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  • Persian music was the reason for indian music to split into 2
  • Binding fabric
  • emphasize
  • Western – chord, piano….
  • Gamelan originates from Bali and Java in Indonesia.· The word 'gamel' means hammer.· A gamelan orchestra consists mostly of gongs, metallophones, xylophones and drums.· Gamelan music is used to accompany performances such as dance and shadow puppet plays.
  • Groups typically consist of the singer, one or two accompanying melodic instruments (either of kamanche, tar, santur, setar, or nay) and perhaps a rhythmic instrument, such as the dombak, or the now rarer daf.
  • The order of gushes within a dastgah is not fixed, and some gushes may be omitted altogether. Musicians are expected to render each gusheh in such a way that it remain identifiable.Combination of all pieces that make up the repertory of Persian music is called the radif (row).
  • - Not THE oldest but one of the oldestUnderlying fabric that connects is melody and its variations-rhythm, more than anything is superimposed onto this melodic fabric, to provide variety and variation from a listener’s perspective-improvisation varies in degrees….in some cases it is only interpretation, whereas in Carnatic as well as Persian, scope- monophony is a more ancient concept than polyphony- in terms of rhythmic and melodic variety while indian music perhaps rates the highest, each form of music has its own specialities which

Classical music systems of the world Classical music systems of the world Presentation Transcript

  • Classical Music systems of the world
    KGKP Annual Conference
    24.09.2011
    Manasi Prasad
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • What is classical music
    Art music
    Advanced structural and theoretical considerations
    In several cases a written musical tradition
    In contrast to popular music and traditional or folk music
    Classical
    AXIOMATIC
    Triangle
    Folk
    Popular
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • European classical
    Chinese classical
    Ottoman
    Andalusian
    Gagaku
    Persian
    Hindustani
    Pinpeat/ Piphat
    Carnatic
    Mande
    Gamelan
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • Agenda
    Chinese traditional music (guqin)
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • Agenda
    Chinese traditional music (guqin)
    Persian classical music (dastgah)
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • Agenda
    Chinese traditional music (guqin)
    Persian classical music (dastgah)
    Indonesian art music (gamelan)
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • Agenda
    Chinese traditional music (guqin)
    Persian classical music (dastgah)
    Indonesian art music (gamelan)
    Some other examples
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • Analysis
    History and development
    Salient features
    Theoretical basis/ framework
    Instruments used
    Comparison to Indian classical system
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • Chinese traditional music
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • History and development
    Evidence of musical instruments from 500BC
    Development during the Tang and Han dynasties (500 – 1000 AD)
    Court tradition weakens by 18th, 19th centuries
    Exclusive domain of the literati
    Cultural revolution of 1965 – 79
    Reform and revival of traditional art forms
    Westernization
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • The guqin
    Most ancient Chinese instrument
    Seven stringed instrument belonging to the zither family
    Normative for Chinese classical music
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • Salient features
    Melodic/ monophonic
    Pentatonic scale
    Modal variations of the pentatonic scale
    No formalized rhythm structure
    Importance of dynamics and timbre
    Lack of structural improvisation
    Sample 1 (Gong Yi)
    Sample 2 (Guan Ping Hu)
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • Aesthetic approach
    Music for self-perfection as opposed to music for self-expression
    Search for harmony/ balance
    Simplicity/ minimalism
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • Instruments
    Guzheng
    Pipa
    Erhu
    Dizi
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • Indonesian traditional music
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • Gamelan music
    Musical ensemble from Indonesia
    Variety of instruments such as xylophones, drums and gongs, bamboo flutes
    Set of instruments as a distinct entity, built and tuned to stay together
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • History and development
    Earliest image of musical ensemble in 8th century
    Palaces of Java had musical ensembles from 12th century
    Used in temple rituals and palace celebrations
    2 main styles – Javanese and Balinese gamelan
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • Salient features
    Gamelan pieces are based on a primary melodic phrase. Each instrument plays a variation of this melody.
    2 main 'scales‘ :
    Slendro tuning system divides the octave into five equidistant parts
    Pelog tuning system divides the octave into seven unequal parts
    Pathet – an organizing concept for melodies
    CYCLIC - repetition and variation
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • Contexts
    Integral part of all cultural activities:
    Wayangkulit (leather puppet)
    Court dance
    Uyon – uyon
    (musical ensemble)
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • Instruments
    Saron
    Bonang
    Kendhang
    Gendare
    Kempul
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • Persian classical music
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • Persian classical music
    Monophonic
    Modal system
    The use of microtones divides the scales into more than twelve semi-tones
    A priority is given to ornamentation
    A number of substantial pauses in each piece
    Rhythmic patterns are kept simple
    Classical music is vocal based
    Accompanied by at least one wind or string instrument and one type of percussion
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • History and development
    Evidence of musical instruments in Elamite era around 800BCE
    Developments during the Sassanid era (200 – 600AD)
    Foundation of Islamic state (7th century)
    Sufi saints of 13th – 15th century
    Significantly developed during the Qajar Empire (1785 – 1925)
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • The radif
    Dastgah system of organization developed during Qajar dynasty
    Twelve basic modes: seven primary modes (dastgah-s) and five secondary modes (avaz-s). Each avaz is derived from a specific dastgah
    Each dastgah has 8 note scale
    Each dastgah has its own repertory of melodies each of which is called gusheh
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • A comparison
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • Example
    Dastgah Shur
    Dastgah Houmayun
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • Compositional Forms
    Instrumental forms:
    Pishdaramad - prelude to the daramad. It may be in double, triple, or quadruple time
    Cheharmezrab is a solo piece, mostly with a fast tempo
    Reng, which is a simple dance piece that is usually played at the conclusion of the dastgah. 
    Vocal form :
    Tasnif (similar to Pishdaramad)
    Scope for improvisation exists
    Vocal parts are often decorated with Tahrir, a vocal ornamentation similar to yodeling
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • Performance format
     Typical performance consists of the following elements :
    pīshdarāmad(a rhythmic prelude which sets the mood)
    darāmad(rhythmic free motif)
    āvāz (improvised rhythmic-free singing)
    taṣnīf (rhythmic accompanied by singing, an ode)
    Chahārmeżrāb (rhythmic music but rhythmic-free or no singing)
    reng (closing rhythmic composition, a dance tune)
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • Subject matter
    Large body of classical poetry, from medieval times to the present day
    Most of the poems are rhythmically free and are generally performed within the context of a suite of gushe-s
    EG: (Rumi)
    “Man mast o to divāna/ mā-rākebaradkhāna
    I am drunk and you are mad, who shall take us back to home?
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • Persian instruments
    Santur
    Kamancheh
    Tambur
    Do tar
    Tonbak
    Oud
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • Andalusian music
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • Pinpeat music
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • Conclusions
    Indian music is not THE oldest, but one of the most ancient musical forms
    Most classical music systems in the world are monophonic
    Melody (pitch and tonal variations) form the basic fabric of most classical music systems
    Improvisation is found in varying degrees in different classical music systems
    © Manasi Prasad 2011
  • THANK YOU!
    Questions?
    © Manasi Prasad 2011