Famous biologist scientists (foreign)

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Famous biologist scientists (foreign)

  1. 1. 1 | P a g eFAMOUS PEOPLE IN BIOLOGYAristotle (384 BC-322 BC) - Greek PhilosopherAristotle is a towering figure in ancient Greek philosophy, making contributions to logic, metaphysics,mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance and theatre. He wasa student of Plato who in turn studied under Socrates. He was more empirically-minded than Plato orSocrates and is famous for rejecting Plato’s theory of forms.Aristotle sees the universe as a scale lying between the two extremes: form without matter is on oneend, and matter without form is on the other end. The passage of matter into form must be shown in itsvarious stages in the world of nature. To do this is the object of Aristotle’s physics, or philosophy ofnature. It is important to keep in mind that the passage from form to matter within nature is amovement towards ends or purposes. Everything in nature has its end and function, and nothing iswithout its purpose. Everywhere we find evidences of design and rational plan. No doctrine of physicscan ignore the fundamental notions of motion, space, and time. Motion is the passage of matter intoform, and it is of four kinds: (1) motion which affects the substance of a thing, particularly its beginningand its ending; (2) motion which brings about changes in quality; (3) motion which brings about changesin quantity, by increasing it and decreasing it; and (4) motion which brings about locomotion, or changeof place. Of these the last is the most fundamental and important.Aristotle is properly recognized as the originator of the scientific study of life.Aristotle believed that creatures were arranged in a graded scale of perfection rising from plants on upto man, the scala naturae or Great Chain of Being. His system had eleven grades, arranged according "tothe degree to which they are infected with potentiality", expressed in their form at birth. The highestanimals laid warm and wet creatures alive, the lowest bore theirs cold, dry, and in thick eggs.
  2. 2. 2 | P a g eLouis Pasteur (1822–1895) - French chemist and microbiology“In the field of observation, chance favors only the prepared mind.”Whose contributions were among the most varied and valuable in the history of science and industry. Itwas he who proved that microorganisms cause fermentation and disease; he who pioneered the use ofvaccines for rabies, anthrax, and chicken cholera; he who saved the beer, wine, and silk.He and also his wife, Marie, are best known for their experiments supporting the Germ theory ofdisease, and he is also known for his vaccinations, most notably the first vaccine against rabies. He mademany discoveries in the field of chemistry, most notably the asymmetry (different shapes) of crystals. Heis also well known for his way of keeping milk and wine from going sour for longer. That process is calledpasteurization.He is regarded as one of the three main founders of microbiology, together with Ferdinand Cohn andRobert Koch.Awards:Pasteur won the Leeuwenhoek medal, microbiologys highest Dutch honor in Arts and Sciences, in 1895.Both Institute Pasteur and Université Louis Pasteur were named after him.He was made a Knight of the Legion of Honour in 1853, promoted to Commander in 1868, to GrandOfficer in 1878 and made a Grand Croix of the Legion of Honor–one of only 75 in all of France - in 1881.On June 8, 1886, the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II awarded Pasteur with the Order of the Medjidie (I.Class) and 10000 Ottoman liras.
  3. 3. 3 | P a g eCharles Darwin (1809–1882) - British naturalistEminent as a collector and geologist, who proposed and provided scientific evidence that all species oflife have evolved over time from common ancestors through the process he called natural selection.He was an English naturalist. He is famous for his work on the theory of evolution. His book On the Originof Species (1859) did two things. First, it provided a great deal of evidence that evolution has takenplace. Second, it proposed a theory to explain how evolution works. That theory is natural selection.Evolution by natural selection is the key to understanding biology, and the diversity of life on Earth.The theory of evolution says that all living things on Earth, including plants, animals and microbes, comefrom a common ancestor by slowly changing throughout the generations. Darwin suggested that the wayliving things changed over time is through natural selection. This is the better survival and reproductionof those that best fit their environment. Fitting into the place where you live is called adapting. Thosewho fit best into the place where they live, the best adapted, have the best chance to survive and breed.Those who are less well-adapted tend not to survive. If they do not survive well enough to raise young,this means they do not pass on their genes. In this way, the species gradually changes.
  4. 4. 4 | P a g eGregor Mendel (1822–1884) - Czech-Austrian monkWho is often called the "father of genetics" or his study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants.He was a German-speaking Silesian scientist and Augustinian friar who gained posthumous fame as thefounder of the new science of genetics. Mendel demonstrated that the inheritance of certain traits inpea plants follows particular patterns, now referred to as the laws of Mendelian inheritance. Theprofound significance of Mendels work was not recognized until the turn of the 20th century, when theindependent rediscovery of these laws initiated the modern science of genetics.Mendel presented his paper, Versuche über Pflanzenhybriden (Experiments on Plant Hybridization), attwo meetings of the Natural History Society of Brünn in Moravia in 1865. It was received favorably andgenerated reports in several local newspapers. When Mendels paper was published in 1866 inVerhandlungen des naturforschenden Vereins Brünn, it was seen as essentially about hybridizationrather than inheritance and had little impact and was cited about three times over the next thirty-fiveyears. (Notably, Charles Darwin was unaware of Mendels paper, according to Jacob Bronowskis TheAscent of Man.) His paper was criticized at the time, but is now considered a seminal work.Mendels work was rejected at first, and was not widely accepted until after he died. During his ownlifetime, most biologists held the idea that all characteristics were passed to the next generation throughblending inheritance, in which the traits from each parent are averaged together. Instances of thisphenomenon are now explained by the action of multiple genes with quantitative effects. CharlesDarwin tried unsuccessfully to explain inheritance through a theory of pangenesis. It was not until theearly 20th century that the importance of Mendels ideas was realized.
  5. 5. 5 | P a g eJean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744–1829)Naturalist, French evolutionist, coined many terms like biology and fossilsAlthough the name "Lamarck" is now associated with a discredited view of evolution, the Frenchbiologists notion that organisms inherit the traits acquired during their parents lifetime had commonsense on its side. In fact, the "inheritance of acquired characters" continued to have supporters well intothe 20th century.Lamarck’s Evolution:Lamarck stressed two main themes in his biological work. The first was that the environment gives rise tochanges in animals. He cited examples of blindness in moles, the presence of teeth in mammals and theabsence of teeth in birds as evidence of this principle. The second principle was that life was structuredin an orderly manner and that many different parts of all bodies make it possible for the organicmovements of animals.Although he was not the first thinker to advocate organic evolution, he was the first to develop a trulycoherent evolutionary theory. He outlined his theories regarding evolution first in his Floreal lecture of1800, and then in three later published works: Recherches sur lorganisation des corps vivants, 1802. Philosophie Zoologique, 1809. Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres, (in seven volumes, 1815–1822).Lamarck employed several mechanisms as drivers of evolution, drawn from the common knowledge ofhis day and from his own belief in chemistry pre-Lavoisier. He used these mechanisms to explain the twoforces he saw as comprising evolution; a force driving animals from simple to complex forms, and a forceadapting animals to their local environments and differentiating them from each other. He believed thatthese forces must be explained as a necessary consequence of basic physical principles, favoring amaterialistic attitude toward biology.
  6. 6. 6 | P a g eAntoni van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723) - Dutch biologist, developer of the microscopeHe is commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology", and considered to be the first microbiologist. Heis best known for his work on the improvement of the microscope and for his contributions towards theestablishment of microbiology. Using his handcrafted microscopes he was the first to observe anddescribe single celled organisms, which he originally referred to as animalcules, and which we now referto as microorganisms. He was also the first to record microscopic observations of muscle fibers, bacteria,spermatozoa and blood flow in capillaries (small blood vessels).Leeuwenhoek made more than 500 optical lenses. He also created at least 25 microscopes, of differingtypes, of which only nine survived. His microscopes were made of silver or copper frames, holding hand-made lenses. Those that have survived are capable of magnification up to 275 times. It is suspected thatLeeuwenhoek possessed some microscopes that could magnify up to 500 times. Although he has beenwidely regarded as a dilettante or amateur, his scientific research was of remarkably high quality.Leeuwenhoek maintained throughout his life that there are aspects of microscope construction "which Ionly keep for myself", in particular his most critical secret of how he created lenses. For many years no-one was able to reconstruct Leeuwenhoeks design techniques. However, in 1957 C.L. Stong used thinglass thread fusing instead of polishing, and successfully created some working samples of aLeeuwenhoek design microscope. Such a method was also discovered independently by A. Mosolov andA. Belkin at the Russian Novosibirsk State Medical Institute.
  7. 7. 7 | P a g eAlbert Bruce Sabin (1906-1993) – Polish-American physician and microbiologistBest known for developing the oral polio vaccine. He was also known for his research in the fields ofhuman viral diseases, toxoplasmosis, and cancer.Sabin developed a live-virus vaccine that was first tested in 1954. By that time, however, the killed-virusvaccine developed by Jonas Edward Salk (1914-1995), had already been developed and tested and wascommercially available in 1955. The Salk vaccine, which is injected, proved effective in sharply reducingthe number of poliomyelitis cases in the US. Sabin, however, persisted in his efforts to develop a vaccinebased on a living virus. He postulated that live, attenuated virus, administered orally, would provideimmunity over a longer period of time than killed, injected virus.By 1957 he had isolated strains of each of the three types of polio virus. These strains were not strongenough to produce the disease itself but were capable of stimulating the production of antibodies. Hethen proceeded to conduct preliminary experiments in the oral administration of these attenuatedstrains. The vaccine was developed by him and his colleagues at the University of Cincinnati.Co-operative studies were then conducted with scientists from Mexico, The Netherlands, and the SovietUnion, and finally, in extensive field trials on children, the effectiveness of the new vaccine wasconclusively demonstrated. In 1958 and 1959 the vaccine was tested in millions of people in the SovietUnion between and proved successful.The Sabin oral polio vaccine, commonly administered on a lump of sugar, was approved for use in theUnited States in 1960 and became the main defence against polio throughout the world. Peoplevaccinated with Sabins vaccine only infected others with a much weakened version of the disease andthis conferred immunity to the unvaccinated population too. It was licensed in 1961 and became thevaccine of choice in most parts of the world.The Sabin vaccine suffered a temporary setback when public health officials reported that a few children(about 1 in one million inoculated) developed polio because of the vaccine. Dr. Sabin, however, neveradmitted that his vaccine was responsible.
  8. 8. 8 | P a g eThomas Hunt Morgan (1868–1945) - American geneticistHe was an American evolutionary biologist, geneticist and embryologist and science author who won theNobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1933 for discoveries relating the role the chromosome plays inheredity.Following the rediscovery of Mendelian inheritance in 1900, Morgans research moved to the study ofmutation in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In his famous Fly Room at Columbia University Morganwas able to demonstrate that genes are carried on chromosomes and are the mechanical basis ofheredity. These discoveries formed the basis of the modern science of genetics. When he was awardedthe Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1933 he was the first person awarded the Prize in genetics,for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity.Morgan left an important legacy in genetics. Morgans findings about genes and their location onchromosomes helped transform biology into an experimental science." Johns Hopkins awarded Morgan an honorary LL.D. and the University of Kentucky awarded himan honorary Ph.D. He was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences and made a foreign member ofthe Royal Society. In 1924 Morgan received the Darwin Medal. The Thomas Hunt Morgan School of Biological Sciences at the University of Kentucky is named forhim. The Genetics Society of America annually awards the Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal, named in hishonor, to one of its members who has made a significant contribution to the science of genetics. Thomas Hunt Morgans discovery was illustrated on a 1989 stamp issued in Sweden, showing thediscoveries of eight Nobel Prize-winning geneticists. A junior high school in Shoreline, Washington was named in Morgans honor for the latter half ofthe 20th century.
  9. 9. 9 | P a g eRobert Koch (1843–1910) - German Nobel Prize winning physician and bacteriologistHe became famous for isolating Bacillus anthracis (1877), the tuberculosis bacillus (1882) and the vibriocholera (1883) and for his development of Kochs postulates. He was awarded the Nobel Prize inPhysiology or Medicine for his tuberculosis findings in 1905. He is considered one of the founders ofmicrobiology - he inspired such major figures as Paul Ehrlich and Gerhard Domagk.The first disease that Koch investigated was anthrax. This was a disease that could seriously affect herdsof farm animals and farmers were rightly in fear of it. Other scientists had also been working on anthrax.In 1868, a French scientist called Davaine had proved that a healthy animal that did not have anthraxcould get the disease if it was injected with blood containing anthrax. Koch developed this work furtherand for three years he spent all his spare time finding out what he could about the disease, including itslife cycle.Koch found out that the anthrax microbe produced spores that lived for a long time after an animal haddied. He also proved that these spores could then develop into the anthrax germ and could infect otheranimals.After this, Koch moved onto germs that specifically affected humans. In 1878, he identified the germ thatcaused blood poisoning and septicaemia. He also developed new techniques for conducting experimentsthat influenced the way many other scientists carried out their experiments. He knew that infectedblood contained the septicaemia germ but he could not see these germs under a microscope, andtherefore, other scientists were unlikely to believe what he thought to be true without the evidence.Koch discovered that methyl violet dye showed up the septicaemia germ under a microscope by stainingit. He also photographed the germs so that people outside of his laboratory could see them.Koch also devised a method of proving which germ caused an infection. His work was rewarded in 1880when he was appointed to a post at the Imperial Health Office in Berlin. Here, Koch perfected thetechnique of growing pure cultures of germs using a mix of potatoes and gelatine. This was a solid
  10. 10. 10 | P a g eenough substance to allow for the germs to be studied better. Koch gathered round him a team ofresearchers in Berlin in 1881 and began to work on one of the worst diseases of the nineteenth century –tuberculosis (TB).The TB germ was much smaller than the anthrax germ so the search for it was difficult. Using a morespecialised version of his dye technique, Koch and his team searched for the TB germ. In May 1882, Kochannounced that his team had found the germ. His announcement caused great excitement. It alsogenerated what became known as ‘microbe hunters’ – a new generation of young scientists who wereinspired by the work of both Koch and Pasteur. One of those who was inspired by Koch was Paul Ehrlich.What was Koch’s legacy? He had finally laid to rest the belief that ‘bad air’ caused disease. He hadinspired many other younger researchers to build on his work. He had found the germs of two feareddiseases – anthrax and TB. He had developed research techniques that others could use throughout theworld.By 1900, twenty-one germs that caused diseases had been identified in just 21 years. "As soon as theright method was found, discoveries came as easily as ripe apples from a tree." (Koch) It was Koch whohad developed the right methods
  11. 11. 11 | P a g eJoseph Lister (1827-1912) - British surgeon - “Father of Modern Surgery”In medicine, the theory that certain diseases are caused by the invasion of the body by microorganisms,organisms too small to be seen except through a microscope. The French chemist and microbiologistLouis Pasteur, the English surgeon Joseph Lister, and the German physician Robert Koch are given muchof the credit for development and acceptance of the theory of germ.ister’s first clue as to the cause of infection came from comparing patients who had simple fractures withthose who had compound fractures. Simple fractures do not involve an external wound. These patientshad their bones set and placed in a cast, and they recovered. Compound fractures are those where thebroken bone pierces the skin and is exposed to the air. More than half of these patients died. Listerreasoned that somehow the infection must enter the wound from the outside. But how exactly did thisoccur? And what could be done to prevent it?Lister began washing his hands before operating, and wearing clean clothes. (Others such as FlorenceNightingale, the pioneer of modern nursing, had already found that increased cleanliness reduced thedeath rate from infection among hospital patients. However, these ideas had not yet gained widespreadacceptance because the reason behind their success was not understood.) Even though Lister’sprocedures were scoffed at by some of his colleagues, who considered it a status symbol to be coveredin blood from previous operations, his talent was becoming recognized. In 1860 he became Professor ofSurgery at Glasgow. There, a friend lent him some research papers by the outstanding French chemist,Louis Pasteur. (Like Lister, Pasteur was a committed Christian.)
  12. 12. 12 | P a g eAs the son of a wine merchant, Lister was all too familiar with the problem of wine going bad because offaulty fermentation. Pasteur had shown that the problem was caused by germs which entered from theair, and that organisms did not come to life spontaneously from non-living matter within the wine.Pasteur had demonstrated that life arose from life. His experiments gave no support to the evolutionaryidea that the first life arose from non-living matter—a belief still held today by evolutionists. Unlike theevolutionists, whose thinking was held back by their attachment to the idea of spontaneous generation,Lister immediately recognized the truth and usefulness of Pasteur’s work. If infection arosespontaneously within a wound, it would be virtually impossible to eliminate it. However, if germsentering from the air outside the wound caused infection (in the same way that the wine becamecontaminated), then those germs could be killed and infection prevented.Above: An operation in progress in the late 1800s. The man on the right is using a version of Lister’s carbolic spray.Pasteur had used heat and filters to eliminate the germs in the wine, but these techniques were notsuitable for use with human flesh. Instead, Lister needed to find a suitable chemical to kill the germs. Helearned that carbolic acid was being used as an effective disinfectant in sewers and could safely be usedon human flesh. Beginning in 1865, Lister used carbolic acid to wash his hands, his instruments, and thebandages used in the operation. Lister also sprayed the air with carbolic acid to kill airborne germs. Aftermore than a year of using and refining these techniques, Lister had sufficient data to show that hismethods were a success. He published his findings in the medical journal, The Lancet, in 1867.Lister was always eager to acknowledge Louis Pasteur’s invaluable contribution. In a letter to Pasteur inFebruary 1874, Lister gave him ‘thanks for having, by your brilliant researches, proved to me the truth ofthe germ theory. You furnished me with the principle upon which alone the antiseptic system can becarried out.’
  13. 13. 13 | P a g eOTHER FAMOUS PEOPLE IN BIOLOGY:1. Robert Hooke(1635-1703)English Scientist -Development of“Microscopy”Hookes reputation in the history of biology largely rests on his bookMicrographia, published in 1665. Hooke devised the compoundmicroscope and illumination system shown above, one of the best suchmicroscopes of his time, and used it in his demonstrations at the RoyalSocietys meetings. With it he observed organisms as diverse as insects,sponges, bryozoans, foraminifera, and bird feathers.2. AndreasVesalius(1541-1564)Anatomist andPhysician -“founder ofmodern humananatomy”He was the author of one of the most influential books on humananatomy, De humani corporis fabrica, (1543), (On the Workings of theHuman Body). This work, considering the era, showed fairly accuratedrawings of various internal organs and tissues. The illustrations weredone by a fellow Belgian, Jan van Calcar, who had studied under noneother than Titian himself. It was a large work of about 700 pages and hediscusses the skeletal system, muscles, circulatory system, nerves andinternal organs. The only really serious error in this work was hispostulation of "pores" through which he supposed blood to flow from oneside of the heart to the other. (Although pores are found in manyvertebrates.)3. GalenAD 129–ca.200 or 216Greek Physician During his life he produced five hundred books and treatises on all aspectsof medical science and philosophical subjects and his ideas were toformulate many of the scientific beliefs which dominated medical thinkingfor about 1 500 years. Galen was the great compiler and systemiser ofGreco-Roman medicine, physiology, pharmacy and anatomy. Because hedisplayed a view of God and nature shared by the Christians of the MiddleAges and the Renaissance, he was regarded by them as a fellow-Christian.Galens influence can be still seen today. The word " galenic" is used todescribe drugs and medicines made from vegetable and animal ingredientsusing prescribed methods.4. Robert Brown(1773–1858)From Scotland,Botanist (abbr. inbotany : R.Br.)The Investigator(a ship from england) arrived in King George Sound inwhat is now Western Australia in December 1801. For three and a halfyears Brown did intensive botanic research in Australia, collecting about3400 species, of which about 2000 were previously unknown. A large partof this collection was lost, however, when the Porpoise (a ship) waswrecked en route to England.He published numerous species descriptions; in Western Australia alonehe is the author of nearly 1200 species. In 1810, he published the results ofhis collecting in his famous Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et InsulaeVan Diemen, the first systematic account of the Australian flora.5. AlexanderFleming(1881–1955)Scottish biologistandpharmacologist.Fleming published many articles on bacteriology, immunology, andchemotherapy. His best-known achievements are the discovery of theenzyme lysozyme in 1922 and the discovery of the antibiotic substancepenicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum in 1928, for which heshared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Florey andChain.
  14. 14. 14 | P a g e6. CarolusLinnaeus(1707–1778)Swedish botanist;father of thebinomial name(abbr L. or Linn.)Laid the foundations for the modern scheme of Binomial nomenclature.He is known as the father of modern taxonomy, and is also considered oneof the fathers of modern ecology. In biology, binomial nomenclature is theformal system of naming specific species. The system is also calledbinominal nomenclature (particularly in zoological circles), binarynomenclature (particularly in botanical circles), or the binomialclassification system – modern for scientific name.I. Binomial “Naming” rule (combination of 2 words):1. the genus name (also called the generic name).2. a second word identifying the species within that genus, for whichthe technical term varies, as follows:a general term for the word identifying the species is thespecific descriptorin zoology, the word identifying the species is called thespecific namein botany, the word identifying the species is called thespecific epithetII. Taxonomy: sometimes alpha taxonomy, is the science of finding,describing and categorising organisms, thus giving rise to taxonomicgroups or taxa (singular: taxon), which may then be named.7. RudolfVirchow(1821–1902)German biologistand pathologist,founder of celltheoryHe is referred to as the "Father of Pathology," and founded the field ofSocial Medicine. His most widely known is indeed his cell theory. He iscited as the first to recognize leukemia. However, he is perhaps bestknown for his theory Omnis cellula e cellula ("every cell originates fromanother existing cell like it.") which he published in 1858. Anothersignificant credit relates to the discovery, made approximatelysimultaneously by Virchow and Charles Emile Troisier, that an enlarged leftsupra-clavicular node is one of the earliest signs of gastrointestinalmalignancy, commonly of the stomach, or less commonly, lung cancer.This has become known as Virchows node and simultaneously Troisierssign.Virchow is also famous for elucidating the mechanism of pulmonarythromboembolism, coining the term embolism. He noted that blood clotsin the pulmonary artery originate first from venous thrombi, stating: "Thedetachment of larger or smaller fragments from the end of the softeningthrombus which are carried along by the current of blood and driven intoremote vessels. This gives rise to the very frequent process on which I havebestowed the name of Embolia.". He founded the medical disciplines ofcellular pathology, comparative pathology (comparison of diseasescommon to humans and animals).8. William HenryHarvey(1811–1866)Irish phycologist. Harveys discovery in 1831 of the moss Hookeria laetevirens at Killarney.Harvey was an authority on algae and bryophytes (mosses), and author ofA Manual of the British Algae (1841), Phycologia Britannica (4 vols., 1846–51), Nereis Boreali-Americana. (3 parts 1852–85) and Phycologia Australica(5 vol., 1858–63). He spent several years in South Africa, and was theauthor, with Otto Wilhelm Sonder, of the Flora Capensis (7 vol. in 11,1859–1933). Harveys main algal herbarium is in Trinity College, Dublin.
  15. 15. 15 | P a g e9. William Harvey(1578–1657)English physician Who is credited with being the first in the Western world to describecorrectly and in exact detail the systemic circulation and properties ofblood being pumped around the body by the heart.10.Félix Dujardin(1802-1860)biologist Known for his study of protozoans and other invertebrates. Dujardin isprimarily known for his work with microscopic animal life, and in 1834proposed that a new group of one-celled organisms be called Rhizopoda;meaning "root-foot. This name was later changed to Protozoa. He refutednaturalist Christian Gottfried Ehrenbergs (1795–1876) concept thatmicroscopic organisms are "complete organisms" similar to higher animals.In Foraminifera, he noticed an apparently formless life substance that henamed "sarcode"; which was later renamed protoplasm by Hugo von Mohl(1805-1872). Dujardin also did extensive research regarding otherinvertebrate groups including echinoderms, helminths and cnidarians.Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki http://www.answersingenesis.org http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk http://www.nobelprize.org

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