Psycholinguistics----Some Basic Terms Defined---- by Raed Dakhil Kareem; PhD Candidate, University of Baghdad, College of Arts, Dept. of English.
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Psycholinguistics----Some Basic Terms Defined---- by Raed Dakhil Kareem; PhD Candidate, University of Baghdad, College of Arts, Dept. of English.

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Psycholinguistics----Some Basic Terms Defined---- by Raed Dakhil Kareem; PhD Candidate, University of Baghdad, College of Arts, Dept. of English. Psycholinguistics----Some Basic Terms Defined---- by Raed Dakhil Kareem; PhD Candidate, University of Baghdad, College of Arts, Dept. of English. Document Transcript

  • Psycholinguistics----Some Basic Terms Defined----by Raed Dakhil KareemIt is a fact that fields of knowledge are interrelated, hence, concepts and terms of each are not strictlyrestricted to one on the expense of the other. The following terms are to be clarified from the severaldomains of psychology, philosophy, logic, religion, and language lexicon.The first group( self, soul, spirit) :Self(OALD): 1-the type of person you are especially the way younormally behave, look, or feel. 2-a persons emotional and spiritual character(i.e.the inner self). (CED): 3-theindividuality of a person or thing, as the object of reflexive consciousness or action. Soul(OALD): 1-thespiritual part of a person, believed to exist after death. 2-a person inner character containing their truethoughts and feelings. (CED): 3-the intellectual part of a person, consciousness. Spirit(OALD): 1-th part ofa person that includes their mind, feelings and character rather than their body. 2-a persons feelings or stateof mind. 3-the soul thought of as separate from the body and believed to live on after death. (CED) 4-theimmaterial part of man(the soul). 5-vigour of mind or intellect. 6-a person considered with regard to hispeculiar qualities of mind, temper, etc. These terms may also be clarified this another way below: Self: The“I” as experienced by an individual. In modern psychology the notion of the self has replaced earlierconceptions of the soul (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1373315/foundationalism).Soul: It is the active principle present in living things. Plato distinguished three distinct components of thehuman soul. For Plato, the rational soul (mind or intellect) is the thinking portion within each of us, whichdiscerns what is real and not merely apparent, judges what is true and what is false, and wisely makes therational decisions in accordance with which human life is most properly lived. The spirited soul (will orvolition is the active portion; its function is to carry out the dictates of reason in practical life. Finally, theappetitive soul (emotion or desire) is the portion of each of us that wants and feels many things.According to the Islamic perspective, these terms would be explained as follows:Self and Soul: The word “soul” is more used by religious scholars to refer to a person’s unique identity afterdeath, than during his/her life on earth. Thus, the “soul” is the “self ” after death, which will be heldaccountable for its performance during life. Spirit: While psychologists, sociologists, and other scientistshave been studying the mind and the self (which becomes soul after death), we know very little about thespirit, as the Holy Quran tells us. The word “spirit” is a translation of the Arabic word rooh ( ) . This isthe part of the brain which is responsible for the automatic functionality of the body organs, readiness forlearning, and disposition for knowing good and evil (Haji, 1986: 97, 117, 249, 253ff.) .The second group(brain, mind) :Brain(OALD): 1-the organ inside the head that controls movement,thought, memory and feeling. . (CED): 2-the seat of intellect, thought, etc. 3-the centre of sensation.Mind(OALD): 1-the part of a person that makes them able to be aware of things, to think and feel(theconscious/unconscious mind). 2-your intelligence. 3-intellect. (CED): 4-the intellectual power in man. 5-theunderstanding. 6-the soul. However, (mind) in philosophy is used in general antithesis to matter, to coverthat phase of reality which does not permit of exclusive interpretation in terms of matter in motion, butallows or requires the hypothesis of something analogous to conscious process. On the other hand, (mind) inpsychology is the individuals conscious process, together with the dispositions and predispositions whichcondition it. (http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Baldwin/Dictionary/defs/colls.htm#jmb).In Islam, generally The mind is the body of knowledge housed in the brain. It includes two main parts. Thefirst is a software which develops inherently with the brain in the womb. It is responsible for thefunctionality of the body, readiness for learning, and disposition for knowing good and evil, as explained inthe self above. The second part of the mind is accumulated from birth until death, as a result of theinteraction with the world. The word mind (aql, ) does not appear in the Holy Qur’an as a noun in thesingular form. Rather, a derivative of which is used as a verb (aqala ), meaning to tie, tighten, control, orrestrict. The word al-albab ,( ) however, is used in the Holy Quran to refer to the “mind” but in theplural form (al-Haidari, 1427A.H.: 232, 273), (a-Trmidhi, 2009: 10ff.)The third group(intellect, intelligence): Intellect(OALD): 1-the ability to think in a logical way andunderstand things, especially at an advanced level. (CED): 2-the faculty of the human mind by which itreceives, understands, comprehends, thinks and reasons, as distinguished from the faculty of feeling and
  • willing. 3-wits, senses, meaning, purport. Intelligence(OALD): 1-the ability to learn, understand and thinkin a logical way about things. (CED): 2-the exercise of the understanding. 3-intellectual power. 4-capacity ofthe higher function of the intellect. However, Intellect is a term used in studies of the human mind, andrefers to the ability of the mind to come to correct conclusions about what is true or real, and about how tosolve problems. Discussion of the intellect can be divided into two broad areas. In both of these areas, theterms "intellect" and "intelligence" have continued to be used as related words. In philosophy, especially inclassical and medieval philosophy the intellect or nous is an important subject connected to the question ofhow humans can know things. Especially during late antiquity and the middle ages, the intellect was oftenproposed as a concept which could reconcile philosophical and scientific understandings of nature withmonotheistic religious understandings, by making the intellect a link between each human soul, and thedivine intellect (or intellects) of the cosmos itself. Discussion of Intelligence as the mental ability (orabilities) that allow people to understand things has continued as a subject studied by modern scientificpsychology and neuroscience (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intellect).The fourth group(reason, understanding, wit): Reason(OALD): 1-the power of the mind to think in alogical way, to understand and have opinions, etc. (CED): 2-the intuitive faculty which furnishes priorprinciples, categories, etc. 3-the power of consecutive thinking, i.e. the logical faculty. Reason, then, is thecapacity for consciously making sense of things, for establishing and verifying facts, and changing orjustifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information. It is closely associatedwith such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics, and art, and isnormally considered to be a definitive characteristic of human nature. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intellect),(al-Tirmidhi,320A.H.:10ff.).Understanding: (also called intellection) is a psychological process related to an abstract or physical object,such as a person, situation, or message whereby one is able to think about it and use concepts to dealadequately with that object. Understanding is a relation between the knower and an object of understanding.Understanding implies abilities and dispositions with respect to an object of knowledge sufficient to supportintelligent behavior. Wit(OALD): 1-the ability to say or write things that are both clever and amusing. 2-your ability to think quickly and clearly and to make good decisions. 3-the intelligence or good sense toknow what is the right thing to do. (CED): 4-the power of perceiving analogies and other relations betweenapparently incongruous ideas or of forming unexpected, striking, or ludicrous combinations of them. 5-thefive wits: the five senses. 6-the mental power.Dictionaries ConsultedHayward, A.L. and Sparkes, J.J.(1962)Cassells English Dictionary,19th.ed. London: Cassell. Hornby,A.S.(2000) Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, 6th.ed.Oxford: Oxford University Press.Referencesal-Hadari, Kamal (1427A.H.) Madkhal ila Manahij al Marifa indda al Isalamiyyin. Beirut: Muasasat alImaam al Jawad.Al-Tirmidhi, abi bdil-LAh Mohammad Ibn Ali ( 320A.H.) Bayan al Farq baina as-Sadri wal-Qalbi wal-Fuaadi wal-Lubb. Amman: Muasasat Alul-Baiti al-Malakiyya.Haji, Jafar Abbas (1986) Nadriyat al-Marifa fi al-Islam. Kuwait: Maktabat al-Alfain.Internet Resourceshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1373315/foundationalismhttp://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Baldwin/Dictionary/defs/colls.htm#jmb