress the water specially in forward hold lead to corrosive dynamic looks and corrosion.looks and corrosion. The requirement of Ch XII of SOLAS provide for strengthen of tank top inThe requirement of Ch XII of SOLAS provide for strengthen of tank top in number one hold and of the transverse watertight bulkhead between one and twonumber one hold and of the transverse watertight bulkhead between one and two holds, so as to withstand flooding of the foremost hold. Ships with don’t complyholds, so as to withstand flooding of the foremost hold. Ships with don’t comply with this structural standards will be prohibited for carrying cargo with high densitywith this structural standards will be prohibited for carrying cargo with high density and the mark with the blackand the mark with the black ▲▲ on the ship side.on the ship side. The damage stability requirements applicable to bulk carriers have been modifiedThe damage stability requirements applicable to bulk carriers have been modified and water level detectors are to be fitted in void spaces to monitor ingress of water.and water level detectors are to be fitted in void spaces to monitor ingress of water. The ship shall comply with an enhance survey programme which will ensure thatThe ship shall comply with an enhance survey programme which will ensure that ballast tanks are properly coated, thickness measurement are carrying out froballast tanks are properly coated, thickness measurement are carrying out fro critical areas.critical areas. Corrosion will be monitor by the maintenance of records of the ships cargo,Corrosion will be monitor by the maintenance of records of the ships cargo, ballast and repairs history and the conduct of a survey programmed which isballast and repairs history and the conduct of a survey programmed which is planned and focused on the areas where problem are likely to developed.planned and focused on the areas where problem are likely to developed.