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0415 0415 Presentation Transcript

  • Nancy Duncan Renegotiating Gender and Sexuality in Public & Private Spaces 外文所 蔡幸怡
  • Introduction
    • The binary distinction and opposition between private and public spaces are problematic.
    • The Public & the Private:
    • “ to legitimate oppression and dependence on the basis of gender ; it has also been used to regulate sexuality ”
    • Destablize of the private/public boundary
    • Socio-historical context:
    • contemporary North America and Britain [political philosophy, law, popular discourses, and recurrent spatial structuring practices]
    • Abused women and sexual minorities (lesbians, gays, and sex workers)
    • To open up not only private space but to re open public space to public debate and contestation
  • The Public & the Private: The Public The Private Political disembodied, the abstract, the rational, the cultural, critical public discourse, citizenship, civil society, justice, the market place, production…… Apolitical the domestic, the embodied, the natural, the family, property, personal life, intimacy, passion, sexuality, care, haven, unwaged labor…..
  • The Public & the Private: The idea of Privacy
    • Political theories of freedom,
    • Personal autonomy,
    • Patriarchal familial sovereignty
    • Private property
    • ------------------------------------------------------
    • Political Geography
    • * Lawrence Stone:
    • European nation-state / family institution
    • * Judith Squires :
    • Individual autonomy / family autonomy
    • “ Both private and public spaces are heterogeneous and not all space is clearly private or public. Space is thus subject to various territorializing and deterritorializing processes whereby local control is fixed, claimed, challenged, forfeited and privatized” (129).
    The Public & the Private:
  • The Private:
    • Privatized public space : shopping malls, suburbs (free from public surveillance)
    • The private is a sphere where those families who are not dependent on the state for welfare have relative autonomy.
    • Those who are dependent are often subject to unwarranted intrusion and surveillance.
    • [relative/ class / social resource / power]
  • The Public:
    • The site of state politics and regulation, market place, or the economy
    • The site of oppositional social movements
    • * Iris Marion Young:
    • a) none should be forced into privacy
    • b) none should be excluded a priori from being a proper subject for public discussion and expression
  • The Public:
    • As a normative ideal the public space is open to all; in practice, however, it is much more restricted.
    • increasing restrictions:
    • fear of potential violence
  • Privacy and Domestic Violence
    • Power relations: inequality and subordination within the family [physical and sexual violence]
    • a complicity
    • a problem requiring highly organized, structural solutions, not isolated individualistic ones
    • spatial strategies:
    • - outside moral and material support
    • - deterritorializing public and private spheres
    • - social network
    Privacy and Domestic Violence
    • a) the individualism and privatism ( 家醜不外揚 )
    • b) fear of intrusive state interference
    • -------------------------------------------------------------------
    • “ I would argue that the existence of relatively unregulated spaces is a political arrangement that tends to hide the causes as well as the consequences of oppressive power relations within the family from a wider public” (134).
    Privacy and Domestic Violence
    • “ I suggest, then, that there is a positive concept of privacy related to the autonomy of individuals which allows for and may even require the opening up of private spaces to the public sphere in order to protect individuals whose autonomy is compromised by the concept of unregulated private space …” (134).
    Privacy and Domestic Violence
    • “ The personal is the political” :
    • personal relationships are also power relationships…
    • there are no politically neutral spaces
    • Foucault: power relations (“our bodies, our lives, our day-to-day existences…”)
    Privacy and Domestic Violence
    • Bring issues of privatized power relations into a public forum
    Privacy and Domestic Violence
  • The Spatial Regulation of Homosexuality
    • the naturalization of heterosexual norms
    • - Home
    • - Workplaces
    • [nowhere is asexual]
    • The denaturalizing tactics:
    • “… significant social change requires organized action in the public sphere and access to various resources, including the media, rather than individualistic, privatized action.”
    • “ widely publicized”
    The Spatial Regulation of Homosexuality
    • it is difficult to get people to recognize normative geographies until these are transgressed.
    • “ By looking at events which upset the balance of common sense…” (Tim Cresswell)
    The Spatial Regulation of Homosexuality
  • Spatial Marginalization of Sex Workers
    • Prostitution is both spatially and socially marginalized by societal attitudes and the law.
    • Externally imposed spatial limits: laws…
    • - hide from public view
    • - be subjected to surveillance
    • result in “cutting them off from having an effective role as public women in the political sense of speaking on their own behalf and reclaiming their civil rights” (140).
    Spatial Marginalization of Sex Workers
    • “ If the prostitutes could safely ‘come out’ in the public space and speak on their own behalf there would be many benefits…” (140).
    Spatial Marginalization of Sex Workers
  • Conclusion
    • The goal is to mount a multi-pronged attack on the spatial and discursive boundaries that regulate behaviour and discipline difference.
    • “ the struggle to make something public is a struggle for justice” (Benhabib)
    • “ outing” :
    • through the media,
    • through challenges in the courts
    • through the efforts of social movements
  • Conclusion
    • Progressive geographies:
    • - deterritorialization (the creation of open- ended, proliferating and inclusive sites…)
    • - encourage heterogeneity and discourage the naturalization, reification and ghettoizaion of differences
    • - Fluid geographies would construct and in turn be constructed by fluid identities