Compilation by Ben: firstname.lastname@example.org
(Qtr 1 to 4)
LEARNING MODULE for HEALTH 7
Module 1: GROWING HEALTHY
(Note to illustrator: These can be used because these are original.)
Attaining holistic health should be everybody’s goal. At this point of your life
you have many health concerns that need to be addressed. You need to develop all
dimensions of your health. You also need coping skills to be able to face the
challenges of adolescent life. Correct health information, a positive attitude, healthy
practices and desirable coping skills will help you attain and maintain holistic health.
Directions: Encircle the letter of the correct answer.
A. The health dimensions are interrelated. However, some activities develop a
specific dimension more than others. What dimension of health does each activity
develop most? Write:
P for Physical health
S for Social health
MS for Moral-spiritual Health
E for Emotional health
M for Mental health
1. Telling the truth
2. Jogging around the park
3. Listening to mood music
4. Reading your favourite books
5. Getting enough rest and sleep
6. Eating a balanced diet regularly
7. Going out with family and friends
8. Respecting your parents and elders
9. Sharing jokes with family members
10. Playing chess, checkers, and Math games
B. There are changes that happen to boys and girls during puberty. Write TRUE if
the statement is correct and FALSE if it is wrong.
1. Girls are taller than boys.
2. Girls’ hips become broader.
3. Voice change occurs among boys.
4. Boys become more aggressive than girls.
5. Muscle growth is faster in girls than in boys.
6. Boys reach the age of puberty earlier than girls.
7. Girls and boys experience rapid mental growth.
8. Boys and girls like to be alone more than to be with friends.
9. Changes that happen to boys and girls occur in all dimensions.
10. Menstruation and enlargement of breast occur at the same time.
C. Encircle the letter of your answer.
1. What will you do when you make a mistake?
A. Cover it up.
B. Admit your mistake.
C. Pretend nothing happened.
D. Hope that no one will find out.
2. How can unpleasant body odor due to active secretion of sweat glands be
A. Change clothes more often.
B. Shave the hair of the armpit.
C. Use perfume to hide the odor.
D. Take a bath regularly and use deodorant.
3. When seeking social support to cope with problems, which of the following
will NOT help?
A. Stay alone inside the room.
B. Talk to a friend who can help.
C. Ask advice from a responsible adult.
D. Talk to someone to know more about the problem.
4. What coping skill is applied when you say, “I know I can do it”?
A. Self-talk strategy
B. Solving the problem
C. Avoiding and denying
D. Seeking social support
5. What skills will help you get along well with other people?
A. Coping skills
B. Decision-making skills
C. Problem-solving skills
D. Social and communication skills
6. Saying you are sorry when you hurt someone, means you _____.
A. Do not have to pay back.
B. Want the person to forgive you.
C. Want the person to feel satisfied.
D. Are too proud to accept your mistake.
7. A healthful way to show your friend you are angry is to _____.
A. Ignore him/her.
B. Stay away from him/her.
C. Tell others you are angry with your friend.
D. Tell your friend what he/she said made you feel angry.
8. The avoiding coping strategy should be used ______.
A. As a last resort.
B. For long-term issues.
C. For short-term issues.
D. As a substitute for other coping skills.
9. Moodiness among boys is often due to changes in the level of their_______.
C. Growth hormone.
D. Estrogen hormone.
10. Poor posture among adolescents is due to_______.
A. Eating less healthful food.
B. Doing strenuous exercises.
C. Slouching due to their height.
D. Playing computer and video games.
D. Directions: Put a check (/) if the statement relates to your practice or habit and
(X) if it does not.
1. I monitor my heath status.
2. I monitor the status of my weight.
3. I monitor any change in my posture .
4. I go to the dentist for a regular dental checkup.
5. I visit my doctor once a year even if I am not sick.
6. I undergo a screening test to know my health status.
7. I tell my health problems to my parents/health personnel.
8. I undergo a scoliosis screening in my school/barangay clinic.
9. I report unusual changes in my body breast to a responsible adult.
10. I take advantage of the health services in our school/barangay
Evaluate your answer. How many did you check?
The number of items you checked describes your health habits and practices:
9-10 - Excellent Keep it up!
7-8 - Very satisfactory
5-6 - Satisfactory
3-4 - Fair
1-2 - Need improvement—you need to change and correct your health habits and
E. Directions: The following are practices of adolescents in managing things.
Write A if you Agree with the practice and D if you Disagree.
1. Set attainable health goals.
2. Change your plan if you get frustrated.
3. Study a problem and plan how to solve it.
4. Adjust your goal if it is not possible to reach.
5. Take responsibility for something you did wrong.
6. Prioritize things when you have many things to do.
7. Think of strategies to change unhealthful practices.
8. Attend only to your own task, even in doing group work.
9. Work only with schoolmates whom you are comfortable with.
10. Reflect on what you have done when you’re not sure it’s right.
G. Choose one item in A above and write how it is interrelated with other
ASSIGNMENT: Read “Something to Ponder On” on and do Activity 1.
LESSON 1. ARE YOU REALLY HEALTHY?
Discuss the concept of holistic health
Explain the different dimensions of holistic health (physical,
mental/intellectual, emotional, social, moral-spiritual)
Analyze the interplay among the health dimensions in developing
Practice health habits to achieve holistic health.
Something to Ponder On
When you were younger, you did not have to think much about your health.
Your parents, teachers, and other caring adults looked out for your health. They
made sure that you ate the right food, had regular medical checkup and
immunizations, and other health practices.
As an adolescent, your personal health now becomes your responsibility.
Every day you make health decisions so it is very important that you know correct
health information. It is therefore, your responsibility to use health information wisely
to guide your day- to-day activities.
Live a healthy and happy life. This must start early in life. Your health habits
and practices today as well as in the past, will greatly affect the status of your future
Nowadays, health focuses on wellness. It is a positive approach that includes
all the dimensions of health: physical, mental, emotional, social and moral-spiritual.
Health is the well-being of your body, mind, and your relationship with others. On the
other hand, wellness means striving to live your life to achieve your fullest potential,
making decisions, and acting in healthy ways. It is practicing positive health
behaviors based on sound knowledge and healthy attitudes. You are likely to have a
high degree of wellness if you have a balanced life. Being healthy means having a
balance of the dimensions of health. This results in attaining holistic health.
Physical health means how well your body functions. It means you can carry
out everyday tasks without becoming too tired. It also means you have enough
energy to enjoy activities and to meet emergencies. It means developing healthful
habits and avoiding destructive habits, such as smoking, drinking alcoholic
beverages and taking dangerous drugs and harmful substances. You can attain this
by giving your body total care, which includes the following:
Keeping your body fit by exercising and participating in active games
Teenagers engage in physical activities to become fit
eating a well-balanced diet
getting adequate sleep and rest
drinking enough water
practicing cleanliness and good grooming habits
getting regular medical and dental check-up and treatment
avoiding harmful substances, such as tobacco, alcohol and drugs of abuse
Mental or intellectual health means being a lifelong learner by continuously
wanting to learn new things and improve one’s kills. A mentally healthy person is
open to new ideas and experiences that can improve personal, family, and
Teenager learning new skills to improve personal and family life
Emotional health involves understanding and liking yourself as well as
accepting and learning from your mistakes. It refers to how well you meet the
demands of daily life and how you adjust to new situations. It also means expressing
your happiness, love, joy and hope as well as your sadness, anger, stress and fear
in healthful productive ways. You can best practice these when you:
face life’s problems squarely
handle stress and seek help, if needed
express your emotions in positive ways
deal with life’s pressures and stresses in positive ways
build strong communication network among family, friends and peers
Teenage students seeking advice from their teacher
Social health refers to how well you get along with other people, how you
react to social situations and how you interact with various social institutions. This
can be observed when you--
make and keep friends
play/work well with a group
give and get help from others when needed
communicate well and show respect and care for yourself and others
Teenagers sharing ideas and their talents with peers
Moral-spiritual health means being at peace and in harmony with yourself,
others and a higher power or bigger reality. What you feel, think and say what you
believe in or value are shown in how you act. It refers to your personal beliefs,
values, and faith.
Places of worship
There will be times when you will make decisions that deal with issues
of right and wrong. Sometimes it will be difficult to decide because what is
right or wrong is not clearly defined. But as you grow and become more
mature, you will gain knowledge and experiences that will give you new
insights and ways of looking at things or situations. In deciding what action to
take, you can base your decisions on a set of values or moral principles. For
example, telling the truth and showing respect are commonly accepted
standards of right behaviour.
Seeking guidance from parents, teachers, religious leaders, and other
responsible adults will help you in making difficult choices. It is a sign of good
character if you act according to a set of high ethical principles. You will gain
respect and trust from others if you demonstrate good character. Moral-
spiritual health, together with the other dimensions, will help you attain holistic
Respecting parents or grandparents
Take Actions for Your Health
Directions: What health dimension(s) will be enhanced if you do the activities
below? Write the number of each activity on the appropriate circle. Be able to
explain your answer orally.
1. Read books.
2. Tell the truth.
3. Surf the internet.
4. Play different sports.
5. Go dancing with friends.
6. Attend social gatherings.
7. Respect the right of others.
8. Show your feelings in a positive way.
9. Say sorry when you have done wrong.
10. Consulting parents about your problems.
Let’s see how these health dimensions are interrelated with each other
Interrelatedness of Health Dimensions
The five dimensions of holistic health are interrelated. An individual is
affected physically if food and shelter are not fully satisfied. This person will also be
affected emotionally as she/he may feel inadequate, insecure, and unsafe. And how
will this affect the mental health of the person? Anxiety may develop when a person
is worrying about his/her condition. Relationship with family, friends, and with others
may suffer also when a person is not contented and his/her longing for love and
affection is not met. When the physical, mental, emotional, and social needs are not
satisfied, a person may resort to unethical behaviour to satisfy his/her basic needs.
It is very clear that each dimension affects the other. The dimensions are
equally important to attain wellness or good health. These are like puzzle pieces that
need to be fitted together for meaningful health dimensions interrelationship.
We all seek a harmonious balance of all health dimensions to lead a happy
and fulfilled life. It may sound difficult to attain but developing each dimension at this
stage in your life will benefit you for a lifetime.
Directions: Write one health dimension in each circle. On the lines write activities
you can do in each dimension that can contribute to holistic health. Add more lines if
needed to write your answer. Write these on the lines. On the space provided below,
explain briefly how the health dimensions are interrelated. Prepare to discuss your
answer in class.
Check Your Health Habits and Practices
Directions: Think of your health habits and practices. Put a check (/) in the
column after each item to show how often you practice the health activity.
Health Habits/Practices Always Sometimes Never
1. I eat a full breakfast.
2. I eat a balanced diet.
3. I sleep at least 7-8 hours a day.
4. I exercise/play outdoors.
5. I face my problems and stresses.
6. I accept constructive criticisms.
7. I put into action what I believe in.
8. I enjoy learning new things.
9. I read books/surf the internet to learn.
10. I share my thoughts with my best
11. I respect others.
12. I make friends with people of both
13. I listen to the ideas and suggestions of
14. I get along well with my family, friends,
15. I accept who I am.
Count the number of Always 3x___= ___
Count the number of Sometimes 2x___= ___
Count the number of Never 1x___= ___
Divide the total by 15
What can you say about your health habits and practices?
Are you happy with your score? Why? Why not?
Connect It to Art
Directions: Create a poster to illustrate your plan of action to attain holistic health.
Use any medium you may want, such as crayon, water color, oil pastel, etc. You
can use cartolina, illustration board, or any other appropriate material.
Check the column that corresponds to your assessment.
Directions: Complete the unfinished sentences.
1. Attaining holistic health means______________________________________.
2. The five dimensions of health are ____________________________________.
3. I can attain good health if___________________________________________.
4. I’m happy/sad about my health because_______________________________.
5. From now on I promise to___________________________________________.
To enrich your understanding about health dimensions, read /download/visit this
website. http://www.buzzel.com/articles/5dimensions of health.html
LESSON 2: CHANGES IN ADOLESCENTS
Recognize that changes in different health dimensions are normal during
• Describe changes in different aspects of growth that happen to boys
and girls during puberty
• Explain that the patterns of change during puberty for each
adolescent are similar, but the pace of growth and development is
unique for each adolescent.
Teenagers in Action
Something to Ponder On
You may be experiencing significant changes in yourself because you are
now in another stage of life—adolescence! This occurs between puberty and
adulthood. Puberty is the time when you start to become sexually mature. It usually
happens at the age of 10 or 11 for girls and 12 or 13 for boys. However, this is not
true for everybody. Some adolescents experience puberty either ahead or later than
others. Some have their growth spurt earlier and some later. Still others may
experience having pimples while others may not. The age when you experience
puberty is influenced by heredity, nutrition, exercise, and other environmental factors.
You undergo significant changes in the health dimensions -- physical, mental,
emotional, social and moral-spiritual. All adolescents undergo similar changes as
they grow and develop. However, there are differences in the way these changes
happen to an adolescent; hence, change is similar and at the same time unique for
The changes that happen during puberty are normal to adolescents. You
have to know and understand these changes so that they will not surprise nor scare
you. They are a normal part of your growth and development as a person. What is
important is for you to learn how to cope with them in appropriate ways. You will
learn that your wonderful body has built-in mechanisms that help you grow and
develop as an individual. You just have to recognize and use them well.
Check Your Life Skills
Directions: Write YES if you practice the following health and life skill and NO if you
1. I take care of my body.
2. I take pride in being unique.
3. I show respect for all people.
4. I try to make informed decisions.
5. I settle conflicts in healthful ways.
6. I work on having healthy relationships.
7. I seek new learning about growth and development.
8. I seek advice if I feel nervous about my body changes.
9. I accept how my body changes as I grow and develop.
10. I choose habits that promote healthful growth and development.
As you study this lesson, try to think of how you can develop these health and life
skills. If you are already practicing some, plan how you can continue to enhance
them. Remember, these health and life skills will help you face challenges that you
will meet today and in the future.
What Makes You Grow?
Your body grows rapidly during your growth spurt. Your growth during
childhood and the changes during puberty are controlled by your endocrine system.
This system is made up of a set of organs called endocrine glands. Your endocrine
glands direct your growth. Endocrine glands produce hormones, which are released
into the bloodstream and travel to other organs and tissues where they stimulate
growth and regulate activity. Some hormones cause your body to grow and some
cause other changes of growth.
Your pituitary gland affects your growth more than any other gland. This
gland produces many kinds of hormones and one of these is the growth hormone.
This hormone regulates the development of long bones and muscles in the body. It
causes growth throughout childhood and adolescence and helps your body reach its
adult size or height. Remember, when your pituitary gland starts making growth
hormones, your growth spurt begins. When it stops making much growth hormone,
then your growth stops. When that happens, you have reached your adult size or
Your pituitary gland also releases hormones that cause your reproductive
glands to become active. Important changes occur inside and outside your body as
your reproductive organs become more active. The testes produce the male sex
hormone testosterone while the ovaries produce the female sex hormone estrogen.
These hormones stimulate the many physical changes that adolescents go through
during puberty. These include secondary sex characteristics such as development of
the breast, appearance of maxillary and pubic hair, and others. Boys’ testes also
begin to produce sperm cells. Girls’ ovaries begin to develop egg cells.
These are some of the general changes that happen to adolescent boys and
girls during puberty:
• There is a rapid increase in height and weight. Boys experience this usually
two years later than girls. The head, hands and feet grow faster first, then the
arms and legs, and then the chest and shoulders. This is why the body of an
adolescent seems to be out of proportion.
• There are changes in body composition. Muscles develop rapidly, although
boys’ muscles grow faster than girls’. Body fat increases, although the
increase in girls’ body fat is more than the boys’.
• Other changes:
o There is a sudden increase in hormone production.
o Bones become harder.
o Sweat and oil glands become more active.
Primary sex characteristics are changes directly related to sexual
The reproductive organs of both boys and girls grow and develop. The boys
experience their first release of seminal fluid or ejaculation from the male genital.
The girls experience menarche or the first release of blood and fluids from the female
Secondary sex characteristics are changes not directly related to sexual
• The voice becomes deeper.
• The Adam’s apple becomes bigger.
• The shoulders become wider than the hips.
• Hair grows on the face, body and pubic area.
• The skin on the upper arms and thighs becomes rough.
• Breasts develop.
• The hips become wider than the shoulders.
• Hair grows on the underarm and pubic area.
From Childhood to Adolescence
Mental or Intellectual Changes
Teenagers showing different talents/skills/interest as a sign of mental
Adolescents experience rapid mental development. Their mental abilities
become sharper and more efficient.
Adolescents become more curious and inquisitive. They learn to question
what others say. They try to get to the bottom of things—trying to find out
what to believe in and what to doubt.
• Adolescents make better decisions than children because they can evaluate
risks and rewards better. They can sense the disadvantages and dangers as
well as the advantages and rewards that might happen because of their
actions. They can already think well before acting as well as know the
importance of planning ahead. These characteristics help adolescents make
better decisions. However, adolescents take more risks than adults because
they enjoy the rewards that result from their actions.
• On the other hand, adolescents have a tendency to become bored with
routine activities; they need to be challenged.
• Adolescents are already capable of thinking critically. This helps them
understand issues and concerns about their development.
• Adolescents also think less of themselves. This allows them to think and
• Adolescents have the skills that let them control and coordinate their thoughts
with their actions.
• Adolescent students can focus their attention on what they want to listen to.
They can also focus their attention on two or more things at the same time.
• There is likewise an improvement in adolescents’ memory and speed in
thinking. Their memory is more retentive and they can process information
Adolescents in their moody state
• Adolescents’ responsiveness to the call of their duties and responsibilities
becomes greater. Stress tolerance becomes higher.
• Adolescents are more emotional and this makes them open to being hurt or
• Adolescent girls become self-conscious because of the changes that are
happening to them. These also give them a feeling of insecurity.
• Early maturing boys are usually taller and stronger; they have a good body
image, so they are more confident, secure and independent
Teenagers with their peers doing different social activities
• Adolescents are very self- conscious. They consider approval of friends and
other adolescents or peers as very important.
• Adolescents enjoy being with friends, so they stay longer with them after
school. They enjoy choosing clothes to wear; they also crave privacy. These
sometimes cause conflicts between adolescents and their parents.
• Young adolescents choose friends who share the same interest with them.
• Adolescents who grow up with family members showing love, guidance and
support for each other are less likely to get involved with bad company and
engage in fights, vandalism, smoking , drinking, or drug sessions.
Adolescents begin analyzing themselves during this stage. They try to find
out who they really are and analyze their strengths and weaknesses. As a result,
they understand themselves better and learn to accept and like themselves,
including their weaknesses.
They learn that house rules imposed by their parents are there to promote
order and harmony at home. However, they are not absolute and some are
negotiable as they mature. They begin to distinguish between rules that are
negotiable and those that are non-negotiable. Non-negotiable rules, like smoking,
are imposed because they are for their own good.
During adolescence, boys and girls realize what they could become in the
future. This helps them analyze what they are doing and how it could affect their
future. They become more careful in making decisions.
Paying respect to our elders is a good Filipino tradition
We are Growing and Developing
1. Group by gender with 6-8 members in a group.
2. List down changes you have experienced or are experiencing –
physically, mentally, socially, emotionally, and morally-spiritually.
3. Follow this format.
Social changes Emotional
Sum Up: Changes – Similarities and Differences
Directions: Draw a Venn diagram like the one below and write in the outside area of
the circle physical changes/characteristics unique among boys only while on another
area those unique among girls only. Inside the overlapping area of the circle, write all
characteristics/changes of adolescents that are shared by both.
For additional information about significant changes during adolescence you
can visit this website – http://pubs.exl.vt.edu/350/350-850/35 Adolescent Growth and
LESSON 3: DEALING WITH HEALTH CONCERNS
1. Identify health concerns during puberty
2. Analyze myths, fallacies, and beliefs related to adolescent health
3. Apply self-management skills in dealing with some health concerns
Something to Ponder On
Health Concerns/Problems Related to Physical Changes
Adolescence starts with puberty. It is the period of sexual development
among adolescents. The secondary sex characteristics happen during puberty.
Boys and girls experience rapid and uneven growth during adolescence. It is
uneven because the outer parts of the body such as the head, hands, and feet grow
first. They may feel awkward because the hands and feet may seem too big for the
rest of the body. Remember, this development is normal and temporary so there is
no need to be unhappy about it.
Teenagers of the same age but with varying height and size
You will notice a great variation in the size and shape of adolescents of the
same age. This variation can be a source of concern among teenagers who compare
themselves with others. During the growth spurt, teenagers begin to grow at a rapid
rate. Teenagers who grow taller than their classmates may feel conscious about their
height. Some teenagers may begin to slouch because they are not used to their new
height. Others may slouch on their chairs as they study. Some girls who develop
their breast earlier may also feel conscious and tend to slouch. They may develop
poor posture if they continue to do this. Remember, good posture helps maintain
body alignment. It also helps the bones and muscles to continue to grow properly
Other Concerns Related to Physical Changes
Every individual goes through the changes of puberty at his/her own rate.
Some may experience the changes sooner or later than the others. The growth
pattern for girls is a little different from the growth pattern for boys. Girls are usually
taller than boys around the age of 11 or 12. Then growth in height slows down for
most girls while this speeds up for many adolescent boys. Within a few years, boys
in general become taller than girls. This difference may cause uncomfortable
feelings. Boys may also feel embarrassed when their voice “cracks” because of the
growth of their larynx. This is part of growing up.
Remember, every teenager experiences these changes. These are normal
experiences and events in everybody’s life so there is no reason to worry and feel
uncomfortable about it. Eventually, these awkward feelings will disappear as teens
adjust to the changes in their growth and development.
During the early teen years, the sweat glands become more active. When
teenagers play actively or engage in sports or other physical activities, they tend to
perspire profusely. If they do not know how to manage this problem, it may cause
unpleasant body odor. How does this happen?
Sweat glands are numerous under the arms and any bacteria under the arms
may act on perspiration and cause an unpleasant body odor. If you do not practice
proper hygiene, then you might have body odor. Take a bath or shower daily. Soap
and water will remove bacteria and excess oil on the skin. Apply deodorant or
antiperspirant daily. Be sure to bring extra clothes and change when needed.
These may prevent unpleasant body odor.
The more common dental problems of teenagers include dental caries or
tooth decay, halitosis or bad breath, and gingivitis or swelling of the gums. Both
dental caries and gingivitis can lead to halitosis. It is important to remember that all of
these are brought about by not brushing, poor tooth brushing skills and drinking
carbonated drinks and eating sweets frequently. This can lead to proliferation of
dental plaque, which is made up of colonies of microorganisms. Dental plaque
hardens to “tartar” if not removed. So tooth brushing after every meal and flossing at
least twice a day should take at least a minimum of three minutes to remove all food
particles lodged between the teeth.
Dental problems can also be prevented by doing the following:
Eating nutritious foods
Limiting between-meal snacks, especially sweet and sticky foods
Brushing and flossing to remove plaque or tartar
Visiting the dentist regularly, at least twice a year
Lack of sleep
While sleeping, the body gets a chance to rest. Although most body
activities slow down while sleeping, some remain active. The pituitary gland releases
more hormones, like growth hormones, when one is asleep. Body cells grow and
repair themselves more rapidly during sleep. Lack of sleep during the adolescent
years interferes with these processes and might interfere also with proper growth
Teenagers need nine to ten hours sleep each night to feel well and rested.
So you should refrain from staying late at night playing computer games, watching
television or just staying awake doing something. Insufficient sleep has negative
effects on your growth and development.
Health Concerns Related to Social Changes
At this point of your life, your friends become very important to you and you
probably spend most of your time with them. You meet people and form new
Problems with relationships
During adolescence, your relationship with other people changes. However,
teenagers often change friends as they develop new interests. This may result in
breaking up with old friends.
As teenagers you must develop social and communication skills to have a
healthy relationship with your family, friends, classmates and other important people
in your lives. Effective communication involves exchanging ideas, feelings and
viewpoints, and talking and listening skills. Let’s see how this skill applies some
events/situations in your lives.
If you and another person disagree on something, listen to what s/he has to
say and let her/him know your point of view. In this way effective
communication will take place, thus preventing miscommunication.
If you are out with friends, let your parents know where you are. Let them
know and ask permission if you have a change of plans, like staying late with
friends or sleeping over in your friends’ house. This will show your parents
that you are acting responsibly and safely. Communicating with them in that
way will bring about good relationship.
Health Concerns Related to Mental Changes
As adolescents, you are expected to solve more complex problems than
when you were children. Your thinking skills develop and you can see and
understand other people’s point of view.
Mental health concerns in adolescents may be caused by heredity, head
injury or chemical imbalance. It may also be caused by stress from feelings of not
being accepted, being poor or “different.” Abuse, death of a loved one, or separation
anxiety can also be a mental health concern.
Read more: Adolescent Mental Problems | eHow.com
Your emotions and feelings also go through changes during adolescence and
you may experience these problems:
Mood swings/intense emotions
You may be happy at one moment, then feel sad the next. This mood
swing might be misunderstood by friends or family. Moodiness among girls
may be due to changes in their estrogen level while among boys, it may be
due to changes in their testosterone levels. These hormones can cause
emotions to be very intense and swing rapidly. These emotional swings will
settle down as you enter the next stage of your growth and development.
This mood swing may be bothersome but you must accept that
emotional changes during adolescence are a normal part of your growth and
development. Knowledge about what is happening in your body during
adolescence will help you understand better the changes you are
There are positive ways of dealing with intense emotions and of using
extra energy during adolescent years. Get involved in worthwhile physical
and social activities, such as sports, dancing and arts and crafts. These will
help you feel better and worry less about the changes taking place in you.
Problems related to sexual changes
Adolescent boys experience “wet dreams” or nocturnal emission. This is
involuntary ejaculation of semen during sleep. Although this is quite embarrassing,
this is common among teenage boys during puberty. This experience may cause
stress among teenagers so correct information about sexual changes will prepare
them to accept this change positively.
Adolescent girls experience the onset of menstruation. Girls having their
menstrual period need to be more conscious about hygiene. The old belief that it is
bad to take a bath or wash the hair when a woman is menstruating has no scientific
basis. There is absolutely no reason why you should not wash your hair, or take a
bath or shower during menstruation. In fact, a nice warm bath can do a lot to relieve
menstrual cramps and premenstrual tension. You might want to avoid cold water
during your period since it could, theoretically, cause uterine contractions that could
increase menstrual cramps.
If you experience puberty at an early age, don’t feel embarrassed to talk
about it. Talking to your parents, responsible adults, doctor, or teacher is the best
thing to do.
Talking to a responsible adult will help teenagers feel comfortable with changes they
Our Health Concerns
We will write our health concerns (one piece of paper for each health
concern) and drop them in the proper box:
Illustration 5 boxes on each box is written a health dimension:
1. Physical concern
2. Mental concern
3. Emotional concern
4. Social concern
5. Moral-spiritual concern
We will group ourselves and each group will try to analyze the health
concern, find out more about it by reading, researching, interviewing, and other
means. We will report our findings in class at the next meeting.
GROUP REPORT RUBRIC
Items Commendable Acceptable Poor
More than 5
Visual aid Clear and helpful Messy and
Presentation Cooperative Minor problems of
members did not
Health concerns/problems brought about by changes during adolescence
should be dealt with properly to prevent negative consequences. Since many of
these can be prevented, you should learn coping skills/self- management skills to
face these challenges positively.
Coping skills – this will help you deal with sad, difficult and stressful
situations /experiences in your lives. If you have developed coping skills, you can
prevent serious problems resulting from these experiences.
There are several coping techniques you can use in ordinary life situations.
Some are very useful; some are not. Some can help you for a short time only but
some can help you for a long time. Study the following coping techniques and see
how you can practice them:
Support- Seeking Strategies:
1. Talk to a friend who can do something about it.
2. Seek advice from responsible family members/relatives.
3. Talk to someone to find out more about the problem.
4. Look for someone who will sympathize with you.
5. Seek professional help.
Positive Problem- Solving Strategies:
1. Do not act hastily.
2. Make a plan of action.
3. Look at the problem as a challenge.
4. Be creative in solving the problem.
5. Come up with different solutions to the problem.
Avoidance Strategies (These are acceptable for a short-term, so do not exclude
other ways of coping.):
1. Avoid being with people.
2. Prepare for the worse that may happen.
3. Wish the situation to go away or to be over.
4. Try to forget the whole thing.
5. Exercise or eat.
6. Hope a miracle would happen.
Positive- reframing Strategies:
Self- talk is a way to help you change your thoughts. Here are some self- talk
statements that you can use as coping skill. These statements are useful when you
are under stress or facing a challenge/problem:
A. When you are preparing for a stressful situation, you can use any of these
I know I can do it.
It’s easier once I get started.
What exactly do I have to do?
Tomorrow, I will be through it.
I have succeeded with this before.
I won’t entertain negative thoughts.
B. When you are facing the challenge/problem:
I can do this.
I can only do my best.
I can ask somebody for help.
If I get nervous, I’ll take a deep breath.
If I feel tense, I’ll do my coping exercise.
It’s OK to make mistakes; no one is perfect.
I won’t rush. I will take it slowly step by step.
C. When you are coping with fear:
I’ll survive this.
Relax! It will end.
Take a deep breath.
Lord/Allah, help me!
I can always call someone.
D. Self- Congratulations:
I did it!
I did it well.
Next time, I won’t have to worry much.
I’ve got to tell this to_____________
I enter the day with a peaceful thought.
Every day in every way I grow stronger and stronger.
Which of these coping skills do you tend to use?
Which do you plan to use more?
Are you someone who seeks the help of others or are you a positive problem
solver? Don’t avoid or deny your feelings too much; it’s not healthy.
Self -Talk Bubble
Identify a teen problem that you are worried about.
Write a positive statement about the identified problems. For example, if
the problem is having too many pimples, you can say to yourself, “I can
overcome this problem.”
Write a self- talk, just like a bubble dialogue.
You can use some of the statements you have learned in coping skills.
You can make your own design of self-talk scenario in your
notebook/journal log. An example is shown below.
You can cope with the changes that caused some of your health concerns at
this stage if you will always make a responsible decision. There are lots of
responsibilities and challenges ahead of you as an adolescent. You must handle
those responsibilities and challenges successfully. Using coping skills will help you
handle these challenges.
“I can overcome
“I can ask
Directions: Make a spider map showing your skills in dealing with adolescent
concerns. Write the issue/concern on the line connected to the oval. Write ways to
cope with the concern on lines provided for. Add or delete lines as needed.
LESSON 4: HEALTH APPRAISED AND..... AMAZED
1. Explain the importance of health appraisal procedures during adolescence in
order to achieve holistic health
2. Avail of health services in the school and community to appraise one’s
Something to Ponder On
Health Appraisal and Screening Procedures
When you were a child, your parents, older siblings, relatives, and other
concerned adults made sure you ate the right food and had regular medical
checkups, immunizations, and other health care.
Now that you are already an adolescent, your personal health becomes
your responsibility also. One way to do this is to know your health status so that you
can take the necessary actions to improve your health habits and practices. In case
there is a sign of a medical problem, early detection can help to prevent this from
becoming serious that would need appropriate treatment.
Monitoring health status can be done through regular health checkups and
screening tests appropriate for you. It is very important to know your health status.
For school age children and adolescents, the school health personnel, such as the
school physician, school nurse, school dentist, as well as teachers and other school
personnel perform checkups and screening tests at the beginning and towards the
end of the school year. This is part of the school health service provided for students.
Screening for blood pressure is added to the routine tests for height, weight, vision,
and hearing. Immunizations are also updated.
Adolescents who are experiencing growth spurts may also be screened for
possible scoliosis. Scoliosis is the abnormal curvature of the spine, which causes
pain and affects growth. Additional tests may be recommended by your physician or
health care provider as needed.
Managing my health
Evaluation of the results of checkups and screening tests is done by the
school health personnel. Students who may need health counselling, referral, and
follow up will be identified and guided for proper action.
As an adolescent, you should always remember that you are also responsible
for your own health. Monitor your body for changes that may need medical checkup.
This is often referred to as part of self- care. For girls, it is recommended to check
your breasts for possible masses or lumps the moment you start menstruating. You
should do this monthly, specifically one week after the onset of menstruation. You
can do this while taking a shower or facing the mirror. This breast self-examination
(BSE) can help females check any abnormalities that might need medical help.
Remember, there are normal changes during and right before menstruation so it is
better to perform BSE after menstruation. Develop the habit of doing BSE monthly.
Scoliosis is a condition in which the spine curves to the side. It is an abnormal
lateral or side-to-side curvature of the spine. This condition commonly develops
during growth spurt of adolescents. It affects girls more often. This condition can be
corrected if treated early before the bones have fully developed.
The following signs should be referred to a doctor for treatment.
One of the shoulder blades is more prominent.
The head is not aligned to the center of the pelvis.
A hip appears higher or is more prominent than the other.
The rib cage is uneven.
The waist is uneven.
The entire body is leaning to one side.
In the school, your school nurse or your health teacher can do the scoliosis
screening test. During the test, the school nurse will observe your posture for signs
of scoliosis. Early detection can prevent scoliosis from progressing.
Forward Bend Test:
1. Stand facing away from the screener.
2. Bend forward at the waist 90 degrees, feet 10 cm apart, knees
straight, and feet parallel to each other.
3. Palms of the hands are facing each other and arms hang down, and
are relaxed. The head is down.
It is normal if the screener observes the following:
Both sides of upper and lower back are symmetrical.
Hips level and symmetrical.
There is possible scoliosis if the screener observes the following:
One side of rib cage and/or the lower back showing uneven
Curve in the alignment of the spine.
It is very important that you are aware of any change in your body. Any
deviation from the normal must be reported to your parents so that you can seek
medical advice. You can go to your school clinic to seek advice from the health
personnel there. Your teachers can also help you. Don’t wait for your health problem
to get worse. You have to act now.
Organize What You Know
The graphic organizer below shows the importance of health appraisal/screening test
in attaining holistic health. Draw an arrow connecting the screening test to its
Remember that the school health personnel, so with your barangay health
personnel, are there to help maintain the health of the students/people in the school
or community. Avail of any health service they offer.
Keeps you informed about
your general health status.
Keeps you informed of any
Gives you an idea about
your growth rate
Keeps you aware if you are
within your ideal weight
Keeps you informed of your
Keeps you informed of any
abnormal curvature of your
Checks unusual lumps
Activity 2: My Health Screening Contract
Now, do you realize the importance of submitting to a screening test? A Health
Screening Contract will remind you to go for screening. Here is an example of a
My Health Screening Contract
I promise that___________________________________
I plan to_______________________________________
Print Name and sign above
Put your name and then make a promise to yourself to submit to a
screening test to monitor your health status. You may want to have your
parents witness your contract to help remind you of your promise.
Make your own Health Screening Contract similar to the one above.
You may want to write it on another material or paper other than your
Activity 3: My Health Plan of Action
Prepare your health plan of action based on the results of your
screening test, health habits/practices daily log, health dimension
Write what you will do to change the habit/practice in any dimension you
want to improve or what you will do to maintain it.
An example is given to guide you.
Dimension I want to
improve or maintain
What I want to
change, improve, or
What I will do to
Physical health Gaining too much
I will avoid eating too
I will eat a balanced diet.
I will exercise regularly.
Act on the plan that you have prepared.
Observe the effects on your health of implementing the plan of action
for one month.
Have a log book to note down the effects of your plan of action.
Submit this at the end of the month.
Note the positive effect on your health or the negative effect if there’s
Make some revisions in your plan, if necessary.
Your plan will be assessed using the rubrics below.
Level of achievement Description
Plan of activities is attainable and health-
oriented; procedure is easily implemented to
reach the goal.
Plan of activities and processes are positive,
realistic, and somewhat health-oriented.
Some plans and processes are positive and
realistic; little health value is seen.
Plan of activities is not focused and is unrealistic
for present level abilities or development.
Needs improvement 0 No plan of action is mentioned
Express Your Understanding
Complete the following statements:
- I firmly believe that health__________________________
- To attain holistic health, I must______________________
- A healthy person lives ____________________________
Write your answer to the following questions based on your
understanding of the lesson. Put these in your notebook or journal
1. What might happen if you will not monitor your health
2. What do your health dimension assessment and your
screening test results reveal about your health?
3. How can you use these data in attaining good health?
4. How do you know that you have a health dimensions?
5. What are your strengths and weaknesses as far as health
screening is concerned?
A. Directions: Choose the dimension of health which each activity develops most.
Write the letter of your answer.
A. Physical B. Mental C. Emotional D. Social E. Moral-
1. Jogging around the park
2. Eating a balanced diet regularly
3. Going out with family and friends
4. Valuing truth and respect for others
5. Reading books and doing puzzle games
B. Directions: Write the letter of the correct answer.
1. If you want to develop your social health, you can ____
A. read books C. play computer games
B. surf the internet D. join school clubs/organizations
2. To help enhance your emotional health, express your emotions___
C. in whatever way
D. to a chosen person
3. One way to improve your mental health is through___
A. sports C. volunteer work
B. reading books D. religious activities
4. To be physically healthy, __
A. attend parties
B. go out with friends
C. eat a balanced diet
D. play computer games
5. How can you demonstrate moral-spiritual health?
A. Tell the truth. C. Observe good grooming
B. Assert your right D. Open your line of communication
C.Directions: Identify the different changes during adolescence by writing P for
physical, M for mental, S for social, E for emotional, and MS for moral-spiritual.
1. Voice of boys becomes deeper.
2. Adolescent boys become more aggressive.
3. Adolescents are more sensitive at this stage.
4. There is rapid increase in height during puberty
5. Adolescents are already capable of thinking deeply.
6. Adolescents can focus on multi-tasks at the same time.
7. Adolescents can identify negotiable and non-negotiable rules.
8. Adolescents consider approval of friends more than their parents.
9. Adolescents enjoy being with friends, so they stay longer with them.
10. Adolescents are now trying to find out what to believe in and what to doubt.
D. Directions: Put a check (/) if you agree with the practice or habit and (x) if you do
____1. monitor my weight...
____2. do my best in school.
____3. monitor my posture for any change.
____4. do my share of responsibilities at home.
____5. smile at people whether I know them or not.
____6. visit my doctor once a year even if I am not sick.
____7. submit to a scoliosis screening test in my school.
____8. submit to a screening test to know my health status.
____9. tell my health problems to my parents/health personnel.
___10. take advantage of the health services in our barangay health
E. Direction: Explain how the activity/practice affects different health dimensions.
1 Staying late at night.
2. Not eating breakfast
3. Not studying very well.
4. Living in dirty surroundings.
5. Quarrelling with brother/sister
F. Directions: Write coping skills or specific solutions appropriate to address the
following problems related to your growth and development.
1. Bad breath
2. Tooth decay
3. Moody feelings.
4. Body odor due to sweating
5. Bad posture due to growth spurt
LEARNING MODULE FOR HEALTH
MODULE 2: EATING RIGHT FOR A HEALTHY LIFE
Some foods that you eat daily may not always be the right food that your
body needs. To choose healthy foods, you need to know more than just how foods
As the saying goes, “You are what you eat.” Good nutrition affects your total
well-being. Thus, it is very important in attaining good health. As you explore this
topic, you will know correct information that will help and guide you in choosing the
right food you need for a healthy life. It will also make you realize that part of good
nutrition is eating the right amount of food and not skipping meals.
As you go through this learning material, you need to answer the pre-test
which checks your prior knowledge and understanding of concepts in nutrition.
Varied activities to assess your understanding of the lessons will also be provided.
Are you now excited to learn more about nutrition? Let’s start!
A. Directions: Write the letter of the correct answer.
1. How can you eat a variety of foods?
A. Eat at a fast food restaurant every day.
B. Eat food from some of the food groups.
C. Eat a variety of foods from each food group every day.
D. Eat only one type of food from each food group every day.
2. Which dietary guideline will you use in choosing healthful snacks?
A. Eat salty snacks.
B. Eat sweet snacks.
C. Eat your favorite snacks.
D. Eat grains and fruits for snacks.
3. Which snack is NOT healthful?
B. Fruit juice
C. Soft drinks
D. Fresh fruits
4. Which is a healthful snack?
A. Potato chips and soft drinks
B. Halo-halo with Ice cream and biscuit
C. Hot dog sandwich and bottled fruit juice
D. Chicken sandwich with lettuce and fruit juice
5. Which of the following has the highest fat content?
A. Baked potato
B. Hamburger and fries
C. Plain vegetable salad
D. Fruits and vegetables
6. What is NOT a food group in the Food Guide Pyramid?
A Milk and milk products
B. Coffee, tea and cola drinks
C. Meat, poultry, dried beans, eggs, and nuts
D. Bread, cereal, rice, root crops and noodles
7. What is one serving of foods from the meat, poultry, dry beans, eggs, and
A. 1 Slice of bread
B. 1 cup raw, leafy vegetables
C. 2 tablespoons peanut butter
D. 2 ounces of processed cheese
8. Which is NOT a nutrient?
9. Which is an energy food?
10. Which food is from the top part of the Food Group Pyramid?
11. Which is NOT healthful to do?
A. Eat vegetables and fruits daily.
B. Limit the intake of sugar and salt.
C. Increase consumption of fatty foods.
D. Eat breakfast high in fiber like oatmeal.
12. Why do adolescents require more energy and nutrients?
A. They need to achieve full growth potential.
B. They engage in more active physical activities.
C. Their bodies are preparing for pubertal changes.
D. Their bodies are undergoing several physical changes.
13. It is unhealthful to eat foods high in fats and sugar because these are major
risk factors in developing _______.
A. skin diseases, such as tinea flava and ringworm.
B. respiratory diseases, such as tuberculosis and flu.
C. chronic diseases, such as heart disease and diabetes.
D. sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS and gonorrhea.
14. To stay at a healthful weight, one should choose a healthful diet with______.
A. high calories from sweets
B. fibers from fruits and vegetables
C. fats and salt from processed food
D. caffeine from cola drinks and coffee
15. Eat plenty of grains, vegetables, and fruits because these provide important
D. complete nutrients
16-17. Choose from these answers:
16. How many glasses of milk do adolescents need daily?
17. How many eggs a day do growing adolescents need?
18-20. Choose from these answers:
A. Vegetable group
B. Fats, oils and sweets group
C. Milk and milk products group
D. Bread, cereal, rice, root crops and noodles group
E. Meat, poultry, dried beans, eggs, and nuts group
18. What food group is at the top of the Food Guide Pyramid?
19. Which food group should we consume sparingly?
20. Which food group receives the greatest number of servings—6 to8?
II. Directions: Answer YES or NO to describe your eating habit.
1. I prefer to eat alone. _____
2. I monitor my weight every day._____
3. I like eating while doing something._____
4. I go on a crash diet to control my weight._____
5. I take laxatives to help control my weight._____
6. I am afraid of gaining weight or becoming fat._____
7. I exercise for long periods of time to lose weight._____
8. I induce vomiting after eating a large amount of food._____
9. I like to know the amount of calories or grams of fat in the food I eat._____
10. I eat large amounts of food alone and avoid eating meals with my
Directions: Categorize the different food products according to the Food Guide
6. glass of milk
7. peanuts, meat
8. gabi, kamote, ubi
9. banana, guava, atis
10. petchay, squash, kamote tops
LESSON 1: HEALTHFUL EATING GUIDELINES
Follow the appropriate nutritional guidelines for healthful eating
Explain the need to select food based on the nutritional needs of
Something to Ponder On
Food Selection Based on Adolescents’ Nutritional Needs
Good nutrition is very important in enhancing your quality of life and in
preventing diseases. It provides you with the needed calories and nutrients for your
maximum energy and wellness. Calories or kilocalories are units of heat that
measure the energy used by the body and the energy that foods supply to the body.
You need energy to fuel everything you do-- from playing, making assignments,
talking to your friends, watching television, sleeping, and all your activities.
Nutrients, on the other hand, are substances in food that your body needs to grow,
repair itself, and to supply you with energy. If you choose the right foods to eat, these
will provide your body with the nutrients it needs to help you look and perform at your
Nutritional needs vary for each stage of life, so it is important to eat a healthy
diet through all life stages. Adolescence is one of the fastest growth periods in a
person’s life. The physical changes during this stage affect the body’s nutritional
needs. Changes in your lifestyle as an adolescent may also affect your food choices
and eating habits. With your active social life and busy schedules, you might often
skip meals and just take snacks throughout the day. You might also often skip
breakfast, not knowing that this important meal will give you the energy to make it
through the day and to perform well in school. When you skip meals, you might
resort to eating snacks in fast foods or “carinderias,” or not eating at all. When you
eat outside, your choice of foods are often high in fats and sugar that provide less
nutritional value. These practices are unhealthful and are major risk factors in
developing chronic diseases, such as heart diseases, diabetes and even some types
To achieve your full growth potential, proper food selection and eating are
very essential. You must know your physical need for food and follow the dietary
guidelines appropriate for your age. You sometimes won’t eat a dish --- even if you
know it is healthful because you don’t like its taste. Most often the desire for food or
is stronger than the need to eat. Always remember that you need to eat foods that
your body needs to support your growing body and to prevent future health
problems. Following certain guidelines will help you choose a balanced and healthful
Eat a variety of foods every day. Choosing and eating a variety of foods
each day is important in building a healthy body.
Consume fish, lean meat, poultry or dried beans. Eating these will give
you protein, vitamin B, iron and zinc. These foods may contain high levels
of fats but choosing lean meat and poultry without skin and limiting the
egg yolks, nuts, and seeds can help limit fat intake.
Eat more vegetables, fruits, and root crops. Vegetables and fruits are rich
in vitamins and minerals and some are high in fiber. Eating a variety of
food from this group will help you prevent chronic diseases and will keep
Eat foods cooked in edible/cooking oil in your daily meals. Eating foods
cooked in edible/cooking oil daily prevents chronic energy deficiency.
Fats and oils are also essential for absorption and utilization of fat-soluble
vitamins, such as vitamin A. Olive oil is the best and healthiest oil and it's
good for your health.
Consume milk, milk products and other calcium-rich foods, such as small
fish and dark leafy vegetables. These are good sources of protein and
Use iodized salt, but avoid excessive intake of salty foods. Consuming
less salt can reduce your chance of developing high blood pressure or
can decrease your risk of cardiovascular disease.
Eat clean and safe food. It is important to handle and prepare food safely
by observing cleanliness. Wash hands and use clean utensils in
preparing and cooking food.
For a healthy lifestyle and good nutrition, exercise regularly, do not
smoke, and avoid drinking alcoholic beverages.
Teenagers’ active life
Now, knowing some facts about the importance of nutrition, think about these
Do you eat the right food you need for good health?
Are you getting the nutrients you need from the food you choose for your
It is important to be aware of the food you eat every day. The next activity will
help you analyze the food you have taken in a day. It will give you a clear picture of
your daily food diet.
Activity 1: Word Search
Work individually and find words related to our lesson on nutrition.
N U T R I T I O N C
B U F O O D S S A A
C M T J D G O L E L
E N E R G Y C D T O
R G C B I I P W O R
I K G A U E N O R I
K L I M F Y N A M E
R I C E D I E T I S
2. groups of 6-8 members.
3. Share with each other what you know about the
5. As a group choose several words from the word search and link/connect/web
them to make a definition/concept.
6. Use a definition map to describe and define the words you chose and their
related ideas. Each map should include branches that answer questions
about the vocabulary word such as, “What is it?”, “What is it like?”, or “What
are some examples?”
Here is how you can do a definition map.
What is it?
What is it like?
What are some examples?
Activity 2: Check Your Daily Food Diet
Directions: List down all the foods and drinks you had for breakfast, snacks,
lunch, and dinner yesterday. Indicate also where you ate your meal in the column for
source. Study your list and check if you followed the nutritional guidelines for a
Meals Foods eaten Source: Eaten at
Answer the following questions:
1. Did you eat meals regularly?
2. What did you discover about the food you ate?
3. Where do you usually eat your meals?
4. Were you able to follow most of the nutritional guidelines?
5. Which guidelines were you not able to follow?
6. What do you plan to do now?
7. Will it help? How?
Since you are already responsible and can make decisions for your own food
choices, make the best choice and decision for your health. There is a variety of food
available. Select those that will provide the best nutrients you need for proper
growth, development and health. This is important for your lifelong wellness.
Poor meals due to poor selection of food, eating foods high in fats at fast food
centers, eating processed foods, and eating hurried meals at home and school may
lead to some health problems, if not corrected. Studies show also that most of an
adolescent’s diet needs attention due to the following findings:
Protein consumption is higher than needed.
Carbohydrates, fruits, and vegetables intake is too high.
Fat intake is much too high.
Calcium intake is below what is recommended daily.
You should follow the nutritional guidelines for a healthful diet. You should
know how many servings from each food group daily are recommended. The Food
Guide Pyramid will help you. The number of servings recommended for an individual
depends on her/his age, size, sex, and the activity she/he engages in. For good
health, all age groups must eat at least the lowest number of servings from each of
the food groups every day. This is in order to meet the daily requirements of
vitamins, minerals, protein, fibers, and carbohydrates.
Activity 3: Check Your Nutrition Life Skills
Directions: Write YES if you practice the life skill and NO, if you do not
practice it. Be honest with your responses. Write your answer on the space before
each life skill.
I follow a balanced diet.
I maintain a healthful weight.
I eat a healthful diet.
I eat the correct servings for the food groups in the Food Guide Pyramid.
I follow nutritional guidelines to keep me healthy.
How many did you check? If you have five checks, it means you are really
following good nutrition habits. If you did not check some of the items, you need to
review your habits and practices related to nutrition. Your health may suffer later if
you continue to have poor food choices and poor eating habits.
Nutritional Needs of Adolescents
The growth spurt during adolescence creates increased demand for energy
and nutrients. As an adolescent, your total nutrient needs are higher at this stage
than at any other stage in your lifecycle. It only shows that nutrition and physical
growth are essentially related; optimal nutrition is a requisite for achieving your full
Due to your rapid growth and development at his stage, you have a greater
need for certain nutrients, such as calcium, iron, protein, and energy foods. For bone
development, you need extra calcium. It is likewise needed for the regulation of vital
body functions, such as blood clotting, heart muscle contraction and relaxation,
transmission of nerve impulse, and activation of some enzymes. Eating a balanced
diet helps in building bone mass that will lessen your chance of developing
osteoporosis in later life. Remember, more than 90 percent of bone density
develops by the time you reach 18 years old. Adolescents, ages 10-18 have calcium
requirements of 1000 milligrams per day. You can get calcium from dairy products,
leafy vegetables, canned fish with soft edible bones, and tofu. It is important to
include any of these foods in your daily diet.
Teenage boys and girls have high demands of iron due to growth spurt. The
onset of menstruation among girls also increases the need for iron. Boys 13–15
years of age need 20 milligrams while girls need 21 milligrams daily. Do you know
that iron from meat is better absorbed by the body than iron from plant sources? You
can improve the absorption of iron from plants by eating fruits or drinking fruit juices
that contain vitamin C. Iron is important for proper functioning of cells and for
resistance to infection.
Due to your accelerated growth and development, you need body-building
food. Boys, ages 13-15, need 71 grams of protein daily while girls need 63 grams
daily. Body-building food is protein-rich necessary for the growth and development of
your body, specially your bones and muscles. Throughout your life your body
replaces damaged or worn-out cells by making new ones. Protein-rich food helps the
body repair itself. Protein also helps the body make enzymes, antibodies and
hormones. Protein also supplies the body with energy even if it is not your body’s
main energy source. Protein provides four calories per gram and excess protein in
the body is converted to body fat. Animal products, such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs,
milk, cheese, soybeans are good sources of complete protein. Remember, consume
only the required amount of protein your body needs daily.
An increase in the physical activities of adolescents requires more energy
food. Energy-giving food or carbohydrates are the starches and sugars found
primarily in bread, cereals, and in fruits and vegetables. In general, boys need more
energy than girls due to the physical activities most of them engage in. Boys at the
age of 13-14 need 2800 kilocalories for boys weighing 50 kilos while 2250
kilocalories are needed for girls weighing 49 kilos. .
Your body uses energy from carbohydrates to perform every task you do. All
carbohydrates are converted by your body to glucose, a simple sugar that is your
body’s main source of energy. If your body does not consume glucose right away, it
is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. When you need more energy, the
glycogen is converted back to glucose. In cases when you take more carbohydrates
than your body can consume, it is stored as body fats. Stored fats in the body may
result to being overweight or being obese. Obesity must be avoided because this is a
major risk factor to several chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, and
some types of cancer.
You need fiber or roughage, indigestible complex carbohydrates found in the
tough parts of vegetables, fruits and whole grains. Fiber helps move waste through
the digestive system. It prevents constipation and other intestinal problems, and
reduces your risk of heart diseases. Some types of fiber help control diabetes by
reducing blood glucose levels. To stay healthy, you have to eat 20-35 grams of fibers
Remember that there is a strong relationship between what you eat and your
health, not only today but in the future as well. Proper nutrition also helps prevent
diet-related chronic diseases in the future, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer,
and osteoporosis. It is important for you to select a well-balanced diet always.
Teenagers involved in active sports
As active adolescents you need more energy food. A person doing high level
activities requires more energy. If you are very active, you need to eat a variety of
food. Eat only in amounts that your body needs or that matches your growth and
You usually engage in physical activities like sports. During these activities
wherein you perspire a lot, you lose some sodium. Usually the salt in your diet
replaces the salt lost. Excessive perspiration during strenuous physical activities
removes the potassium, sodium, and calcium from your body. You can replace these
by eating foods, such as vegetables, cereals, meat, dried fruits, and milk.
Exercise can also increase your body’s need for thiamine, riboflavin, and
niacin. You need these vitamins for the release and use of energy when you are
exercising or doing activities. You can get these from foods, such as meat, fish,
beans, milk, cheese, poultry and eggs.
Teenagers or athletes who engage in vigorous physical activities should take
into consideration certain dietary precautions to ensure good health.
Drink enough water. Drink an extra 568 ml of water 2 hours before the
activity and 85.2 - 170.4 ml every 10-20 minutes during the actual
vigorous activity. Avoid drinks with high sugar content to avoid delay
in stomach emptying.
Eat foods rich in iron. Athletes should also eat citrus fruits. Citrus fruits
help facilitate body’s absorption of the iron in cereals, vegetables, and
other non- meat sources. These foods help prevent potential iron-
Eat foods rich in calcium. Female athletes, for example, can be prone
to osteoporosis (weakening of the bones as a result of loss of
calcium). They must be particularly careful to eat foods rich in calcium
to get the recommended dietary allowance of calcium.
Your daily diet should be selected carefully. The nutritional guidelines for
adolescents will make it easy for you to choose a balanced diet. You need different
nutrients to be sure that your body functions properly. You also need body-building
foods due to your accelerated growth and development. Your active life also requires
more energy foods.
Activity 4: Can You Help?
Directions: Read the situation below and answer the questions that follow.
Like all teenagers, Jose is an active teenager. He is a member of the
school varsity team. He is about to compete for championship in the division level.
His team practices daily. . During practice, he perspires heavily and needs to drink
water very often. After his morning practice, he usually feels hungry during lunch
1. Suggest a menu for his lunch that will give Jose the nutrients he needs as
an active teenager.
2. Suggest foods to replace the potassium, sodium, and calcium lost due to
too much sweating.
You can influence others to develop a healthy eating habit through different
strategies. Help promote healthier eating among your family members, friends, and
schoolmates through your advocacy materials.
Activity 5: Let’s Advocate Healthy Eating!
Directions: Prepare an advocacy material like a poster/slogan/poem/song/rap to
message about eating the required amount of vegetables, fruits and milk daily.
Create a group for the presentation of your advocacy materials to the class or
have an exhibit of all your output.
Your presentation will be assessed based on the following criteria:
Clarity of the message
Correctness of information
Complete the following unfinished statements:
1. I discovered that my eating habit is ___________________________.
2. I am aware that ___________________________________________.
3. As an adolescent, I need to eat _______________________________.
4. I will encourage my family and friends to eat___________________.
5. From now on I will ________________________________________.
Directions: Read more about nutritional guidelines for adolescents in a
Health or nutrition book recently published. You can also visit the following websites:
Nutritional guidelines for Filipinos
LESSON 2: THE FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID FOR A HEALTHY LIFE
Teen Ages 7-12
Follow the Food Guide Pyramid for adolescents
Discuss the importance of following the nutritional guidelines
appropriate for Filipino adolescents
Something to Ponder On
The Food Guide Pyramid will guide you on how many servings from each
food group is recommended daily. There are six food groups in the Food Guide
Pyramid. The serving requirements of each individual depend on age, sex, size, and
activity level. Each day, we need to eat at least the lowest serving from each of the
food groups. This is to meet the daily requirements of vitamins, minerals, protein,
fiber, and carbohydrates of an individual.
We all need to eat a balanced diet every day. This includes servings of foods
from different food groups in the Food Guide Pyramid. This guide suggests that we
food from the fats, oil and sweet group sparingly.
at least 1 glass a day of food from the milk and milk products group.
2 and 1⁄2 servings daily of food from the meat, poultry, dry beans, eggs,
and nuts group.
1 egg a day (for teenagers).
3 servings of food from the vegetable group daily (for teenagers).
3 servings of fruits daily.
the greatest number of servings, which is 6-8 servings, of bread, cereal,
rice, root crops and noodles.
For you to grow and develop to the fullest and to improve your
nutritional status, it is important to follow healthy eating guidelines such as:
Eat a variety of foods daily.
Maintain a healthy weight.
Eat foods that are low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol.
To lower the risk of heart diseases, avoid too much
cholesterol in your
Consume milk, milk products and other calcium-rich foods,
such as small fish & dark green leafy vegetables daily.
Eat plenty of vegetables, fruits, root crops, and grain products.
Use sugar in moderation.
o Eating too much sweet foods contributes to tooth
Eat clean and safe food, cook food in edible/cooking oil.
Use iodized salt but avoid excessive intake of salty foods. Too
much salt in the diet may increase the risk of having high
Remember, healthy eating will reduce your risk of suffering from fatal
diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. Healthy eating is
important for proper growth and development. It can also prevent health problems,
such as obesity, dental caries, iron deficiency, and osteoporosis. Women are prone
to osteoporosis, so teenage girls should eat enough foods rich in calcium. This will
help build strong bones to protect them from osteoporosis later in life.
Eating a wide variety of foods in moderation daily is a good practice.
Following the Food Guide Pyramid and the Nutritional guidelines for Filipinos will
make it easier for anyone to have a balanced, healthful diet daily.
How Many Servings Do You Need as an Adolescent?
A serving is the size of food after it is cooked. Do you know that three
ounces of cooked meat is about the size of a deck of cards?
The serving sizes below will guide you in measuring the amount of food and
liquid you take daily.
1-1/2 cups (12 ounces) of liquid is the size of a soda-pop can.
1 cup (8 ounces) of food is the size of a large handful.
1/2 cup (4 ounces) of food is about half of a large handful.
1 ounce of cheese is about the size of a 1 inch cube.
2 tablespoons (Tbsp) is about 2 times the size of the tip of your
thumb (from the last crease).
1 tablespoon (Tbsp) is about the size of the tip of your thumb (from
the last crease).
1 teaspoon (tsp) is about the size of the tip of your little finger (from
the last crease).
Daily Servings for a Teen’s Diet
The table below is a food guide for adolescents. Adolescents can achieve
their energy and nutrient requirements by eating a variety of foods daily. This guide
may be used to ensure variety in foods eaten.
Food group Serving size Number of
2 slices bread
1/2 cup cooked cereal, pasta, potatoes, or
1 ounce or 3/4 cup dry cereal
4 pcs. pan de sal
1 small size root crop
1 pack instant noodles
5 to 10
Fruits 1/2 cup canned fruit or fruit juice
1 piece fresh fruit, such as an apple, orange,
15 to 20 grapes
1-1/2 cups fresh melon
2 to 3
Meat / Meat
1/2 cup cottage cheese
3/4 to 1 cup cooked dried beans or
1 ounce low-fat or regular cheese
2 to 3 ounces meat, fish, or poultry
2 to 3 Tbsps. peanut butter
1/2 cup nuts
3 to 5
1 cup low-fat milk or yogurt
one ounce of cheese
1/2 cup of cottage cheese
4 to 5
Vegetables 1/2 cup cooked or 1 cup raw
2 cups salad greens
1 cup vegetable or tomato juice
2 to 3
Fats 10 peanuts
2 Tbsps. cream cheese, avocado, or low
calorie salad dressing
1 tsp oil, margarine,
mayonnaise, or butter
1 Tbsp salad dressing
2 to 4
1/8 of a pie
1/2 cup ice cream
1/2 cup pudding,
2 small cookies.
Too much sweets and dessert can
aggravate skin problems, like
1 to 3
6 - 8
Do you include food from the different food in your daily meal?
Do the next activity to check if you are eating the right food.
Activity 1: Am I Eating the Right Food?
Direction: List all the foods and drinks you usually eat the whole day. List them in
the space below. Check the column of food group where each food belongs.
Based on your list, answer the following questions:
1. What do you observe about your food intake?
2. Which food group do you have most in your list?
3. Which food group do you have less in your list?
4. Why did you choose those foods?
5. Do you take the needed serving each day?
What do you plan to do about your eating habits?
You usually eat at the school canteen and you see your classmates and other
students select the food they want for snacks or lunch.
The next activity will require you to be observant while inside the school
Are there healthier options available to students other than what they
Visit your school canteen and do the activity.
Activity 2: A Visit to the Canteen
Directions: Visit your school canteen and observe the students taking their lunch
or snacks. List the foods being served to the students in the school canteen.
Check from the Food Guide Pyramid the group where the foods you listed belong.
Answer the following questions:
To what food groups do most of the foods belong?
Does the canteen serve nutritious food?
Do they serve less nutritious foods such as chips, carbonated beverages
and “artificial” fruit juices?
Are the foods appropriate to students’ dietary needs?
What foods do students mostly buy?
Are they choosy in selecting their lunch/snacks?
Do students eat hurriedly?
Write your observations/recommendations by finishing the following:
Our school canteen_____________________________________________
Most of the students eat__________________________________________
I suggest that our school canteen__________________________________
I recommend that students_______________________________________
After learning about the Food Guide Pyramid, can you prepare a healthy
menu for your breakfast, lunch, snacks, and dinner? Be sure to follow the nutritional
guidelines you have learned and include food from the different food groups in the
Food Guide Pyramid.
Activity 3: A Healthy Meal for Me
Directions: Prepare a healthy menu for your breakfast, lunch, snacks, and dinner.
Follow the Food Guide Pyramid for teens in preparing your meals. Be sure to
include foods from all the food groups in the Food Guide Pyramid.
Do the next activity and show your understanding by making sense/meaning
out of the words/phrases given below.
Do either one of these:
Using a graphic organizer, connect/web the following concepts in a
way that they make sense
Write a paragraph using the words/phrases below to summarize the
o Food groups
o Balanced diet
o Good nutrition
o Healthy eating
o Food Guide Pyramid
o Proper growth and development of adolescents
Food Facts and Fallacies
Directions: Answer the following statements by telling whether the statement is a
FALLACY or a FACT.
1. “Fat free” is “calorie free.”
2. You need meat for protein.
3. Eating fish makes you smarter.
4. Cholesterol free means ‘fat free.’
5. Extra virgin olive oil is the best oil.
6. Sugar is not good for people with diabetes.
7. Reducing salt intake can reduce blood pressure.
8. An obese individual should be given a poor diet.
9. If you eat a diet high in fat, you will store more body fat.
10. Carbohydrates-rich foods are not good to eat after 4PM as they
promote weight gain.
Do you want to find the truth about those statements? Read the article about
Food Myths and Facts in this website- http://topendspot.com/health
Your teacher will also discuss the truth about these.
Be ready with a Nutrition Fact or Fallacy question for your classmates
To learn more about the Food Guide Pyramid, you can visit this website –
A Healthful Diet
Show your understanding and creativity through this activity.
Group by six.
Choose foods from the Food Guide Pyramid. Show what kinds of food you
need everyday and the number of servings you need from each food group.
(40 points) 1. Cut out pictures of different kinds of food. Show the correct number
you need from each food group. For example, cut out six to eleven
foods from the bread, cereals, rice, root crops, and noodles group.
(30 points) 2. Draw a big paper plate on construction paper. Paste the cut-out
foods on the
(20 points) 3. Write one way your body uses food from each food group.
(10 points) 4. Use correct grammar.
(100 points) 5. Total points
LESSON 3: DO YOU EAT RIGHT?
1. Discuss the nutritional problems among adolescents
Analyze the current nutritional status of Filipino adolescents
Describe the signs and symptoms, prevention, and control of malnutrition
(underweight and overweight) and micro-nutrient deficiencies
Explain the characteristics, signs and symptoms, prevention and control of
eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, compulsive eating
Something to Ponder On
Current Nutritional Status of Filipino Adolescents
The results of the 6th
National Nutrition Survey for Filipino adolescents show
the nutritional status of adolescents from ages 11-19. Let us analyze the results.
Survey shows that:
If you will analyze the result of this survey, there are more underweight
adolescents ages 11-12 than those who are 13-19 years old.
National Nutrition Survey results show the following:
The prevalence of underweight among pre-adolescence/adolescents, 11-19
years old had significantly increased by 1.0 percentage point between 2005
Overweight adolescents on the other hand had decreased significantly by 0.2
percentage point from 4.8 % in 2005 and 4.6% in 2008.
What do you think are the reasons? The next activity will help you see the reasons.
among adolescents, 11-12 years old:
o 49 in every 100 have normal weight for their height
o 26 in every 100 are underweight
o 4 in every 100 are overweight
among adolescents, 13-19 years old:
o 68 in every 100 have normal weight for their height
o 12 in every 100 are underweight
o 3 in every 100 are overweight
more males 11-12 and 13-19 years are underweight than females
more 11-12-year old males are overweight than females while more females age
13-19 years are overweight than males of the same age
the prevalence of underweight adolescents increased between 1993 and 1998
but declined in 2003
Activity 1: How Are My Eating Habits and Practices?
Directions: Check your habits/practices related to eating. Check (/) those
that only relate to your habits/practices and cross (x) those that don’t.
1 I prefer fast foods and street foods.
2. I eat anything for my meals/lunch.
3. I am not careful in the selection of foods I eat.
4. I don’t have enough money to buy nutritious meals.
5 I eat my meals hurriedly to catch up with my classes.
6. I skip breakfast and have poor meals due to lack of time to eat.
7. I’m afraid of eating certain foods because these might cause pimples.
8. I just buy food available in school canteens even if I do not like them.
9. I am afraid of eating too much so I often skip breakfast.
10. I am not fond of milk; I prefer softdrinks.
What can you say about the results of your answers to this
Do they reveal something positive or negative about your eating
habits and practices?
Ask some of your classmates if they have similar answers.
Some of your answers are the reasons why some adolescents are not
properly nourished. Do you know which ones?
Based on the same survey, these are the reasons why adolescents are
Poor eating practices/habits
Poor food choices and intakes often influenced by peers and the media
Becoming conscious of the kinds and amounts of food they eat (i.e. females
tend to eat less because of fear of becoming fat)
School canteens and cafeterias serving less nutritious foods (i.e. chips,
carbonated beverages and artificial fruit juices)
Not fond of drinking milk,which is a good source of nutrients
Low intake of iron and vitamin C-rich foods resulting in iron deficiency
Here are some reminders for eating right:
Always consider the Food Guide Pyramid
Decide on the serving you need
Follow good eating habits
Make healthy food choices
Be careful about the fat stored in food
Drink enough water daily
Sometimes you just eat anything available on the table, but sometimes you
become too choosy. Do you realize the effects if you don’t eat food that your body
needs? The next activity will help you evaluate your eating habits.
Activity 2: Let’s Do an Eating Habit Survey
Direction: Answer each question honestly.
1. Do you drink milk?
2. Do you like vegetables?
3. Do you eat while watching TV?
4. What foods do you avoid eating?
5. What foods do you like the most?
6. How many meals a day do you eat?
7. Do you eat when you are stressed?
8. Which meal do you skip most often?
9. How often in a day do you take snacks?
10. How often do you eat at fast foods/restaurants?
Analyze your answers to these questions and plan how you can improve your
Addressing the Problem of Malnutrition
At present, do we have a program to address the problems of
malnutrition in the country? Do we have government programs/projects that
can help resolve the problem?
The Philippine Food Fortification Act of 2000 seeks to address the
micronutrient deficiencies in the country. Republic Act 8976 mandates the
fortification of rice, flour, refined sugar, and cooking oil. It urges
manufacturers of processed food to fortify their products under the ‘Sangkap
Pinoy program. Fortification of staple foods is one of the most cost-effective
ways of addressing malnutrition. It will supplement the insufficient diet of the
common people. Rice has been fortified with iron, zinc, and beta-carotene
varieties. This bio-fortification gives us 50-80 percent more iron and zinc in
A government agency providing feeding program in the school
In the school, are you aware of a feeding program? This is
undertaken by the Home Economics Department to feed students identified
to be undernourished. Nutrition concepts are taught in Technology and
Livelihood Education. Some agencies and non-government organizations
(NGO) also help in addressing the malnutrition problem in the country:
The Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) in
coordination with the Department of Education is also conducting
feeding programs for public schools in the country.
The Department of Science and Technology (DOST) also helps in
government campaigns by disseminating nutrition information and
technology to the public.
The Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) is also doing its
share by featuring healthy and nutritious recipes for Filipino families to
enjoy. These recipes advocate Filipinos to live a healthy lifestyle.
Malnutrition should be attended to immediately. Do you know that if
this will not be checked early among adolescents, it will lead to serious
problems? Some of these problems are:
Slow growth and development
Poor school performance
Sluggishness and fatigue
Poor nutrition in adulthood
Delay in the onset of secondary sex characteristics
The Case of Micronutrient Deficiencies
Micronutrient deficiencies are diseases caused by deficiency of vitamins or
minerals in the diet. The most common micronutrient deficiencies not only in our
country but also in the whole world are Vitamin A deficiency, iron deficiency anaemia
and iodine deficiency disorders.
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) primarily affects children but the effects last a
lifetime. It causes night blindness and, and later on, permanent blindness
(xerophthalmia). The child suffering from VAD does not reach optimum physical
growth and is prone to infections, that contributes to the high rates of sickness and
death among young children. VAD can be prevented by regular consumption of
vitamin A-rich foods, such as animal products, and orange and yellow fruits and
vegetables, dark green leafy vegetables, and palm oil.
Anaemia and iron deficiency Anemia is a condition in which the red blood cell
count or hemoglobin is less than normal. It affects mostly adolescent girls women of
child-bearing age and pre-school children. Anemia results in retarded physical
growth, low resistance to infections and slow development of learning abilities. In
adults it causes fatigue and reduced work capacity and may cause reproductive
impairment. Foods such as dark green leafy vegetables, legumes and red meat are
rich in iron, as are iron-fortified food products.
Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) results from lack of iodine in the diet. Iodine is
needed for the production of thyroid hormone. The body does not make iodine, so
you should get iodine in your diet. Iodine rich foods are—
Breads Iodized table salt
Cheese Saltwater fish
Cow’s milk Seaweed
Frozen yogurt Soy milk
Ice cream Soy sauce
Iodine deficiency can lead to enlargement of the thyroid or goiter,
hypothyroidism and to mental retardation in infants and children whose mothers
lacked iodine when they were pregnant.
IDD is the most common cause of preventable mental retardation. In
severe cases it can lead to deaf-mutism, cretinism and other serious disorders, as
well as reproductive impairment, which results in miscarriage, stillbirth and birth
Activity 3: Internet Detectives
1. Group the class into three, with a group researching on a common
2. Have each group prepare a presentation about their assignment, including
teaching aid for the class to better understand their presentation, and 3
questions to ask
the class after the round-robin presentations.
3. On the day of the presentation, only three members of the group will present
classroom will be divided into 3 areas, one per micronutrient deficiency. The
groups will go
through the different areas round-robin style and listen to the presentation of
group member assigned to the area. The group presenters will take turns
enable them to go through all the areas also.
4. At the end of the presentation each group will take turns asking their
Activity 4: Reflect and Change!
Directions: Listed below are nutritional habits. Reflect on your nutritional
habits and check the appropriate column where you think your daily habits fall. Be
honest in answering this activity.
A- Always S- Sometimes N- never
Nutritional Habits A S N
I eat a variety of foods every day.
I buy only nutritious snack food items.
I always try to make time for a good meal.
I eat together with my family during meals.
I pack breakfast to be eaten when I reach school.
I bring packed nutritious and safe foods when eating
I eat nutritious foods at home and even outside our
I know the negative consequences of fad diets to my
I sleep early so that I will wake up early and have
enough time to prepare for school and eat breakfast.
I choose foods wisely, making good use of salads,
fruits and vegetables and whole grains when eating
Evaluate your answer.
How many A’s do you have?
How many S’s and N’s do you have?
How will you describe your nutritional habits?
Teenagers need to eat nutritious meals
Adolescent girls tend to eat less because of their fear of becoming fat. They
become choosy with the foods they eat, preferring snack foods to full meals. Some
are too conscious about their weight and their efforts to lose weight get out of control.
Due to their desire to lose weight, they develop eating disorders. They get carried
away with losing weight and becoming thin. An eating disorder is an extreme, unsafe
eating behavior that can cause serious illness or that may even result in death. The
exact cause is unknown. Some may have serious underlying mental and emotional
problems that need professional treatment. They develop eating disorders that if not
treated earlier can lead to serious health problems. It might also lead to death.
Teenagers who have eating disorders usually have a family history of weight
problems, depression, or substance abuse. In this case they need professional help.
Some common eating disorders are anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and binge eating
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by self-imposed
starvation leading to excessive weight loss. It is an extreme fear of becoming stout
and a distorted view of their body size and shape. It is a psychological disorder with
physical and emotional consequences. Those experiencing this eating disorder see
themselves as fat even if they are not. Their fear of being overweight is too strong.
Outside pressures, high expectations, the need to achieve or the need to be popular,
and the need to be accepted are characteristics of people who tend to develop this
disorder. If not treated earlier, those with anorexia nervosa become malnourished.
The condition may also become severe enough to cause death.
Some warning signs and symptoms of anorexia nervosa:
Loss of body fat
Loss of menstruation
Wasting away of muscle tissue
Some behaviors that can also be observed from those with anorexia
nervosa include the following:
They exercise excessively.
They wear bulky or loose clothing.
They make excuses during meal time .
They may shift the food around on their plate just to pretend they are
Bulimia is a disorder in which the clearing of digestive tract follows cycles
of overeating. People with this disorder are too concerned with weight. They will eat
large quantity of food in a short period of time. After eating, they will take laxatives to
rid the body of the food to avoid gaining weight. They may induce vomiting, abuse
laxatives or diuretics, and go on dieting, or do excessive exercises. These practices
are harmful and will damage the body. The following are the effects of bulimia:
Damage the heart due to starvation
Damage the kidney due to laxative abuse
Vomiting and laxative abuse can lead to dehydration and serious
Overeating can cause the stomach to enlarge and vomiting can cause
the stomach to rapture
Damage the tooth enamel and injure the mouth and throat because of
stomach acids coming out due to frequent vomiting
Some warning signs and symptoms of bulimia nervosa:
Bulimic people have open sores in the mouth due to frequent vomiting.
Their throats are often red,
They have tooth decay due to constant exposure to acids in their vomit.
Bulimia can be treated by undergoing psychological and nutritional
counseling as well as intensive medical treatment. Anorexia and bulimia are common
among adolescent girls and young women. There are also a few cases of boys
suffering from this disorder. Anorexic and bulimic people have difficulty feeling good
about their bodies no matter how good they may look. Seek medical help
immediately if any of these disorders affect you.
When bulimia is a problem, the following intervention will help you:
Avoid skipping meals.
Eat more high –fiber food.
Include fresh fruits and vegetables in your diet.
Drink 8-10 glasses of water and do 30-minute exercises daily.
Avoid finger foods and select meals that require eating at the table.
Eat regularly-timed meals consisting of a variety of foods in enough
Binge eating disorder is characterized by compulsive eating. People who
indulge in compulsive eating consume a large amount of food at one time but they
do not eliminate it. Binge disorder may be an indicator that the person uses food to
cope with depression or strong emotions.
Binge eating is different from normal appetite increases or overeating
during holidays. Those with a binge eating problem eat large amounts of food on a
regular basis. They eat quickly or most often do something while eating, like playing
computer games, watching TV, reading books, doing homework, and others. They
don’t stop eating even if they are already full. This results in being overweight or
even obese because of so many calories they have taken, which is more than what
the body can use.
Try the following strategies to stop binge eating:
Cope with stress. Find alternative ways to handle stress and other
feelings without food. You can do exercises, meditation, or simple
Take three regular meals and choose healthy snacks. Do not skip
meals as this often leads to binge eating later in the day. Take your
breakfast, then have a balanced lunch and dinner on scheduled
mealtime. If you will take a snack in between, be sure to choose
Stay away from temptation. Do not store junk food and other
unhealthy snacks in your refrigerator or cabinet.
Stop dieting. Depriving yourself of food will just trigger food craving
and you will have the urge to overeat. What you can do is to focus on
eating nutritious foods in moderation. Avoid being uncomfortably full.
Avoid dullness/boredom. Try to do something worthwhile instead of
snacking. You can read, do gardening, paint, bike, walk, and other
Do some exercises. Exercise this will not only help you lose weight
but will reduce stress as well. It gives a natural mood-boosting effect
that will help you stop that emotional eating practice.
Have enough sleep. Instead of eating when you are tired, it is better
to take a nap or sleep earlier to boost your energy.
Know your body. You must know when you are physically hungry. If
you have just eaten and feel like eating again, just ignore it. It is just
Note the food you eat. Recording the food you eat, the time,
quantity, and the feeling while eating will help you see the pattern. Do
you overeat when you feel stressed, upset, hurt or angry? You will
see the connection between your mood and binge eating.
Get help. Build a solid support network such as with your family,
friends, or join a support group. You can also seek medical help.
Remember, you can avoid binge eating by developing a healthier relationship
with food. It must be a relationship based on your nutritional needs and not on your
emotional needs. You must eat for your health and nutrition. Having a balanced meal
plan and choosing healthy foods can help you avoid binge eating.
Watch your eating behavior. There are some behaviors that may indicate that
you are at risk for developing an eating disorder. Do the next activity to check your
Activity 5: Check Your Eating Behavior
Directions: Check the number if the behavior relates to you and cross (x) if it
1. I eat secretly inside my room.
2. I feel out of control when eating.
3. I usually eat much food hurriedly.
4. When I see food I eat even if I am full.
5. I feel ashamed and disgusted after eating.
6. I hide and stock food to eat later in secret.
7. I feel relieved from stress or tension when eating.
8. I never feel satisfied, no matter how much I eat.
9. I eat normally with others but over-eat when alone.
10. I eat continuously throughout the day, with no planned mealtimes.
Answer the following questions:
How many did you check?
If you have checked all or most of the items above, reflect on your eating
behavior. You might need to change your eating practice.
Health Problems Brought About by Obesity Due to Binge Eating
If not treated, binge eating disorder usually leads to obesity. Several health
problems may occur when you are obese, such as:
Type 2 diabetes
High blood pressure
Joint and muscle pain
Risk of having a certain type of cancer
Remember, all eating disorders need immediate attention since these are
serious health problem. Discuss the problem with a responsible adult who can help.
Better yet, consult a health professional.
Activity 6: My Eating Style
Direction: Write YES if the eating style relates to you and NO if it doesn’t.
1. I eat only when I feel hungry.
2. I eat more when I feel depressed.
3. I eat more then I vomit after eating.
4. I eat more when I am bored.
5. I eat then take laxatives to rid my stomach of food.
Answer the following questions after the activity.
How do you find your eating practice?
What do you plan to do with what you discovered about your eating
Do you think you have healthful eating practices? Why?
Now that you are familiar with the different eating disorders, can you
differentiate one from the other? Do the next activity.
Activity 7: What’s This Disorder?
Direction: Read the situation and then answer the questions that follow.
Josie is a freshman student who wants to be popular and attractive to
everyone. She is not happy with her weight, so she tries to diet. However hard
she tries, she fails. Angry at herself, she eats everything she sees. After eating
she goes to the bathroom to induce vomiting.
What eating disorder does Josie have?
What can you suggest to Josie to overcome this problem?
What are the dangers if this problem is not corrected?
You must have gained many important insights in the lesson.
1. Think of your most important learning in this lesson.
2. Now try to symbolize your most important learning either by drawing it
or by showing something/an object to symbolize it.
3. Share your object in class and tell what important learning it stands
LESSON 3 MODULE TEST
I. True or False. Write TRUE if the statement is correct and FALSE if it is wrong.
1. Eating disorders are uncommon among adolescent girls.
2. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by compulsive eating.
3. A bulimic person has dry skin, brittle hair and lost body fat.
4. Bulimic persons are too much concerned with their weight.
5. Eating a variety of foods once a week is a good nutritional habit.
6. The fear of being overweight is too strong among anorexic people.
7. Malnutrition among adolescents is due to poor food choices and poor food
8. Children and lactating mothers are not affected by micronutrient
9. Malnutrition among adolescents slows down their growth and
10. People who indulge in compulsive eating consume a small amount of
one time, then purge.
II. Multiple choice: Write the letter of the correct answer.
1. What is the food group at the top of the Food Guide Pyramid?
A. Vegetable group
B. Fats, oils, and sweets
C. Bread, cereal, rice and root crop group
D. Meat, poultry, fish, dried beans, eggs, and nuts group
2. Which does not belong to the food from the top part of the Food Guide
3. How can you eat a variety of foods?
A. Eat at fast food restaurants every day.
B Eat food from some of the food groups every day.
C Eat one type of food from each food group every day.
D. Eat a variety of foods from each food group every day.
4. Which is NOT a cause of malnutrition among adolescents?
A. Poor eating practices/habits
B They are fond of drinking milk.
C. Poor food choices and intakes
C. Some school canteens serve less nutritious foods
5. What mineral from the body is lost by excessive perspiration during
strenuous physical activities?
6. During growth spurt of adolescents they should consume more_____
A water and juices.
B. energy and nutrients
C. vitamins and minerals
D. minerals and proteins
7. You should eat plenty of grains, vegetables, and fruits because _____
A they keep you slim.
B they give you much fats.
C. they provide you with fiber.
D. they give you much calcium
8. Poultry is _____
A. raw fish
B. meat from cow.
C. cooked vegetables
D. meat from chicken
9. To avoid osteoporosis among female athletes, they should eat foods rich
10. The fear of being overweight is very strong among _____
A. Anemic people.
B. Anorexic people.
C. Compulsive eaters
D. People with iodine deficiency
III. Directions: Categorize the different food products according to food groups in the
Food Guide Pyramid.
2 . Eggs
6. Glass of milk
7. Peanuts and meat
8. Gabi, kamote, ubi
9. Banana, guava, atis
10. Petchay, squash, kamote top
LEARNING MODULE for HEALTH 7
Shielding the Body from Communicable Disease Invaders
Note to the Illustrator:
Please localize the drawing. Show a typical Filipino male and female
adolescent. Cover the whole shield with the picture so that the shield can
In general, diseases can be either communicable or non-communicable.
Communicable diseases are due to an infectious process and can be transmitted
from one person to another. As such, prevention and control of communicable
diseases is a public health concern.
Communicable diseases, such as bronchopneumonia in children and
tuberculosis are one of the major health issues in our country. Although there
have been improvements in the prevention and control of these diseases in the
last 10 – 20 years, it remains to be a concern. Its negative effect can be felt at
home, in school, and in the community. Families with sick members face financial
and emotional problems. In schools, absenteeism due to infections affect student
learning. Community people become at risk when epidemics happen, interrupting
work and other productive activities. In order to free ourselves from the emotional
pain and financial problems brought by diseases, we need to protect ourselves
through good personal and environmental health practices.
Are you now ready to shield yourself against communicable diseases?
Let’s get started!
As a starting point, it’s a good idea to check what you already know about
communicable diseases. This is a diagnostic exercise, so don’t worry if there are
items which you can’t answer.
A. Find the Secret Message
Direction: Complete each statement by writing the missing word. Clues are
inside the box.
1. What viral infections are characterized by rough growths, usually in
the hands but can appear in any part of the body?
2. What is a disease-causing microorganism called?
3. What is the smallest microorganism that causes infection, such as
chickenpox, measles, and mumps?
4. What is a susceptible individual who can harbor the disease called?
5. What proper daily health practice is an effective way to avoid
6. What skin infection caused by bacteria is common during
7. Bacteria, fungi, and parasitic worms are examples of disease
8. What kind of transmission is the transfer of disease through physical
9. How do microorganisms, like fungal infections enter the body?
10. The secret message is a very practical way to prevent the spread of diseases:
B. Odd Word Out
Direction: Analyze the series of words in each item and cross out the word that
NOT belong to the group.
1. mosquito virus bacterium worm
2. disinfection quarantine sterilization fumigation
3. acne warts tinea common cold
4. hand washing cough etiquette smoking regular exercise
5. therapy immunization proper nutrition environmental sanitation
C. Paired Words
Direction: Analyze the relationship of the first set of words to help you supply the
missing word/s. Study the following example:
roundworm: helminth:: yeast: ___________ Answer:
Explanation: If a roundworm is an example of a helminth (parasitic worm);
then yeast is
an example of a fungus.
Write your answers here for the secret
1. W __ __ __ __
2. P __ __ __ __ __ __ N
3. __ I __ __ __
4. __ O __ __
5. H __ __ __ __ N __
6. __ __ __ E
7. A __ __ __ __ S
8. __ __ __ __ C __
9. S __ __ __
1. Tuberculosis: bacterium:: Dengue Fever: ________________
2. poverty: economic factor:: superstitions: ________________
3. hand washing: gastrointestinal diseases:: cough etiquette:
4. limit movement of a suspected carrier: quarantine:: separate a sick
5. life’s most important resource: health:: problem in body structure or
D. Multiple Choice
Direction: Encircle the letter of the correct answer.
1. Which is a communicable disease?
A. Cancer B. Scurvy C. Diabetes D. Tuberculosis
2. What are contagious diseases due to?
A. Mosquito bites
B. Contaminated food
C. Contact with an infected person
D. Inhalation of droplets from an infected person
3. What does the poisonous gas belief state as the cause of disease?
A. Microorganisms in the body.
B. Problem in specific parts of the body.
C. Bad vapor in the atmosphere during bad weather.
D. Interaction among the agent, the host, and the environment.
4. Aliya woke up with a slight fever. She remembered that she visited a friend in the
hospital a few days ago. What stage of an infection is Aliya experiencing?
A. Incubation stage C.Clinical stage
B. Prodromal stage D. Convalescence stage
5. How can you protect yourself from communicable skin diseases?
A. Apply lotion every day.
B. Avoid going to crowded places.
C. Avoid exposure to the harmful rays of the sun.
D. Do not share personal care items, such as towels.
6. Which is a secondary level of disease prevention?
A. Vaccination C. Rehabilitation
B. Early diagnosis D. Environmental sanitation
7. What is the only source of infection according to the germ theory of disease?
A. Microbe C. Magic
B. Bad spirit D. Polluted agent
8. Which statement best summarizes the modern concept of health?
A. Health is proper hygiene.
B. Health is being disease-free.
C. Health is a state of well-being.
D. Health is a resource to have quality life.
9. According to the agent-host-environment belief, what factors interact to cause an
A. Object, food, and water
B. Air, vehicle, and microbes
C. Germ, person or animal, and surroundings
D. Germ, reservoir, and manner of transmission
10. Why do we need to correct myths and misconceptions about diseases?
A. We don’t want to be labeled as backward or not educated.
B Following myths and misconceptions can endanger our health...
C. We need to change our beliefs to keep pace with the changing times.
D. Our medical practitioners will get mad if we don’t follow their advice.
Lesson 1: Health-- More Than Being Disease-Free
Note to the Illustrator:
Please localize the drawing. Show a typical Filipino family.
Discuss the concept of health and disease
Accept personal responsibility for one’s health
Practice ways to attain holistic health
Something to Ponder On
In the first Module, you were introduced to the concept of holistic health. You
learned that health has several dimensions that are interrelated.
Before we discuss health and disease in detail, let us first build on what you
know about these two concepts.
To the Illustrator: Please enlarge the concept web and delete the black lines at
the right side of the drawing.
I’m sure you wrote interesting information about health and disease from your
previous learning and experience. As you read and understand the content of this
lesson, try to compare new concepts with your prior knowledge about health and
Health as a concept is continuously changing as people see it differently. In
the past, it was regarded as simply a condition of being free from disease. Then, it
became equated with proper hygiene. Today, we know that to be healthy is not only
to be free from disease. As our most important resource, it also includes living a
quality of life that maximizes our potential and develops our sense of well-being.
Health is both a personal and social responsibility. It is the product of the
collective decisions that we make about our lifestyle in general. The food that we eat,
the number of hours of sleep we get, the time we allot for rest and recreation, the
way we manage stress and the type of physical activities that we do, all impact our
health and the health of people around us.
On the other hand, disease is just one manifestation of ill-health. It is a
pathological condition that disrupts the normal functioning of the body. Unlike illness,
which is subjective because it is based on the patient’s experience, disease is
objective, characterized by an abnormality in the structure or function of body
organs. However, one can have a disease and not be ill. And one can be ill even
Reflect, Write, and Share
Think of everything you know about health and disease. Write down words
or phrases that you associate with these two terms. Then discuss your answers
with a partner.
This Module will focus on communicable diseases. In general, diseases can
be classified as communicable or non-communicable. Communicable diseases are
caused by pathogens or disease-causing organisms and can be transmitted from
one person to another or from animals to people. Examples include common cold,
influenza, cholera, dengue fever, tuberculosis and warts. When the body is invaded
by a pathogen, the invasion is called an infection. On the other hand, non-
communicable disease cannot be transmitted from one person to another. These are
also known as lifestyle-related diseases because danger or risk factors include
obesity, smoking, lack of physical activity and exercise, and high-cholesterol, high
salt diet. Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic lung diseases and diabetes are
the most significant non-communicable diseases in our country because they are the
leading causes of death among Filipinos.
Before we go to the nature of communicable diseases, it is important to
understand first the relationship between health and disease. Let us study the
Note to the Illustrator:
Copy the dimensions but change spiritual to moral-spiritual. Delete the
word heartiness in the continuum.
The diagram shows that holistic health encompasses emotional,
environmental, moral-spiritual, physical, social, and mental dimensions.
Health and disease can be seen as a continuum. As one goes up, optimum wellness
is reached. On the other hand, a movement downward indicates progressive illness
and premature death once the lowest point is reached. Since life consists of
changing events and conditions, a person’s health fluctuates along the continuum.
The idea is to always move towards health and wellness. Thus, even if one has a
disease, one can move towards wellness.
Assess your health at present. Where are you in the continuum? How do you
improve your position to attain optimum wellness?
Health is more than the absence of disease because being disease-free is
only one aspect of physical health. The modern view considers health as the major
tool or resource in attaining quality life. To be considered healthy, one needs to
balance the various health dimensions. This can be done by consistently
demonstrating health-promoting behaviors in each health dimension. Study the
Health is more than the absence of disease because being disease-free is
only one characteristic of health. So, the modern view considers health as the major
tool or resource in attaining quality life. In order to be considered healthy, one needs
to strike a balance among the various health dimensions. This can be done by
consistently demonstrating health-enhancing behaviors in each of the health
dimension. Study the following pictures:
The Components of Health
Components of Holistic
Were you able to identify the health dimension being shown in the pictures?
Compare your interpretation with the following:
The picture on the upper left shows someone playing volleyball, an activity
that can improve one’s’ physical health.
The picture on the lower left shows an Igorot woman flashing a bright smile.
She exhibits good emotional health.
At the center are two pictures which show the interrelationship between
moral-spiritual and environmental health. Our personal relationship with a
Supreme Being and our harmonious relationship with nature are both key
components in attaining holistic health
On the upper right, we can see a group of teenagers happily conversing.
They are enhancing their social health.
The lower right picture shows women engaging in an activity to harness their
These activities are just examples of the many things you can do to attain
holistic health. The challenge for you is how to integrate healthy practices into your
lifestyle and make them a habit. Value your health by taking good care of it. It will
mean practicing discipline and consistency on your part, but it will be worth it. Now,
let’s do an activity that will encourage you to live a healthy lifestyle.
Let’s sum up the key points in this lesson:
H- ealth is more than the absence of disease.
My Health Pledge
I accept personal responsibility for my own health and I will show
my commitment by practicing the following activities to attain holistic health:
Signed: ______________ Date: _____________________________
Witnesses: ________________ __________________________
E – nhancing behaviors should be consistently practiced to safeguard health.
A- ttainment of good health is both a personal and social responsibility.
L – ifestyle diseases are caused by unhealthful practices.
T – ype of activities that we do affect our health.
H- olistic health is the key to quality life.
Lesson 2: Bad Air, Germs, or Combined Factors?
Analyze the major beliefs about the cause of disease
Something to Ponder On
In order to fully understand the nature of health, we need to
understand the nature of disease. People in various times of history
have been curious about the cause of disease. They tried to explain it
as either a supernatural or a natural event.
Did you know that until the 1850s,
people’s fear of disease was
worsened by ignorance?
The Causes of Disease
Beliefs on the cause(s) of diseases have undergone changes through time.
The Supernatural Belief
During the ancient times, people thought that disease was brought about
by sorcery, witchcraft, fate, or spirit aggression (God’s punishment or devil’s
work). These supernatural beliefs explained that disease was caused by a
supernatural being (a god or a dead ancestor), or a person with special powers
(a witch or a sorcerer).
The belief in the supernatural cause was evident during the “Black Death” or
bubonic plague of the 14th
century. The bubonic plague bacillus that came close to
wiping out the global population was believed to be God’s punishment for people’s
The Poisonous Gas Belief
Another major belief during the 1800s is the poisonous air belief of disease
causation. According to this view, disease, such as malaria, was transmitted by
poisonous gases from rotting plants or bad vapor that came from swamps (the word
malaria comes from mala aria meaning “bad air”).
The Germ Belief
Before the turn of the 20th
century, the germ belief about the cause of
infectious disease became very popular... This belief holds that microscopic
organisms are responsible for infectious diseases. Although revolutionary, this belief
is quite limiting because it only considers a single cause of disease.
The Agent-Host-Environment Belief
Since many people believed that the one-cause idea of the germ belief was
not enough to explain the actual cause of diseases, the Agent—Host--Environment
belief was formed. It
explains disease as a product of the complex interaction among three factors: agent,
host, and environment. This is known as the classic agent—host—environment
triangle. It helps us understand the nature of communicable diseases. It answers the
“who?” (host), “what?” (agent) and “where?” (environment) of disease.
The Classic Agent—Host--Environment Triangle
The host is an organism, usually a person or an animal, affected by the
disease; the environment is the condition outside the host that allows disease to be
transmitted; and the agent is the organism that causes the disease.
In the case of agents, although microorganisms have an important
part in the disease process, we should remember that many of them are harmless
and some may even be beneficial.
There is now a growing awareness that the environment is not only a place
for the host-agent interaction. Rather, it is an important factor in the disease process.
In fact, to become an infection, the organism that causes the disease must be able to
damage the host, has a susceptible host, and has a favorable environment.
To prevent and control communicable diseases, we must be able to upset or
cut the connection among the agent, the host, and the environment. So,
understanding the agent--host-environment triangle is very important.
Complete the following chart based on the lesson and be prepared to
share your answer with your seatmate. The first row has been done for
Belief Key Point Question/s Value or
Why is the knowledge of the beliefs on the cause of diseases important?
The Agent—Host—Environment triangle is one model that explains the cause
of disease. Based on this belief, the connection among the agent, host, and
environment must be cut in order to prevent disease.
Among the four beliefs, which do you support? Do you have your own belief
on the cause of disease? What is it? Write your personal opinion.
This is My Belief
Supernatural Disease is
Is there proof
How can this
ways to explain
the cause of
This belief can
faith in a
person to do
good so as not
to suffer from
I’ll Change It My Way
Write your opinion on how you can change the agent, host, and
environment to prevent disease.
Agent Host Environment
The Cause of Disease
Since the earliest times, people have asked why
Communicable diseases caused people to die;
Infecting people rich and poor
Bringing pain, death, and misery at their door.
In their desire to understand why they were sick
They turned to gods, sorcery and magic;
The supernatural belief gained popularity
As people spoke of spirits and divinity.
Then the poisonous gas belief was born
That put blame to air pollution;
It claimed that bad air caused infections
Such as malaria, and other afflictions.
When the world of microbes was made known
People turned to the germ belief of disease causation;
Thus people became busy with disinfection
And other ways to bring germs to extinction.
But others proposed that germ was not the only cause
But also the environment and the host;
These three factors interact to make us sick
According to a belief known as “epidemiologic.”
Lesson 3: Disease Factors-- Spreading Ill Health
Discuss the factors in the development of disease
Formulate guidelines to lessen the impact of these factors
Something to Ponder On
Communicable diseases remain to be the leading causes of disease among
Filipinos. There are several factors that facilitate their transmission.
1. Personal Factors
Health is both a personal and social responsibility. Our
unhealthful practices can predispose us and other people to
communicable diseases. For example, not washing our hands
properly after using the toilet can make us susceptible to parasitic
infections. When we have colds and we don’t practice cough
etiquette, we spread the germs to people around us.
2. Economic Factors
Poverty is a big factor in disease
transmission. It is a complex social problem
that leads to a lot of other issues, such as
overcrowding, limited access to education and
health care, lack of safe water and food,
inadequate excreta disposal facilities, and poor
living conditions. Moreover, the culture of
poverty creates a sense of hopelessness on
the poor because they often become victims of
discrimination in the utilization of healthcare
services. Lack of accurate information about nutrition, hygiene, exercise and sleep
may also lead to bad habits that weaken the body’s natural defenses against
3. Cultural Factors
Our culture is the sum of what we have learned and transmitted from one
generation to another as a people. There are cultural beliefs that can provide us with
a false sense of security thus delaying healthcare and appropriate treatment. Many
Filipinos still consult quacks or fake doctors and fortune tellers to seek advice about
There are also superstitious beliefs in different parts of the country
that can directly or indirectly impact our health. Let us mention some:
Taking a bath on a Friday will make one sick.
Washing the eyes with the first urine early in the morning is an effective cure
for sore eyes.
An amulet or anting-anting protects the wearer from diseases and helps
Relapse or binat is caused by eating certain kinds of food or by cutting the
hair too soon after illness. This is best treated by fumigating the patient with
smoke produced by burning the offending food or the patient's hair.
Can you give other examples of superstitions related to diseases?
4. Environmental Factors
Unsanitary conditions and the presence of
toxic chemicals, hazardous pollutants and wastes in
food and water have bad great effects on our
immune systems. Extreme weather conditions due to
global warming make people more vulnerable to lots of
infections because they weaken the body’s defense
5. Political Factors
Political issues, such as corruption affect the provision of health care services
and resources to the people. In many cases, people’s health is not given utmost
6. Educational Factors
Disease transmission can also be due to misinformation or lack of
information, thus education is crucial in disease prevention and control.
Imagine that you are a disease detective and your task is to gather facts
and use them to answer the question: How can I prevent the spread of
Complete the following table based on what you learned:
Fact 1 Fact 2
Factors that Influence Disease Transmission
Disease Detective Report:
Based on the investigation I conducted, disease transmission can be
stopped or lessened by following these guidelines:
Lesson 4: The Chain of Infection
Explain the elements of the chain of infection and their interrelationship with
Something to Ponder On
Just like the keychain that holds together different keys, the chain of infection
links together in a sequential order the six steps the chain of infection.
Arrange the elements of infection in their correct order from one to six.
_____ Mode of exit
_____ Mode of entry
_____ Susceptible host
_____ Mode of transmission
Do you want to know if you got the sequence right? Then, read on...
To the Illustrator:
Please draw a similar diagram but put the following labels inside each circle:
personal, political, educational, environmental, economic, and cultural.
To the Illustrator:
Make a version of the chain of infection like the one above.
In order to break the cycle and prevent communicable diseases, it is
important that we understand first the different elements of the chain of infection
1. Pathogen or Causative Agent
This can be any of the following biological agents: virus, bacterium,
rickettsia, fungus, protozoon, or parasitic worm. The pathogen is capable of
invading the host and causing disease.
Pathogen Description Specific Diseases Caused
by the Pathogen
the host’s cell)
helical (like a
sides) or a
consists of a bit
of nucleic acid
(RNA or DNA,
but never both)
within a protein
can be aerobic
(does not need
can be in pairs
(live in the
some can live
in a dormant
Protozoa parasitic or
has a variety
of shapes and
or moist soil
Fungus thrive on dead
(like molds) or
(this is the
reason why it’s
tinea or ringworm
(jock itch, athlete’s
Parasitic Worm largest among
can either be
by eating raw
) and flukes
To the Illustrator:
Please draw the pathogen based on the sample picture provided.
This is the place where the infectious agent lives and multiplies. This can
be living (animal/human/plant) or non-living (air/water/food/utensil/equipment).
The most important reservoir is the human body.
To the Illustrator:
Please draw a human body, a plant, an animal, eating utensils, and food.
3. Mode or Portal of Exit
This is the route through which the infectious agent leaves the reservoir.
The common mode of exit is a break in the skin, nose, mouth or anus (discharges
from the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract), and special body openings such as
the vagina, penis, urethra, ears, and eyes. There are also cases when the pathogen
leaves through mechanical means, such as through a mosquito bite or needle prick.
4. Mode of Transmission
This is the means by which the infectious agent is transmitted from the
reservoir to a new host. There are two types of transmission:
a) Direct transmission- through close physical contact or direct person-
Examples: touching with contaminated hands, skin-to-skin contact
(shaking hands, kissing, etc.)
b) Indirect transmission- through an intermediate item or carrier
Examples: vector-borne transmission –carried by mosquitoes or other
Vehicle-borne transmission - through contaminated items (fomites), such
as eating utensils, contaminated food/water (food borne/waterborne) or
through inhalation of the pathogen that has been suspended in the air for
an extended time (airborne). There are 3 F’s that are usually involved in
vehicle-borne transmission: Food, Flies, and Fingers.
5. Mode or Portal of Entry
This is the route through which the infectious agent enters the body of the
Examples are mouth, nose, skin and the urogenital organs. The mode of
entry is usually the same as the mode of exit.
6. Susceptible Host
This is a person who is vulnerable to disease due to a weak
immunity or a prior infection. Children and the elderly are more prone to a lot of
infections. Immunization is one way to strengthen one’s immunity to disease.
Study the dengue fever chain of infection below:
Dengue Fever’s Chain of Infection
Read the situation and trace what happened in the chain of infection above.
A child was taken to the hospital because of persistent fever, severe
muscle pain, and vomiting. She has rashes all over her body, especially on the
extremities. The doctor told her that she has dengue and that she got it from
being bitten by a mosquito that carries the dengue virus. She was asked to
protect her/himelf from mosquito bites so that she can no longer infect other
Chain of Infection Challenge
A child was advised to stay at home because of influenza. Make a chain
of infection showing the elements that made the child sick.
The chain of infection has six elements arranged in sequence: pathogen,
reservoir, mode of exit, mode of transmission, mode of entry, and
Cutting the chain at any point will help prevent and control disease
Skin Any person
Lesson 5: Cut the Chain and Be Free
Identify different ways of breaking the chain of infection and transmission of
recommend actions to prevent and control communicable disease
demonstrate self-monitoring skills to prevent communicable diseases
Something to Ponder On
Although germs pose threats to your health, the good news is that there
are many things that that you can do to prevent and control diseases. For example,
you can practice cough etiquette to prevent the spread of respiratory diseases.
Cover your cough and sneeze but do not use your hands; use a piece of tissue or
handkerchief instead. If none is available, cough into the crook of your elbows or
sleeves. Using hands to cover a cough can easily spread germs because you use
your hands in touching almost anything.
In general, there are three types of preventive approaches:
Figure 1. The Levels of Prevention
1. Primary Prevention us an early intervention that aims to protect the host from
initial exposure to the disease. It prevents a disease before it happens. Primary
prevention activities include proper nutrition, healthful practices, immunization,
and environmental sanitation.
2. Secondary Prevention is a system for the early diagnosis and treatment of disease
when it has just begun. It aims to slow down the progress of the disease or stops
3. Tertiary Prevention is an intervention done when the disease is already in the
clinical stage in order to prevent complications and progression to an advanced
stage that will necessitate excessive care.
Do you still remember the chain of infection? We can prevent and control
communicable diseases by cutting the chain in its various points.
Study the following diagram:
Figure 2. Ways to cut the chain of infection
To the Illustrator:
Modify the diagram:
Replace the phrase “staff and management working together”
at the center with: Observe Personal Hygiene and
Instead of microorganism, write Pathogen
Delete s in reservoirs (just reservoir) and DELETE staff health
Instead of exit point, write Mode of Exit. Add Cough Etiquette.
Instead of transmission route, write Mode of Transmission and
DELETE airflow control; replace with Quarantine
Instead of place of entry, write Mode of Entry and DELETE
aseptic procedure and catheter care. Replace with protective
DELETE treatment of underlying conditions, mobilization, and
recognition of high-risk patients. Replace with good nutrition,
regular exercise, stress management, immunization.
Below is a chart summarizing the general strategies in the prevention and
control of communicable diseases:
Agents of Disease
of a sick
person or a
Group 2: Cut out unhealthful practices that can cause diseases or cut-out arrows on
which are written/drawn a kind of germ in every arrow.
Be prepared for the Battle between Germs and Germ-Fighters
Tell the students to complete their health history by interviewing their parents
about their previous infections, and vaccinations. They will need this knowledge in
their next activity.
Diseases I Have Had Vaccines I have Been Given
My Disease Protection Shield
Group 1: Cartolina or hard board and coloring material
Group 2: Hard board, marking pen
How will you protect yourself from getting sick? Create your shield of
protection from disease and label it. Look at the example:
To the Illustrator:
Pleases modify but follow the labels. Make it a round like a shield.
Let’s Monitor Our Health
Self-monitoring skills are competencies that will help us assess when
we are healthy or sick. It is important that we are familiar with the normal
condition of our bodies so that we can detect at once when something is
wrong. It is also important that we have information, such as our vaccination
record, so that we can assess our risk factors so that we can plan what to do
as early as possible.
Do you think your practices help you avoid diseases? Answer the
following personal inventory with a YES or NO based on your health practices.
Monitoring Health Practices
1.I stay home when I’m
2. I stay away from sick
3. I use my own comb and
4. I avoid going to crowded
5. I have all the necessary
6. I make sure that the food I eat is
7. I wash my hands after using the
8. I avoid sharing drinking glasses with
9. I make sure that food at home is properly
10. I cover my mouth with my handkerchief or elbow when I cough or sneeze.
To rate yourself, give yourself 1 point for every YES answer. A score of 8-10 is
Very Good; 6-7 is Good, 4-5 is Fair. If you scored below 4, you need to work
on improving your health practices.
Wow! I’m sure you enjoyed doing that personal assessment. Let’s proceed to
an activity that you can translate into action.
You can follow the format below:
To the illustrator:
Please draw a left hand and write the following inside:
I, _____________________________, a grade 7 student of
______________________ School, hereby commit to do the following starting
today, _____________________, until ____________ in order to stay healthy
1. Eat safe and healthful foods.
2. Exercise at least 20 minutes thrice a week.
3. Wash hands before and after eating and after using the toilet.
Name and signature: _________________________
My Commitment to Be Disease-Free
Trace your hand on the space below. Inside the outline of your hand,
write a self-contract stating your commitment to be disease-free. Go back to the
self-monitoring inventory and use it as a guide in writing your contract. Write the
date when you will start practicing the health habit and the date when the practice
will become a habit. Have your parents and best friend in school witness your
contract to be sure that somebody you trust is helping you fulfill your contract.
Name and signature: _________________________
Name and signature: ________________________
. Congratulations for committing yourself to a great cause, which is to start
being a model of a disease-free lifestyle. May you inspire others to follow your
Finish this statement: The best thing I can do to protect myself from
Lesson 6: Infection, Stage by Stage
Discuss the stages of an infection
Something to Ponder On
When was the last time you had a cold? I’m sure you still remember the
uncomfortable feeling that accompanied it. Can you share your experience with a
The common cold is an infectious disease, Like other infectious or
communicable diseases, it undergoes several stages--from the entry of the cold virus
up to the time when the sick person recovers.
Let’s study the following illustration:
To the Illustrator:
Draw a bell curve like the one above. Remove the phrases enclosed in
parenthesis. Replace the term Prodromal with Early Symptoms, illness with
clinical period, convalescence with recovery.
1. Incubation Stage
This is the time from the entry of the germs to the appearance of the first
sign or symptom. This can last from several hours to several months or even years.
For example, measles has an incubation period of two weeks while HIV (Human
Immunodeficiency Virus) can invade the body up to several years before the
condition becomes full-blown AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome).
Incubation periods not only vary from disease to disease, but also from
person to person. One who has a stronger immune system can lengthen the
incubation period of a disease.
2. Early Symptoms Stage
This is when the general signs and symptoms of the disease appear, such
as fever, nasal discharge, and rashes. It is the early stage of the battle between the
germs and our body defenses. During this time, the disease is highly contagious.
Diagnosis is difficult at this stage.
3. Clinical Stage
This is the height of the disease when the infection is very severe. During
this period, one is obviously sick as characteristic signs and symptoms of the
4. Recovery Stage
During this stage, there is a gradual return to health as signs and symptoms
begin to disappear. The body is now on its way to recovery. However, when the body
is unable to recover, disability or death may result.
There are times when people experience a relapse. A relapse happens
when a sick person partially recovers but goes back to the clinical stage. Recovery
takes much longer after a relapse because the body defenses are still weak from a
Let us remember that the progress of a disease can be slowed down or
stopped at any point as a result of the strong response of the body’s natural
defenses or through medical intervention; but the best thing is to prevent contracting
the disease in the first place.
Let Us Remember
An infection goes through several stages: incubation, first symptoms, clinical,
and recovery. Relapse happens when the sick person returns to the clinical period
after partial recovery.
My Personal Encounter with a Pathogen
Think of a communicable disease that you had. Share with a partner
your personal experience as you went through the different stages of the
infection. After 5 minutes, switch roles. Your friend will now share her/his story.
How was your experience similar to your partner’s?
Although infectious diseases go through different stages, there are
specific signs and symptoms for a particular disease.
I’m sure you’re ready for another challenge.
Q and A Portion: It’s Your Turn
You are one of the contestants vying for the title “Healthy Idol” and you
pick this question: “If you were to compare a communicable disease to an
object or an event, what would it be? Why?”
To answer the question, think of the different stages of a
communicable disease. Write your answer below:
The communicable disease
___________ is like (object or event)
Lesson 8: Common Skin Diseases during Adolescence
Explain the nature of common skin diseases during adolescence
Practice ways to prevent and control common skin diseases during
Distinguish facts from myths about common skin diseases during
Something to Ponder On
Your skin is the largest, essential protective part, and the most exposed
organ of your body. Your whole body is covered with it. Your skin provides you
visible signs showing that there is an infection affecting your body. Diseases
affecting the skin can be non-infectious, but there are also skin diseases that are
infectious and are usually hard to control.
When an infectious skin disease occurs, any object the skin touches can
become infected by the virus, bacteria, fungus or mite responsible for spreading the
disease. Infectious skin diseases cause considerable problems for the members of
the family, children, classmates and teachers in schools.
Common skin infections during adolescence are acne, warts and tinea or
Acne: (illustrator: Please make the face Filipino)
Although most common among teenagers, acne can appear at any age, even
among infants and people in their 30s and 40s.
Acne, commonly called pimples or “zits”, is a skin condition characterized by
the inflammation of the oil glands (sebaceous gland) and the hair follicles or cavity
contained within tiny holes on the surface of the skin, called pores. This happens
when oil (or sebum) from an oil gland that normally drains into a hair follicle and
then gets out through an open pore on the surface of the skin is blocked. Dirt,
debris, bacteria, and inflammatory cells build up on the clogged pore. A clogged
pore is called a plug. The top of the plug may be dark (blackhead) or white
Blackheads are caused by an excess of oil (sebum) in the pores. When the
sebum reaches the surface of your skin, it hardens to a small, dark head. A
whitehead is a plug of sebum that has not been exposed to air. When bacteria breed
in the trapped oil, the skin will be inflamed. This inflamed red spot is called acne. If
the plug breaks open, the material inside causes swelling and the formation of red
Acne can be hereditary and can be triggered by:
High levels of humidity and sweating
Greasy or oily cosmetic and hair products
Certain drugs, such as steroids, testosterone and estrogen
Hormonal changes related to menstrual periods, pregnancy, birth control pills, or
Management of Acne:
Acne can be prevented, but if you go through it, the following steps are
suggested to manage your acne:
DO remove make-up at night.
DO clean your skin gently with a mild, nondrying soap;
DO remove all dirt or make-up and wash once or twice a day, including after
DO shampoo your hair daily, especially if it is oily; comb or pull your hair back to
keep the hair out of your face.
DON’T scrub or wash your skin repeatedly.
DON’T touch your face with your hands or fingers.
DON’T wear tight headbands, baseball caps, and other hats.
DON’T squeeze, scratch, pick, or rub the pimples, although it might be tempting
to do this; it can lead to infection and scarring.
DON’T use greasy cosmetics or creams. Look for water-based or cosmetics that
do not clog pores. They have been tested and proven not to cause acne.
If these practices do not clear up the blemishes, see a dermatologist. A
dermatologist is a doctor who specializes in treating conditions that affect the skin,
hair, and nails.
Acne usually goes away after the teenage years, but it may last into middle
age. The condition often responds well to treatment after 6 – 8 weeks, but it may
flare up from time to time. Scarring may occur if severe acne is not treated.
(Please revise illustration-make it Filipino)
Although warts are mostly acquired by
kids, teens and adults can get warts, too. It
commonly appears on fingers, hands and feet.
Warts are small, raised, rough,
cauliflower-like infectious growths on the skin
caused by a family of more than 100 types of
viruses. Warts are normally not painful, but some
warts itch and may cause pain, especially if they
are on your feet. Warts are contagious and
usually enter the body in an area of broken skin.
Some people are more naturally resistant to wart
virus and don’t easily get warts as other people
There are different types of warts according to their shape and location:
Common warts are raised, rough growths that that usually appear on the
hands, but can also grow anywhere on the body;
Flat warts are small, smooth, flattened, flesh-colored warts that usually
appear on the face, neck and forehead;
Filiform are thread- or finger-like warts, most common on the face, especially
near the eyelids and lips;
Genital warts appear on the genitals and between the thighs;
Plantar warts are hard sometimes painful lumps found on the soles of the
Mosaic warts are groups of tightly clustered warts, commonly found on the
hands or soles of the feet;
Subungual warts are cauliflower-like clusters of warts found under or around
the fingernails and toenails
Management of Warts
Warts may be passed on to another person through touching. You can also
get warts from using towels or other personal care things used by a person who has
warts. It is always a good idea to wash your skin regularly and well. If you cut or
scratch your skin, be sure to use soap and water because open wounds are more
susceptible to warts. Wear waterproof sandals or slippers in public showers, locker
rooms, and around public pools, which will also prevent you from getting other skin
infections, like fungal infections. If you have warts, do not rub, scratch, or pick at
them or you might spread the virus to another part of your body or cause the wart to
Tinea or Fungal Infections:
Fungal skin infections, called tinea, is a group of itchy, reddish and scaly skin
infections caused by several types of mold-like fungi that live on the dead tissues of
the skin, hair, and nails.
Some Types of Tinea Infections:
Ringworm affects the skin in different parts
of the body, like the legs, chest and arms. It starts
as a red, scaly patch or bump that becomes very
itchy and uncomfortable over time. It may begin to
look like a ring or a series of rings with raised,
bumpy, scaly borders (the center is often clear).
Athlete's foot is a fungal infection found between toes that causes severe
itchiness, redness and blisters.
Jock itch is ringworm that affects the
groin or pubic area and the upper thigh; they may
appear as red, itchy, scaly patches.
Ringworm of the scalp may start as a
small sore on the scalp that resembles a pimple
before becoming patchy, flaky, or scaly. It may
cause some hair to fall out and may cause
Ringworm of the nails affects one or more nails on the hands or feet. The
nails may become thick, white or yellowish, and brittle.
Management of Tinea Infection:
The most common sources of the fungi that cause tinea infections are other
people. Ringworm is contagious and can easily spread from one person to another.
You can get tinea infections or ringworms when you come into contact with the
infected skin of someone suffering from the condition. You can also get them from
inanimate objects contaminated by the fungus such as combs, unwashed clothing,
and public showers or pool surfaces. The fungus that causes ringworm thrives in
warm, moist areas. Ringworm is more likely to thrive when you are often wet (such
as from sweating) and from minor injuries to your skin, scalp, or nails. It is also
possible to become infected from contact with animals, like cats and dogs.
DO shower after contact sports.
DO wash sports clothing regularly.
DO shampoo regularly, especially after a haircut.
DO wash your hands often, especially after touching pets.
DO wear slippers in the locker room shower or at the pool.
DON’T touch pets with bald spots.
DON’T share clothing, towels, hairbrushes, combs, or other personal care
What about Skin Diseases?
Group 1 – A song or choral recitation on how to prevent warts.
Group 2 – Present a skit on how to manage/prevent ringworm at home or
during a family-outing.
Group 3– Design the box of a new soap for teenagers: It can be soap for
preventing acne. It should not only have an appealing design but it
should also include the soap’s importance in managing acne and
directions for using the soap. Advertise the soap to the class.
Fill in the table below about the different skin diseases that we have discussed.
Be guided by the headings in each column.
NAME OF SKIN
Acne Warts Tinea Infections
PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT
LEARNING MODULE for HEALTH 7
Module 4: MY SPACE, MY ENVIRONMENT
(Illustrate what is described as various health issues per hexagon)
These are some environmental problems that affect the quality of life of our
people. Are these present in your community? What other health problems are
present in your community?
Community and environmental health are areas of health that focus on
community and environmental concerns, such as keeping the air, water, and land
free from pollution. It likewise includes preventing and controlling diseases, injuries,
and disabilities related to the interaction between the people and their environment.
Maintaining a healthful environment is important in improving and prolonging life.
estero filled with
person in the
Trees cut down
Estero filled with
Picture of a healthy
are happy cleaning
A. Directions: Circle the letter of the correct answer.
1. Which disease is NOT transmitted by air?
2. Which health problem is caused by air pollution?
D. Heart disease
E. High blood pressure
3. How can a person get sick of leptospirosis?
A. Swimming in the river
B. Breathing in polluted air
C. Being bitten by a rodent
D. Eating contaminated food
E. Wading in contaminated floodwater
4. Which is NOT an effect of deforestation?
B. Soil erosion
C. Climate change
D. Extinction of wildlife
E. Demand for real estate
5. What activities of man DO NOT cause soil erosion?
E. Building of roads
6. Why can soil erosion lead to a malnourished population?
A. The soil loses its nutrient.
B. Soil erosion causes land pollution.
C. Food plants cannot grow in eroded soil.
D. The soil goes to the rivers and kills fishes.
E. Soil erosion affects the country’s economy.
7. What is the most important use of mangrove swamps in our country?
D. Resting place for birds
E. Home for water animals
8. Which disease is NOT likely to be caused by drinking infected or polluted
C. Hepatitis B
E. Typhoid fever
9. Coral reefs are protected mostly because of their __________ value.
10. The main cause of global warming is the high level of __________ in the
D. Water vapor
E. Carbon dioxide
B. Essay (15 pts.)
Name the three most urgent health problems in your barangay. Rank them
according to urgency with No. 1 as the most urgent and No. 3 as the least urgent. (3
For each community health problem, answer the following questions: (4 pts.
for every discussion of a community health problem, or a total of 12 pts.)
1. Describe the situation in your barangay related to the health problem.
2. How are the people affected by the health problem?
3. What, if any, are the following doing about the health problem?
a. You and your family
b. The people of the barangay
c. The barangay officials
Lesson 1: Philippines: Still the Pearl of the Orient Seas?
A. Explain the concept of environmental health.
B. Describe the environmental problems in the Philippines.
C. Analyze the impact of the environmental problems on people’s health.
Something to Ponder On
Environmental health is concerned with everything in the natural and man-
made environment that might affect our health. The natural environment includes
land and water forms while man-made environment includes houses, buildings,
bridges, neighborhoods, cities and provinces and the like.
Focus on Environmental Health
Draw a concept map of environmental health based on the definition stated
Our Natural Resources: Going…Going…Going
The Central Intelligence Agency (2012) identified the most pressing
environmental problems in the Philippines as follows:
1. Uncontrolled deforestation, especially in watershed areas
2. Soil erosion
3. Air and water pollution in major urban centers
4. Coral reef degradation
5. Increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps that are important
breeding grounds of fish
IncludeHealth of the Natural
Health of the Man-
One hundred years ago, the Philippines had about 22,000,000 hectares of
forest. In 2000, our forests had been trimmed down to 600,000 hectares (Imagine
Echo Projects, 2008). Where did almost 97% of our forests go?
This alarming loss of forests is not
only happening in our country. It’s
happening all over the world. We are
losing forests at a faster rate than ever
before-- approximately 16.5 million
hectares a year. Now, forests cover only
about 27 percent of the land surface of
Deforestation is the destruction of big areas of our forests and this has
been going on for many years. We are losing our forests because of—
Trees are cut down for the forests to become farms and to become towns and cities.
These need lumber for houses, furniture, and many other necessities. We also
export lumber to other countries, which necessitates cutting of trees.
What is the effect of deforestation on our health? The International Rice Research
Institute (IRRI) in Los Banos, Laguna estimates that it takes more than 4,000 liters
of water to produce one kilo of rice (Imagine Echo Projects, 2008). Most of our
freshwater comes from watersheds found in our forests. Deforestation has resulted
in the decrease of freshwater for our farms. So, loss of forests means loss of food. It
also means loss of other health products that come from the forests—clothing and
medicines. Many of our people rely on traditional medicines, and most of them are
Forests help prevent the appearance of communicable diseases. There are
communicable diseases that result from deforestation, like dengue. These
communicable diseases are usually transmitted by insect vectors, which in the case
of dengue, are mosquitoes. When forests are lost, insect vectors and rodents who
live in them lose their habitat, so they look for places where they can settle. If they
cannot find other forests, then they settle in places where there are people.
Smoke from forest fires and the burning of fields for planting (kaingin) causes
respiratory problems. Smoke from forest fires can travel hundreds of kilometers and
can threaten not only the health of people but can also cause death.
There are laws and regulations that protect our forests, but these laws are
either weakly enforced or not enforced at all. This is the reason for the existence of
illegal logging practices. To maintain our forests, new trees are supposed to be
planted to take the place of trees that have been cut down. Unfortunately, lack of
funds makes reforestation difficult to sustain.
Soil erosion happens when soil and rock are moved from one place to
another by wind, water, and gravity. It is brought about by natural and human
activities. Strong winds and heavy rains cause soil erosion. People’s activities also
cause soil erosion, like—
Building of roads
Urbanization—creation of towns and cities
Soil erosion is a result of deforestation. The forest floor is covered by fallen
and dead leaves and humus or natural compost made up of plant and animal
matter. The leaves of trees serve as umbrellas and the forest floor serves as
a mat that both protect the soil from the rain, such that rainwater is slowly
absorbed by the soil. The roots of trees and plants in the forest likewise hold
the soil together and prevent it from being washed away. Deforestation
therefore exposes the soil to wind and water.
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Please revise illustration. Change Ice to Deforestation (picture of trees being
cut down), change Humans to People. Make Wind strong; add rain to picture of
Water; more houses in People; carabaos, goats and cows in Animals instead
Soil erosion affects our health because most of our food comes from plants
farmlands are, like our forests, fast disappearing at the rate of more than 10,000,000
hectares a year because of soil erosion, while more than 3.7 million people are
malnourished (Pimentel as cited in Lang, 2006). Our nutrient-rich topsoil is lost when
it is carried away by either wind or water. Soil also loses its fertility when the forest or
farm is burned. Pimentel (2006) reports:
As a result of erosion over the past 40 years, 30 % of the world's farmland
has become unproductive.
About 60 % of soil that is washed away ends up in rivers, streams and
lakes, making waterways more prone to flooding and to contamination
from soil's fertilizers and pesticides.
Soil erosion also reduces the ability of soil to store water and support
plant growth, thereby reducing its ability to support biodiversity.
Erosion promotes critical losses of water, nutrients, soil organic matter
and soil biota, harming forests, rangeland and natural ecosystems.
Erosion increases the amount of dust carried by wind, which not only acts
as an abrasive and air pollutant but also carries about 20 human
infectious disease organisms, including tuberculosis.
"Soil erosion is second only to population growth as the biggest
environmental problem the world faces," said David Pimentel, Professor of Ecology
at Cornell University in the United States.
1. What is deforestation?
2. How are we losing our forests?
3. What are the effects of deforestation on our health?
4. Why is it difficult to stop deforestation?
5. What is soil erosion?
6. What are the causes of soil erosion?
7. What are the effects of soil erosion on our health?
The Philippines is spending billions of pesos in income and time loss and
health care expense because of air pollution (World Bank, 2009). According to
World Bank, 1.5 million Filipinos of different ages are suffering from respiratory
illness due to outdoor air pollution in urban areas, while almost a third of that number
suffer from illnesses due to indoor air pollution.
ILLUSTRATION OF SMOKE BELCHING JEEPNEY AND TRICYCLE; WOMAN
COOKING USING WOOD AND STOVE INSIDE KITCHEN WITH INDOOR SMOKE;
factory chimneys emitting dark smoke
Outdoor air pollution (OIP) is caused mostly by exhaust from vehicles,
especially jeepneys and tricycles, and factories. Smog (smoke+fog=smog) is caused
by chemical reactions of pollutants, mainly exhaust from vehicles exhaust and
factories. It is large-scale outdoor pollution. Urban areas where there are different
kinds of vehicles and where there are many industrial establishments are often
darkened by smog even during daylight, especially during the dry season.
Particulates or Particulate matter (PM) is composed of tiny particles that
pollute the air, including dust, dirt, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets. Some
particulates are large and can be seen; others are so small that they can only be
seen through the microscope. Particulates can stay in the air for a long time. When
we breathe them in, they can cause respiratory diseases.
Smoke coming from our activities—burning fuel, using gasoline for our
vehicles, burning coal, oil and gas in factories and in generating electricity release
gases (carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water vapor, chlorofluorocarbons or CFC,
and others) in the atmosphere that add to global warming or warming of the Earth.
The gases released in the atmosphere act like a blanket that traps the heat, making
our temperature rise, thus warming the Earth.
On the other hand, indoor air pollution (IAP) is common among poor families
because they use firewood, dried animal manure and coal in cooking and their
kitchen is poorly ventilated. Indoor smoke contains carbon monoxide and soot that
have bad effects on the respiratory system when inhaled. Women and young
children are the most affected by indoor air pollution because they are the ones who
usually cook food and stay in the kitchen.
Deaths due to indoor air pollution (IAP) are usually due to chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease or COPD (for example, chronic bronchitis), pneumonia and lung
cancer. Men, on the other hand, likewise suffer from respiratory disease but is made
worse if they smoke, which makes indoor air pollution worse. If there is a smoker at
home, all the members of the household sill suffer from indoor air pollution due to
second-hand smoke (inhaling the smoke from the smoker) and third-hand smoke
(inhaling smoke from clothes, bed sheets, curtains, and other things that absorb
cigarette smoke. Other conditions and illnesses related to indoor air pollution are low
birth weight, tuberculosis, heart disease, and cancer of the respiratory organs (WHO,
In short, what is in the outside, goes in our insides; what is inside, stays in our
Snare that Air
Objective: Determine how polluted is air in different places
1 white cartolina cut into 1⁄4 size short bond paper, such that half of the
class will have a piece
Pomade, hair gel, petroleum jelly, or Vaseline
Clothesline clip or string
Permanent marking pen (fine)
Hand lens (optional)
1. At the bottom of the white cartolina, with the use of the permanent
marking pen, write where you will place the cartolina to trap air pollution.
Write your name, grade and section.
2. Spread the pomade (or hair gel, petroleum jelly or Vaseline) on the piece
of white cartolina using the plastic knife.
3. Do this activity on a dry day.
4. With the use of the clothesline clip or string, hang, tie or place your Air
Snarer (card) in a place in the school, home, or neighborhood, for
example, busy road, residential places, near buildings, in the kitchen,
bedroom, classroom, or on a tree, etc. You may have to request
somebody to watch the cards so that it will not be removed, touched or
transferred. It’s better if it is high enough so that it will not catch attention.
5. Observe your Air Snarer every day and write down your observations.
6. After one week, bring your Air Snarer to school.
7. Lay it on the table with the other Air Snarers.
8. If you have a hand lens, look at the Air Snarers and compare them. See if
your can distinguish what kind of particulates are there.
9. Arrange the Air Snarers from the cleanest to the dirtiest.
10. Tape the all the Air Snarers on the bulletin board, arranged also.
11. Answer the questions below in your notebook.
1. What was the location of the cleanest Air Snarer? The dirtiest?
2. What kinds of particulates were trapped in the Air Snarers?
3. What are the differences in the PM trapped in the Air Snarers?
4. What did you expect?
5. What did you NOT expect?
6. What do you plan to do as a result of this Activity?
(picture on beautiful beach in the Philippines or any beautiful scenery with
water—waterfall, river, beach, etc.
Our country, the Philippines, will not be called Pearl of the Orient Seas for no
reason. The Philippines is blessed with rich and beautiful natural resources that are
the envy of other countries--land forms and water forms essential for our nation to
live in comfort and for our country to progress economically. Our water resources
include freshwater from our rivers, waterfalls, brooks, springs, lakes, and
groundwater. Then we have saltwater from our coasts, seas, and oceans. There is
water everywhere, our country being an archipelago, and it is sufficient for
everyone… except in urban and coastal areas, which are highly populated. These
areas experience water shortage, especially during the dry season. The National
Capital Region (Metro Manila), Central Luzon, Southern Tagalog, and Central
Visayas are the four urban regions experiencing problems in water quality and
quantity from domestic and industrial sources during the dry season. Highly
populated areas, unfortunately, are rapidly increasing because of our run-away
Illustration of polluted water near the bay and dead rivers, dirty esteros
So many people are using water for so many
purposes—household and industrial, such that much of
the waste water is no longer treated or disposed
properly. They become pollutants in the process. These
pollutants are in different forms from different sources:
sewage, detergents, fertilizer, heavy metals, chemical
products, oils, and even solid waste. Add to these,
mercury pollution in bodies of water near abandoned mining areas, and we see that
water pollution has become a big problem in our country.
According to the Philippines Environment Monitor, in 2008, only about 1/3 or
more than 36 % of our river systems were safe sources of public water supply. Up to
58% of our groundwater was found to be contaminated with disease-causing
microorganisms and therefore unfit for drinking and recreational use. It needed water
treatment. About 31% of illnesses reported were water-borne, including gastro-
enteritis, diarrhea, typhoid, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis, and severe acute
respiratory syndrome (SARS).
Our growing population has likewise resulted in the urbanization of coastal
areas. About 62% of our population lives in coastal areas. The urbanization of these
areas is damaging our marine resources—coral reefs, mangroves and sea grasses.
Gathering of corals has become a source of livelihood even if they are protected by
environmental laws. Mangroves have been destroyed to give way to housing in
coastal areas. Coral reefs and mangroves are home to our fish.
Climate change caused by air pollution and resulting in rise in sea
temperature has likewise destroyed our marine resources. The rising sea
temperature has brought about fish kills and red tides, which happen during El Nino
period. These events have resulted in the decreasing fish supply. We are a fish-
eating people, and time will come when we might not have even fish to eat, if we do
not do something about our present situation.
The impact of water pollution costs our government an estimated Php67
Billion annually, which could be spent in better ways. The government has imposed
pollution fines and environmental taxes in addition to environmental laws to control
water pollution. Unfortunately, law enforcement is weak because of inadequate
resources, poor database, and weak cooperation among different agencies and
Local Government Units (LGUs).
Must Be Something in the Water
Objective: To identify pollutants in the water supply
Gauze or clean white cloth large enough to cover a faucet
Hand lens (optional)
1. Choose a faucet in your house.
2. Cover the mouth of the faucet with gauze or clean white cloth. Tie the
cloth with the string to keep it from falling.
3. Remove the gauze every day and examine it through a hand lens. Record
your observations in your notebook.
4. After one week, remove the gauze or cloth. Using your hand lens,
examine the gauze or cloth for the last time.
5. Dry the cloth and tape it on cardboard. Cover it with plastic to preserve
whatever has been caught in the cloth.
6. Bring the cloth to school.
7. Lay your cloth on the table. Compare your cloths.
8. Answer the questions below.
1. What was the location of the faucet with the cleanest cloth? The dirtiest?
2. What kinds of particulates were trapped in the cloth?
3. What are the differences in the PM trapped in the cloth?
4. What did you expect?
5. What did you NOT expect?
6. What do you plan to do as a result of this Activity?
Prepare a reflection paper to answer the question: Is the Philippines
Still the Pearl of the Orient Seas?
Lesson 2: Exposé: Community Health Problems
Identify pressing health problems in the community.
Survey community health resources
Make a plan of action
Something to Ponder On
Community health is concerned with maintaining, protecting and improving
the health of people living in their immediate geographic area, while environmental
health is concerned with all aspects of the natural and man-made environment that
might affect human health.
A community is made up of people who live in the same neighborhood,
barangay or city-- people with the same interests or background, or even
organizations that have something in common. You and your family are members of
a community and your health is affected by other members as well as by the
community itself. Your health problem can become a community health problem and
the other way around. You and your family must therefore be responsible members
of your community and be actively involved in solving community health problems.
What’s the Problem?
A problem must be clearly identified and properly stated to be able to work for
its solution. You will learn how to identify community health problems and how to
prioritize them so that you can identify the problem that needs to be solved right
It will be helpful in the future if you will keep a PORTFOLIO of your
Community Health Project so that you will remember the activities involved not only
in doing a project but also in solving a problem.
So, from here on, start writing a diary of your activities. Collect artifacts to
show proof of activities you are participating in. At the end of the , you will submit
your portfolio to your teacher.
1. Identify a problem or issue.
a. Study the problems identified by the class in the pretest.
b. Individually, choose the problem that you think needs to be solved right
away and write it as No. 1 on the sheet of paper that will be given to you
by your teacher.
c. Choose the next most pressing number and rank it as No. 2.
d. Then, think of the least pressing problem and rank it last.
e. Choose No. 3, then second to the last, then No. 4 and so forth.
What about the Problem?
2. Study the problem or issue.
What information do you need to know more about the problem to be
do something about it? You can do this through the K-W-H chart.
As a group, fill in the K-W-H chart:
What do we KNOW? What do we WANT to
HOW will we get the
Divide the tasks among yourselves to find answers to the WANT and
HOW questions. There are different ways of answering the questions. You
might need to do these:
Go to the community to interview people, survey the
resources, or observe people’s activities and behaviors
Go to the library to do research
Surf the internet to find more information
Networking with Community People
(Please Filipinize all the pictures. Illustrate different community resources in
each hexagon: health centers/hospitals, police department, Agriculture office,
Health problems are solved and health status improved once there is a joint
effort that brings the school and the community together. This necessitates a school
to be health-promoting. To be effective, it has to recognize the potential of working
closely with the community and to tap its resources, since the school is also part of
the community. One of the key features of health-promoting schools is to strive to
improve the health of the community by focusing on community health concerns and
participating in community health projects (WHO, 1966). Now is your chance to
bring your school and community together to work on a health project.
1. Study the resources in your community.
2. Who are the people doing health promotion?
3. What are the community health programs in place?
4. Are there individuals who might be interested in helping you implement your
Community Health Action Project?
• Clinics, hospitals and health-care providers
• Infant health, child nutrition, family planning, HIV prevention,
other public health programs
• Parent education and parent health-promotion projects
Local government programs
• Non-Government Organization programs
Include these in your K-W-H chart and plan how you can invite them to help you.
What’ll we do with the Problem?
3. Plan the action to be taken.
Here you will discuss possible actions that you can take to solve the
each action, think of the consequences. This will help you choose which
action to take.
Ready for Action!
Are you ready to implement your Community Health Project? What will you
consider to more or less be sure that the implementation of your Project will go well?
Criteria for Community Health Project
a. Your teacher is with you.
b. The project site is near your school.
c. Your safety and security are ensured.
d. The Barangay officials know about the project.
e. Your parents approve of your participating in the project
f. Community members join you in the project or appreciate what you
g. You do not spend money for the project or if you do, the expense is
minimal and it is voluntary.
h. The project helps maintain, sustain, and promote the health of the
people in the community.
Can you add some more criteria?
Lesson 3: Let’s DOH It!
1. Implement the plan.
2. Evaluate the plan.
3. Promote health among the students, staff, families and the community.
4. Act on the plan.
You are now ready to implement your plans. Remember to cooperate
with your Leader and to work harmoniously with your groupmates.
Remember also to make a record of what you are doing and put it in your
Portfolio. Take pictures to remember how you helped to improve the health
of your community.
5. Reflect on the action.
Congratulations! Aren’t you proud of what you did for the health of the
people in your Barangay?
What did the people of the community think of what you did?
What are the effects of your Community Health Action Project
on your Barangay?
What is the effect of the project on your class?
What is the effect of the project on you—personally and as a
member of your community?
What possible action should they take next?
Write a reflection paper on the Community Health Action Project that you did.
Why don’t you plan a class party to celebrate what you did for your community?
Lesson 4: New Town
A. describe the characteristics of a healthy community
B. make decisions about buildings, businesses, services, housing areas and
other structures to include in the development of a healthy new town
Something to Ponder On
According to the World Health Organization (2002) a healthy community --
is physically clean and safe
meets everyone’s basic needs
has different and innovative economy
has available resources for all
understands local health and environment issues
promotes and celebrates historical and cultural heritage
accessible and appropriate health services and facilities
promotes social harmony and actively involves everyone
has members who participate in identifying local solutions to local
provides varied experiences, means of interaction and communication to
Wouldn’t it be nice if we could live in a healthy community?
You are given the freedom to plan a new community—a new healthy
community—a New Town. What will you put in your New Town? What factors will
What will your New Town have? Mark each item with a—
N if it is Necessary
VN if it is Very Necessary
O if I can do without it
_____ Fire station
_____ Gas station
_____ Grocery store
_____ Residential building (such as an apartment complex)
_____ Office building
_____ Bus station
_____ Internet café
What other places, structures, and land and water forms will you include in
your New Town?
Where will you put them?
Where will you locate your New Town?
What will you call your New Town?
How will you make your Ne Town peaceful, safe, and healthy?
Module 4: POSTTEST
I. Multiple Choice. Write the letter of the correct answer.
1. Which is a natural environment?
2. Which is NOT a pressing environmental problem in our country?
A. Soil erosion
B. Air pollution
C. Vehicular accidents
D. Coral reef degradation
E. Uncontrolled deforestation
3. When big areas of forest are destroyed, what is it called?
A. Forest fire
D. Forest Preservation
E. Forest Conservation
4. How does loss of forest cause communicable diseases?
A. Human disease carriers lose their forest homes.
B. Communicable disease carriers cannot live in forests.
C. Communicable diseases spread faster in areas without trees.
D. Forests are breeding places of communicable disease carriers.
E. Disease carriers lose their homes and move to populated areas.
5. Why is illegal logging rampant in our country?
A. The laws are not enforced.
B. There are no laws to stop it.
C. Logging is a big export industry.
D. The illegal loggers become rich.
E. Our country is rich in forest resources.
6. How does deforestation cause soil erosion?
A. The soil loses its fertility.
B. Deforestation makes the soil soft and loose.
C. There are no more roots of trees to hold the soil.
D. The loss of trees leaves deep holes in the ground.
E. Wild animals in the forests dig holes and make the soil loose.
7. Which does NOT cause soil erosion?
8. What is the primary cause of smog?
A. Electric trains
B. Cigarette smoking
C. Use of fuel in households
D. Metro rail transit and light rail transit
E. Smoke from industrial establishments
9. Why are women and children most affected by indoor air pollution?
A. They are always at home.
B The men seldom stay at home.
C. Most homes are not well-ventilated.
D. It’s a natural weakness among females.
E. They are exposed to smoke in the kitchen.
10. What kind of cigarette smoke clings to curtains, sofas, bed sheets, and
other household linens?
11. Why does the National Capital Region experience water shortage,
especially during the dry season?
A. There is no rain.
B. The rivers run dry.
C. It is thickly populated.
D. The water is polluted.
E. It is not a coastal area.
12. What is the importance of coral reefs to our health?
A. They have nutritional value.
B. They are home to our fishes.
C. They can be made into jewelry.
D. They can be exported to other countries.
E. They make our underwater scenery beautiful.
13. Which is NOT a disease caused by water pollution?
14. We are losing our farmlands due to __________?
. E. Urbanization
15. We experience global warming when our temperature __________.
C. remains as is.
D. rises and falls
E. becomes unpredictable
16. Our climate has changed; it has become__________
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Answer the questions below. You can use each letter more than once.
Which body system is affected by__________?
17. Air pollution
18. Water pollution
19. Forest fire
20. Particulate matter (PM)
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II. Essay (30 points)
Choose a health problem in your community other than what we worked on in class.
What steps you will do to solve the problem? Identify each step in the process and
explain what activities you will do in each step.