Thyroid gland
By
Raaj Aswini and Sai Paavani
 The thyroid gland is a butterfly-
shaped organ and is composed of two
cone-like lobes or wings, lobus dexter
(right lobe...
 It starts cranially at the oblique
line on the thyroid cartilage (just
below the laryngeal prominence, or
'Adam's Apple'...
 The thyroid is one of the larger
endocrine glands, weighing 2-3
grams in neonates and 18-60 grams
in adults, and is incr...
 Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
start being secreted from the fetal
hypothalam...
 Thyroxine (T4) or
tetraiodothyronine
andTriiodothyronine (T3) are
Secreted by Follicular cells.
 they Can be stored in ...
 Almost all T4 is converted into T3 in
tissues
 T3 is the active form of T4.
 T3 4 times > potent
(active/important) th...
 Almost all THs are carried in the
blood, mostly in an
inactive form, bound to 3
different types of proteins:
a. Thyroxin...
1.GOITER:
 1.it is a small harmless
disorder
 it is the swelling of neck or
larynx resulting from
enlargement of thyroid...
 there are two types of disorders
depending on the
abnormal production of thyroid
hormones
 Too much thyroid hormone
res...
 Subacute thyroiditis: Inflammation of the
thyroid that causes the gland to
"leak" excess hormones, resulting
in temporar...
GRAVE’S DISEASE
 Graves' disease is an autoimmune
disease.
 It causes thyroid to enlarge to
twice its size or more
 sym...
 Normally, the thyroid gets its
production orders through another
chemical called thyroid-stimulating
hormone (TSH), rele...
 an underproduction of thyroid
hormones causes hypothyroididsm
,which is also caused due to several
other disorders such ...
 Lithium: This drug has also been implicated
as a cause of hypothyroidism.
Untreated for long periods of time,
hypothyroi...
 A lack of thyroid hormones in the
system at an early age can
 lead to the development of
cretinism (mental retardation)...
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  1. 1. Thyroid gland By Raaj Aswini and Sai Paavani
  2. 2.  The thyroid gland is a butterfly- shaped organ and is composed of two cone-like lobes or wings, lobus dexter (right lobe) and lobus sinister (left lobe), connected via the isthmus  Each lobe is about 5 cm long, 3 cm wide and 2 cm thick Its size depends on: 1. age … age   size. 2. sex … female > male. 3. physiological condition …
  3. 3.  It starts cranially at the oblique line on the thyroid cartilage (just below the laryngeal prominence, or 'Adam's Apple'), and extends inferiorly to approximately the fifth or sixth tracheal ring.  The thyroid gland is covered by a thin fibrous sheath, the capsula glandulae thyreoideae, composed of an internal and
  4. 4.  The thyroid is one of the larger endocrine glands, weighing 2-3 grams in neonates and 18-60 grams in adults, and is increased in pregnancy.  It participates in these processes by producing thyroid hormones, at 3–4 week of gestation.  The thyroid gland appears as an epithelial proliferation in the floor
  5. 5.  Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) start being secreted from the fetal hypothalamus and pituitary at 18-20 weeks of gestation.  Fetal production of thyroxine (T4) reach a clinically significant level at 18–20 weeks.  Fetal triiodothyronine (T3) remains low (less than 15 ng/dL) until 30 weeks of gestation, and increases to 50 ng/dL at termClinical significance
  6. 6.  Thyroxine (T4) or tetraiodothyronine andTriiodothyronine (T3) are Secreted by Follicular cells.  they Can be stored in thyroid gland for couple of months (2-3 months).  Having significant effect on metabolic rate of the body  93 % of Thyroxine (T4) or tetraiodothyronine and 7% of Triiodothyronine (T3) are secredted
  7. 7.  Almost all T4 is converted into T3 in tissues  T3 is the active form of T4.  T3 4 times > potent (active/important) than T4 in tissue, but it present in much smaller quantities in blood, & persists for a much shorter time than does T4.
  8. 8.  Almost all THs are carried in the blood, mostly in an inactive form, bound to 3 different types of proteins: a. Thyroxine binding globulin … 80% b. Thyroxine binding pre- albumin … 10% c. Plasma albumin (serum
  9. 9. 1.GOITER:  1.it is a small harmless disorder  it is the swelling of neck or larynx resulting from enlargement of thyroid gland  Goiter is caused by iodine deficiency  Small doses of iodine in the
  10. 10.  there are two types of disorders depending on the abnormal production of thyroid hormones  Too much thyroid hormone results in a condition known as hyperthyroidism , this can result due to several disorders such as  Toxic adenomas: Nodules develop in the thyroid gland and begin to secrete thyroid hormones,
  11. 11.  Subacute thyroiditis: Inflammation of the thyroid that causes the gland to "leak" excess hormones, resulting in temporary hyperthyroidism that generally lasts a few weeks but may persist for months.  Pituitary gland malfunctions or cancerous growths in the thyroid gland can also result in hyperthyroidism , so the excessive
  12. 12. GRAVE’S DISEASE  Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease.  It causes thyroid to enlarge to twice its size or more  symptoms such as increased heartbeat, muscle weakness, disturbed sleep, and irritability. It can also affect the eyes, causing bulging eyes (exophthalmos).It
  13. 13.  Normally, the thyroid gets its production orders through another chemical called thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), released by the pituitary gland in the brain. But in Graves' disease, a malfunction in the body's immune system releases abnormal antibodies that mimic TSH. Spurred by these false signals to produce, the thyroid's hormone
  14. 14.  an underproduction of thyroid hormones causes hypothyroididsm ,which is also caused due to several other disorders such as  Hashimoto's thyroiditis: In this autoimmune disorder, the body attacks thyroid tissue. The tissue eventually dies and stops producing hormones.  Removal of the thyroid gland: The thyroid may have been surgically removed or chemically destroyed.  Exposure to excessive amounts of iodide: Cold and sinus medicines, the heart medicine amiodarone, or certain contrast dyes
  15. 15.  Lithium: This drug has also been implicated as a cause of hypothyroidism. Untreated for long periods of time, hypothyroidism can bring on a myoxedema coma  Myxedema :  it is caused by an accumulation of tissue products such as glycosaminoglycans, in the skin.  Symptoms of myxedema include thickening of the skin , fatigue, weight gain, depression, dry skin, and brittle hair, Skin thickening or swelling associated with myxedema is often
  16. 16.  A lack of thyroid hormones in the system at an early age can  lead to the development of cretinism (mental retardation) and dwarfism (stunted growth).  Cancer of the thyroid gland is quite rare and occurs in about 5% of thyroid nodules. People who have received radiation treatment to the

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