This presentation includes® INTRODUCTION….® RESPIRATORY ORGANS….® TYPES OF RESPIRATION….® MECHANISM OF BREATHING….® RESPIRATORY DISORDERS….
What is Respiration ?Respiration is a bio chemical process which occursin stages & requires many enzymes . The mainpurpose of respiration is to release energy fromfood . The process of Respiration involves taking inof oxygen into cells , using it for releasing energyby burning food , & then eliminating the waste thewaste products ( carbon dioxide & water ).Theenergy released by respiration is used for carryingout the biological functions which r necessary forthe maintenance & survival of an organism.FOOD + OXYGEN ----> CARBON DIOXIDE +WATER + ENERGY
Process of Respiration...The process of respiration which releases energytakes place inside the cells of the body . So , it is alsoknown as cellular respiration .The process of cellularrespiration is common to all living organisms . Itprovides energy to the cells . There are two by-products of cellular respiration carbon dioxide &water . Out of these only carbon dioxide isconsidered to b a real waste product of respirationbecause water produced during respiration is notharmful to the body . It is rather beneficial to thebody . Respiration is essential for life because itprovides energy for carrying out all the lifeprocesses which r necessary to keep the organismsalive .
Human RespiratoryOrgans..These include --- ﺾNose ﺾPharynx ﺾTrachea ﺾBronchus ﺾBronchioles ﺾLungs ﺾAlveoli
Nose =>@ The human respiratory system begins from the nose .Our nose has two holes called nostrils . The passagebehind nostrils Is called nasal passage . The air forrespiration is drawn through the nostrils present in thenose . This air then goes into the nasal cavity . In thenasal cavity , air is warmed , moistened & dust particles rentrapped in mucus . From the nasal cavity , the airenters into pharynx & then the wind pipe through a slitcalled glottis .Trachea =>@ Trachea is a tube commonly known as the wind pipe. The aircoming from nostrils passes through Trachea . Trachea does notcollapse due to low air pressure because it is supported by ringsof bones called cartilage. The upper end of Trachea has a voicebox called larynx . Trachea opens into bronchus
Bronchus =>Bronchus is the singular of bronchi .In all there are two bronchi whichr connected to two lungs . Eachbronchus divides in the lungs toform smaller tubes called Bronchioles .These Bronchioles have tiny air sacscalled alveoli .
Lungs & Alveoli =>The Bronchus divide into lungsto form large number of bronchioles.These Bronchioles have air sacsin their ends called Alveoli . TheseAlveoli are surrounded by thinblood capillaries .It is in thealveoli the oxygen is taken in& oxygen is given out I.e.the exchange of gases takesplace in the Alveoli .
Types of Respiration ...So far we have studied that respiration takesplace in the presence of oxygen ( of air ) .Respiration can however , also take place inthe absence of oxygen ( of air ) , though it isvery rare . This means that oxidation of foodto obtain energy can occur in the presenceof oxygen as well as in the absence ofoxygen based on this we have two types ofrespiration =>1. Aerobic2. Anaerobic
Important Points =>$$ Glucose is C6 H12 O6. It is a six carbon atomcompound . It is the simple food which isoxidised in cells of organisms during respiration .$ The oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid ( orpyruvate ) is called glycolysis . It occurs in thecytoplasm of the cell & not in mitochondria . Theoxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid does notrequire oxygen . One molecule of glucose onglycolysis produces two molecules of pyruvicacid .$ Pyruvic acid is a 3 carbon atom compound . Itis also called pyruvate .
$ The fate of pyruvic acid formed duringrespiration depends on weather oxygen ispresent in the cells or not . If oxygen is presentthen pyruvic acid is completely oxidised tocarbon dioxide & water , & a lot of energy isproduced ( in form of ATP ) . If however ,oxygen is not present in the cells , pyruvic acidis converted into either ethyl alcohol & carbondioxide or lactic acid. Much less energy isreleased in this case .$ Lactic acid is also a three carbon atomcompound . It also called Lactate . It is ahydroxyl carboxylic acid .
Two types of Respiration =>1.AEROBIC =>The respiration which uses oxygen is called AerobicRespiration .It is called aerobic respiration because ituses air which contains oxygen . In aerobicrespiration , the glucose food is completely brokendown into carbon dioxide & water by oxidation .Aerobic respiration produces a considerable amount ofenergy for use by organism which gets stored in ATP(38 ATP) molecules . The breaking down of glucoseduring aerobic respiration can be represented asfollows => C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6CO 2 --------> 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O
2.ANAEROBIC The respiration which takes place without oxygen is called anaerobic Respiration . The micro organisms like yeast & bacteria obtain energy by anaerobic Respiration ( Fermentation ) . In Anaerobic Respiration , the micro organisms like yeast break down glucose ( food) into ethyl alcohol & carbon dioxide , & release energy . This energy is then used by the micro organisms . Anaerobic Respiration produces much less energy which gets stored in ATP molecules . The breaking down of glucose ( food ) during anaerobic respiration is carried out by yeast & canYeast represented as follows => be =>C 6 H 12 O 6 ----->2C 2 H 5 OH + 2CO 2Acetobactor =>C 2 H 5 OH --------> CH 3 COOH + H 2 O
Difference between aerobic & anaerobic respiration• AEROBIC • ANAEROBIC• Aerobic Respiration • Takes place in takes place in the absence of oxygen . presence of oxygen. • Partial break down• Complete of food . breakdown of food • End products may occurs in aerobic be ethyl alcohol & respiration carbon dioxide (in• End products are yeast) , lactic acid in Carbon dioxide . animal muscles .• Aerobic respiration • Much less energy is produces a produced considerable
Breathing...Like other land animals humans are airbreathers . Air contains oxygen . Humans needoxygen to survive . We get this oxygen from theenvironment by the process of breathing .Breathing is a process of intake of oxygen forbreaking up of food for the release of energy& exhaling out waste gases such as carbondioxide . Breathing is carried out with the helpof several organs like nose , pharynx , trachea ,bronchus , lungs which contain alveoli .
Mechanism of breathing is as follows =>When we breathe in our chest goes up and this happens asfollows =>¶ When we in air the diaphragm musclesattached contract due to which our chestcavity expands which increases the volumeinside due to which air pressure decreasesinside & air outside ( higher pressure )rushes into the from nostrils trachea &bronchi due to which the alveoli r filled withfresh oxygen .This taking in of air is calledinhalation . This oxygen diffuses into bloodto carry out respiration .
When air is exhaled our chest comes down thishappens as follows =>¶When we breathe air out the diaphragm & the muscles attached to ribs relax dueto which chest contracts pushingcarbon dioxide outside , this is called exhalationDue to breathing carbon dioxide is removedfrom our body & the rate of breathing iscontrolled by brain . The average breathing time is 15-18 times per minute .
Differences between respiration & breathing• RESPIRATION • BREATHING• Respiration includes • Breathing is simply mechanism of the gaseous exchange breathing & which takes place in oxidation of food to lungs in alveoli. release energy for the organism to do work.