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CONTOH Makalah extensive reading
 

CONTOH Makalah extensive reading

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    CONTOH Makalah extensive reading CONTOH Makalah extensive reading Document Transcript

    • EXTENSIVE READING MATERIALS LECTURER: KUNTO LEGOWO, M.Pd BY: RAFIUDDIN MAFTUH LAMONGAN ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY 2013
    • PREFACE Praise is be due to Allah SWT because only with his mercy and his guidance, so writer can finish to write this paper with the title Extensive Reading Materials. In arrange this paper, writer realizes that so many limitations, weaknesses and not perfect. However, writer can handle and finish that because of helping hands and support from many sides. So, appreciation and honest thanks go to: 1. Mr. KUNTO LEGOWO, M.Pd the lecturer of writing 4 subject who give guidance and course so this paper can be finished 2. Colleagues STIT MASKUMBANG DUKUN GRESIK and the other side who gave helping hands in arrange this paper With all honesty may all of all sides’ helping hands can get reward from Allah SWT. As a human, writer realizes this paper is far from perfect so the suggestions and critics from reader are very writer expected. The last word, may this paper is useful and benefit for the reader and for writer Dukun, 24th of June 2013 Writer i
    • CONTENT PREFACE …………………………………………………………………… i CONTENT …………………………………………………………………… ii 1. NEWSPAPER …………………………………………………... 2. MAGAZINE …………………………………………………... 3. INTERNET ARTICLE …………………………………………... 4. NOVEL …………………………………………………………... 5. ENGLISH JOURNAL …………………………………………... 6. COMICS …………………………………………………………... 7. FUNNY STORY …………………………………………………... 8. LOVE STORY …………………………………………………... 9. POEMS …………………………………………………………... 10. ENCYCLOPEDIA …………………………………………... ii
    • 1.NEWSPAPER Editor’s Choice Clashes in Istanbul extend into night in Taksim Elena Becatoros and Suzan Fraser, The Associated Press, Istanbul | World | Wed, June 12 2013, 6:47 AM A- A A+ Raging protests: A protester climbs a barricade waving a flag depicting jailed Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Ocalan as a van burns during clashes at the Taksim Square in Istanbul Tuesday. Hundreds of riot police overran improvised barricades at Istanbul's Taksim Square on Tuesday, firing tear gas, rubber bullets and water cannons in running battles with protesters who have been occupying the area for more than a week. (AP/Vadim Ghirda) Riot police firing tear gas, water cannon and rubber bullets clashed into the early hours of Wednesday with defiant demonstrators occupying Istanbul's central Taksim Square and its adjacent park, in the country's most severe anti-government protests in decades. The crisis has left Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan looking vulnerable for the first time in his decade in government, and has threatened to tarnish the international image of Turkey, a Muslim majority country with a strongly secular tradition, a burgeoning economy and close ties with the United States.
    • Thousands of police moved into the square early Tuesday, pushing past improvised barricades set up by the protesters who have swarmed through the massive square and accompanying Gezi Park in their tens of thousands for the past 12 days. Police fired repeated rounds of tear gas that rose in stinging plumes of acrid smoke from the square in running battles with protesters hurling fireworks, bottles, rocks and firebombs. In a cat-and-mouse game that lasted all day, the police repeatedly cleared the square, only for demonstrators to return. More than 30,000 converged on the square again as dusk fell and were repelled by water cannon, rubber bullets and tear gas after Istanbul's governor, Huseyin Avni Mutlu, said the police came under attack by "marginal groups." The area reverberated with the echoes of exploding tear gas canisters into the night, while volunteers ferried dozens of injured people to waiting ambulances. A peaceful demonstration against Gezi Park's redevelopment that began more than two weeks ago has grown into the biggest test of Erdogan's authority in his decade of power, sparked by outrage over a violent police crackdown on May 31 against a peaceful sit-in in the park. The unrest has spread to 78 cities across the country, with protesters championing their objections to what they say is the prime minister's increasingly authoritarian style and his perceived attempts to impose a religious and conservative lifestyle on a country with secular laws — charges he rejects. Four people have been killed, including a policeman, and about 5,000 have been treated for injuries or the effects of tear gas, according to the Turkish Human Rights Foundation. Gezi Park, with its thousands of camped-out demonstrators young and old, has become the symbol of the protests. Both the governor and the police initially promised that only Taksim Square would be cleared, not the park. But late into the night, the governor suggested a more muscular police sweep might be imminent. Tear gas was fired into the park, as protesters scrambled for cover. "We will open the square when everything normalizes in the area, and our security forces completely control the area," Mutlu told A Haber news channel. "Our children who stay at
    • Gezi Park are at risk, because we will clean the area of the marginal groups," he said in distinguishing between troublemakers and peaceful protesters. "We won't allow our government to be seen as weak," Mutlu said. Some 300 miles (500 kilometers) away in Ankara, the capital, police fired water cannon and tear gas to disperse several hundred protesters — some throwing stones — who gathered in sympathy with the Istanbul counterparts. Tuesday's clashes came a day after Taksim saw its smallest gathering since the demonstrations began. The government had said Erdogan would meet with some of those occupying the park on Wednesday to hear their views. "The relative calm yesterday was deceptive," said Robert O'Daly, Turkey analyst for the Economist Intelligence Unit. "Mr. Erdogan's offer of dialogue appears to have been merely tactical. The appearance of riot police in the square this morning and renewed use of teargas against the protesters fits better with his defiant rhetoric," he said. Erdogan, a devout Muslim, says he is committed to Turkey's secular laws and denies charges of an authoritarian manner. As he defended his tough stance, he gave critics little hope of a shift in his position. "Were we supposed to kneel before them and say, 'Please remove your pieces of rags?'" he asked, referring to the dozens of banners and flags the protesters had festooned in the square. "They can call me harsh, but this Tayyip Erdogan won't change." Confident of his position of power after winning the last elections in 2011 with 50 percent of the vote, Erdogan has insisted he will prevail. He made it clear that he has come to the end of his patience with the protesters, whom he accused of sullying Turkey's image abroad and being vandals and troublemakers. "To those who ... are at Taksim and elsewhere taking part in the demonstrations with sincere feelings: I call on you to leave those places and to end these incidents and I send you my love. But for those who want to continue with the incidents I say: 'It's over.' As of now we have no tolerance for them."
    • "Not only will we end the actions, we will be at the necks of the provocateurs and terrorists, and no one will get away with it," he added. His words, accompanied by the repeated rounds of tear gas that left many choking for breath, seemed to gird the resolve of many in the park rather than weaken it. "People are definitely going to stay. The more the police attack, the more people come and stay," said Melda, a 29-year-old cook who rushed to the park Tuesday morning when she heard of the police intervention. Fearful of losing her job for participating in the protests, she asked that her surname not be used. Melda and a group of friends had originally intended to go and set up a stall giving out cupcakes and sandwiches to the protesters. Instead they arrived with first aid supplies. She had harsh words for those protesters who had thrown rocks and firebombs at riot police on the square earlier in the day. "They're taking advantage of the situation," she said. "And then the prime minister calls us all terrorists." On Tuesday, Erdogan, who has called major pro-government rallies in Ankara and Istanbul this weekend, insisted again that the unrest was part of a conspiracy against his government. The demonstrators, he said, " are being used by some financial institutions, the interest rate lobby and media groups to (harm) Turkey's economy and (scare away) investments." ___ Fraser reported from Ankara, Turkey. Jamey Keaten and Ezgi Akin also contributed from Ankara.
    • Chinese spacecraft blasts off with 3 astronauts Andy Wong, The Associated Press, Jiuquan, China | World | Tue, June 11 2013, 5:50 PM A- A A+ China space mission: The Long March 2F rocket carrying the Shenzhou 10 manned capsule blasts off from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwest China's Gansu Province, Tuesday. The Shenzhou 10 capsule carrying three astronauts lifted off on a 15-day mission to dock with a space lab and to educate young people about science. (AP/Andy Wong) China's latest manned spacecraft successfully blasted off Tuesday on a 15-day mission to dock with a space lab and to educate young people about science. The Shenzhou 10 capsule carrying three astronauts lifted off as scheduled at 5:38 p.m. (0938 GMT) from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center on the edge of the Gobi Desert. It is China's fifth manned space mission and its longest. The spacecraft was launched aboard a Long March 2F rocket and will transport the crew to the Tiangong 1, which functions as an experimental prototype for a much larger Chinese space station to be launched in 2020. The craft will spend 12 days docked with the Tiangong. On the heels of Canadian astronaut Chris Hadfield's wildly popular YouTube videos from the International Space Station, the Chinese crew plans to deliver a series of talks to students from aboard the Tiangong. The craft carried two men, mission commander Nie Haisheng and Zhang Xiaoguang, and China's second female astronaut, Wang Yaping. Earlier in the afternoon, President Xi Jinping was shown live on television wishing them well at the launch center.
    • "You have made Chinese people feel proud of ourselves," Xi told the three astronauts. "You have trained and prepared yourselves carefully and thoroughly, so I am confident in your completing the mission successfully. "I wish you success and look forward to your triumphant return." State television showed Xi watching the launch, as well as Premier Li Keqiang who was at the space command center in Beijing. The space program is a source of enormous national pride for China, reflecting its rapid economic and technological progress and ambition to rank among the world's leading nations. China is hoping to join the United States and Russia as the only countries to send independently maintained space stations into orbit. It is already one of just three nations to have launched manned spacecraft on its own. The space classrooms mark the boldest step so far to bring the military-backed program into the lives of ordinary Chinese and follows in the footsteps of NASA, which uses student outreach to inspire interest in space exploration and sustain support for its budgets. At a news conference Monday, Wang said she was "eager to explore and feel the magic and splendor of space with young friends." Her fellow astronaut Zhang told reporters they would conduct dozens of space science experiments and would "enjoy personalized space foods especially designed by our nutritionists." Asian Agri told to pay Rp 4.3t Satria Sambijantoro, The Jakarta Post, Jakarta | Headlines | Fri, June 07 2013, 9:58 AM A- A A+ Paper Edition | Page: 1 Firm grasp: The Finance Ministry's tax director general, Fuad Rahmany (left), greets several chief editors of the nation's media groups at a meeting at
    • the Taxation Office's headquarters in Jakarta on Thursday. (JP/Wendra Ajistyatama) The government has urged Asian Agri, one of the country’s major plantation companies, to meet its obligation to pay funds totaling Rp 4.3 trillion (US$448 million) in back taxes and fines having been found guilty of tax evasion. The director general of taxation, Fuad Rachmany, said the company would have to pay Rp 2.5 trillion of the total funds to the Attorney General’s Office (AGO) in fines and the remaining Rp 1.8 trillion to the tax office in the form of back taxes. ―In total, they must pay Rp 4.3 trillion – Rp 1.8 trillion to the tax office and Rp 2.5 trillion to the AGO,‖ Fuad said in a limited press briefing on Wednesday evening. He said that Asian Agri had been given 30 days to pay the back taxes to his office. A business entity had to pay its tax obligation, as well as any fines, by 30 days at the latest from the day a notice of a tax underpayment assessment (SKP) was sent out by the tax office, Fuad said. The tax office recently sent the SKP for the payment of the back taxes worth Rp 1.8 trillion to 14 business units belonging to Asian Agri. If the company did not respond to the SKP, then the assets of its business units could be seized ―within weeks‖ following the 30-day deadline, he added. ―This is going to be interesting. I think you should not expect them to pay; thus, we may have to use force [to make Asian Agri pay its fine],‖ Fuad told editors and media representatives at his Jakarta office. The case surrounding Asian Agri is the biggest and most controversial tax evasion case in the nation’s history, involving as it does one of the major players in the oil palm plantation industry. Asian Agri, which was founded in 1979, oversees 160,000 hectares of oil palm plantations across Sumatra, and owns 19 oil palm mills with a combined annual capacity in excess of 1 million tons. It is owned by tycoon Sukanto Tanoto, Indonesia’s fifth-richest person with a net worth of $2.8 billion, according to the 2013 Forbes list.
    • The company’s problems began in 2006, when the firm’s then controller, Vincentius Amin Santoso, was reported to the police for embezzling $3 million from Asian Agri. He then fled to Singapore, where he hit back at his former employer by making public allegations that Asian Agri was evading paying its taxes. Vincent was subsequently sentenced to 11 years’ imprisonment for money laundering and his participation in the tax evasion scheme. He was paroled in January for helping prosecutors unravel the full extent of the tax evasion practices at Asian Agri. In January, the Supreme Court ordered the company to pay Rp 2.5 trillion in fines, or 200 percent of its tax obligation, in what was the court’s historic first verdict in a tax evasion case. The fines have to be paid within 12 months of the verdict being announced. Fuad took the time, however, to praise the government officials involved in the case. ―In this Asian Agri case, I am certain that my men, as well as prosecutors and the court’s judges, were offered billions [in gratuities], knowing the amount of fines facing the company. ―This case shows that there are indeed people with integrity in my office. We must appreciate them and be fair; do not judge the tax office based only on one case in which one or two tax men end up in the spotlight for collusion,‖ the director general said. Contacted separately, Asian Agri general manager Freddy Widjaja told The Jakarta Post on Thursday that he ―has yet to check the status‖ of the tax office’s demands and, thus, needed to verify the facts first before commenting on the issue. Apple revamps look of iPhone, iPad software Michael Liedtke and Peter Svensson, The Associated Press, San Francisco | Sci-Tech | Tue, June 11 2013, 9:42 AM A- A A+ New software: Attendees break for lunch at the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference Monday
    • in San Francisco. Apple demonstrated new software at the conference. The new design direction was widely expected and will show up on iPhones, iPad and iPod Touches this fall, the company said. (AP/Eric Risberg) Apple is throwing out most of the real-world graphical cues from its iPhone and iPad software in what it calls the biggest update since the iPhone's launch in 2007. The new operating system, called iOS 7, strives for a clean, simple, translucent look. Apple is redesigning all its applications and icons to conform, driven by long-time hardware design chief Jony Ive. Apple demonstrated the new software at the Worldwide Developers Conference in San Francisco on Monday. The new design direction was widely expected and will show up on iPhones, iPad and iPod Touches this year, the company said. The overhaul comes at a time when rivals such as Samsung Electronics and Google are trying to get people to defect by developing their own lines of elegant and often less expensive products. The stiffer competition has slowed Apple's growth in the increasingly important mobile device market, contributing to a 38 percent decline in the company's stock price since the shares peaked at $705.07 in September. Wall Street didn't seem impressed with Apple's new software approach. Apple's stock dipped $2.92 to close Monday at $438.89. The redesigned software uses simple graphical elements in neon and pastel colors. Gone is the effort to make the icons look like three-dimensional, embossed objects — a tactic known as "'skeuomorphism," that was favored by Apple's late CEO and co-founder Steve Jobs. While design modifications could help Apple distinguish its devices from rival phones and tablets, they risk alienating longtime users. Raluca Budiu, a senior researcher specializing in usability at the Nielsen Norman Group, said the so-called "flat" design can confuse users because it can offer fewer signals about where to tap or click. That's been the case, she said, with Windows 8, which has a very "flat" design. Budiu said it's too early to say if it will be an issue with iOS.
    • Budiu noted that iOS users seem quite happy with the current iOS, which is easier to use than Google Inc.'s Android, its only big competitor. Microsoft's radical makeover of the Windows operating system in October was meant to give the company a stronger presence on tablet computers, but it ended up confusing many people who had become accustomed to using the old operating system on traditional desktops and laptops. Research firm IDC blamed Windows 8 for accelerating a decline in PC sales. Among other changes, Apple's new iOS system will update apps automatically. It will store Web passwords online in Apple's syncing service, iCloud, making them available across devices. The AirDrop feature will allow sharing of big files with Apple-equipped people in the same room. Apple took a jab at its rival, Samsung Electronics Co., which had been touting its Galaxy phones as better than iPhones because they sport near-field communication chips that allow people to share files by bumping phones together. "No need to wander around the room bumping your phone with others," said Craig Federighi, senior vice president for software engineering. The company also stepped up its rivalry with Google, maker of the Android software on Samsung and other phones. Apple said the Siri virtual assistant will use searches from Microsoft's Bing, Google's rival. Apple also is bringing its mapping service to desktops and laptops to compete with Google Maps and others. The company is also launching a Pandora-like Internet radio service, iTunes Radio. It will be built into the Music app and stream music for free. There will be advertising, except for people who pay $25 a year for the iTunes Match online music storage. Apple was a pioneer of online music sales and is still a leader in that field, but streaming services such as Pandora and Spotify have emerged as popular alternatives to buying. Pandora relies on its users being connected to the Internet at all times and plays songs at random within certain genres for free. Last month, rival Google Inc. started an on-demand subscription music service called All Access that gives subscribers the ability to pick and choose specific songs and albums from a catalog of millions for playback on computers, tablets and smartphones in exchange for a monthly fee.
    • Apple updates its iOS operating system every year and doesn't charge for the updates. The new operating system will be available for the iPhone 4 and later models, and on the iPad 2 and later models, including the Mini. The launch of the new software traditionally coincides roughly with the launch of the year's new iPhone model. Also at the conference, which runs through Friday, Apple revealed that it's switching from its more than decade-long practice of naming its Mac operating system updates after big cats. Instead, it's paying homage to the geography of its home state. Federighi says the next version of Mac OS X will be called Mavericks, after an undersea rock formation that produces big waves near Half Moon Bay, California. The new operating system will extend battery life and shorten boot-up times, Federighi told the audience of software developers. The system improves support for multiple displays and imports the tab concept from Web browsers to the Finder file-organizer. The software update will include iBooks for the first time, giving people who buy e-books from Apple a way to display them on the computer screen in addition to the iPhone and iPad. Competing e-book vendors such as Amazon and Barnes & Noble have cross-platform applications already. Federighi said the new software will be out in the fall. Apple also revealed a complete revamp of the Mac Pro, the boxy desktop model that's the work horse of graphics and film professionals. The new model is a black cylinder, one eighth the volume of the old box. The current Mac Pro is the only Mac with internal hardware that can easily be modified and expanded by the user, but that possibility disappears with the new model. The company is adopting the same compact, one-piece design present in the Mac Mini and iMac. The new Mac Pro will be the first Mac to be assembled in the U.S. in many years. CEO Tim Cook promised last year that the company would start a production line in the U.S., but didn't say where. Apple said the new computer will launch later this year. ___ Peter Svensson reported from New York.
    • A. COMMENTS Newspaper is good for students, because there are much information that can increase their knowledge. Students can update the news every day, without spend much money because the price of newspaper is very cheap. But for about newsprint is very poor quality because it use dark paper. And about the color, it has an uncolored paper so it is not interesting.
    • B. SUGGESTIONS Teacher should be use newspaper for teaching in class. Since there are many function of using newspaper, especially to educate. It means newspaper contain writing which are consist knowledge, so that the reader will increase their knowledge. Not only that, but also teacher can use newspaper for teaching reading skill. So, newspaper is good one for extensive reading material.
    • C. STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING NEWSPAPER What follows is a list of reading strategies and techniques 5 not an exhaustive list, but merely. Some of them most useful ones. 1. Activating prior knowledge 5 the teacher uses this as a pre 5 reading activity, which enables there adder to make connections between something they already know and then few knowledge from there a ding material 2. Clarifying 5 used throughout reading, students ask questions, reread, restate and visualize, making the text more comprehensible 3. Context Clues–using words surrounding an unknown word to determine its meaning 4. Drawing Conclusions –used after reading, the students use written or visual clues to figure out something that is not stated, students respond with their ideas and opinions based on information learned from reading the text 5. Evaluating–used during and after reading, it encourages students to form their opinions, make judgments and develop ideas from reading; teachers make evaluative questions and these lead the student to evaluate at ext critically 6. Inference 5 used during reading, students give a logical guess based on facts to help the students understand the deeper meaning of a text
    • 2.MAGAZINE
    • A. COMMENTS The picture in magazine is interesting, because it is colorful picture. And the theme also more interesting than newspaper. The content of magazine is variation, so it has many knowledge will we get. But in publishing, it was published in every a month or every a week not every day. And the cost is more relative expensive.
    • B. SUGGESTIONS Teacher should be use magazine for teaching in class. Since there are some function of using magazine, they are as source of information, as media for reading and writing etc. magazine can help teachers get some material that appropriate with the subject in lesson. Not only that, but it can help students learn to increase their skill to show some experiences in their life.
    • C. STRATEGY FOR USING MAGAZINE There are some strategies that should be used by the teacher, they are : 1. Grab a sheet of colored card and hold it up in landscape orientation for the students to see. Tell them they can choose their favorite color. 2. Hold up the magazine and flip through to a (predetermined) page. 3. Cut out the person, celebrity, animal, or object (depends on the sentence pattern) on the page. It does not need to be neatly cut out. In fact, it looks very retro when the pictures are cut out chaotically. 4. Flip to another (supposedly random) page and again cut out the person, celebrity, animal, or object. 5. Using the glue, stick the first cutout on the left side of the card near the middle and stick the second cutout on the right side next to the first cutout. 6. At this point you could ask the students to name a difference or similarity of these two people, celebrities, animals, or objects and write on the card. Otherwise, write the comparison statement somewhere between the two images and show it to your students. 7. The students will now copy the same steps 1 to 6. I have provided lots of examples below for each sentence pattern. Step by Step Guide to the Activity Step 1: Before you begin 1. Decide on the target question you wish to teach the children and reinforce vocabulary. You will write this question and answer on the board or show the students a card with the question and answer written on them. If necessary, write out a list of vocabulary you want them to practice with, which will determine which magazines you use for the activity. 2. If you want to teach common greetings in the target foreign language (which can include English), simply write out a question like ―What is your name?‖ with the answer ―My name is Paul.‖ next to it. Follow this with Paul asking the first person for their name so that you have 4 lines of text in total. 3. To teach kids how to enquire about objects or animals, then you can write (in the foreign language, of course) ―What is that animal called?‖ with the
    • corresponding answer ―That animal is called a giraffe.‖ next to it. As before, the second person asks the first about another object or animal to give 4 lines of dialogue altogether. 4. Obviously, you can choose any question and make it as difficult as you wish and slowly add progressively harder questions, such as: adding descriptive words ―What is that tall, yellow animal called?‖, adding locations ―What color is the fruit on the left?‖, and so on. Steps 2 to 7: Getting the Kids Involved 1. Hold up one a sheet of colored card for the students to see. Tell them they can choose their favorite color for this activity. 2. . Flip through a magazine to a page with someone on it. It can be someone they know, like a famous celebrity or cartoon character, or just a model from the magazine. 3. Use the safety scissors to cut the person’s photo from the page. Show them that it doesn’t have to be neat to save them time when cutting. 4. Go to another page and cut out the photo of another person. 5. Stick the first person on the left of the card and stick the second person on the right of the card, leaving a gap in the middle for the kids to write in. 6. Now simply write the question between the cutouts with the answer statement below it. Make up the name of the second person if it’s unknown. Follow this with the question and answer for the first cutout.
    • 3.INTERNET ARTICLE 7 First Day of School Activities Students Love By: Kim Haynes The first day of school will be here before you know it. Most teachers face the big day with enthusiasm, but they dread the inevitable challenge: what to do on the first day of school. Every teacher’s approach is different. Whatever your goal, here are a few things to try to get the school year off to a great start! Goal: Getting to Know Your Students How well will your incoming students know you? How well do you know them? How well do they know each other? How well do they know the school? These are important things to consider as you start planning the first day. If you’re teaching kindergarteners (or high school freshmen, who often seem like kindergarteners), you may need to spend the first day – or the first several days –getting everyone comfortable. There are tons of icebreakers out there, but here are a few different techniques to try: Plan a Scavenger Hunt This could involve students searching the classroom to find things like the pencil sharpener or the hall pass, or it could ask them to discover which of their classmates took a long trip over the summer or who has a younger brother. Assess Learning Styles or Multiple Intelligences For older students, the first day can be a great chance to find out more about how they learn. There are many different learning style inventories available online. Find out the many
    • different ways your students are smart by having them complete a multiple intelligences assessment. Have students share these results. It can encourage students who have typically struggled if they know you are aware of the things they are good at, and it provides an opportunity to address some of those ―I’m dumb/she’s dumb‖ issues that inevitably crop up in a classroom. Do a Self-Portrait Whether it’s done with words or pictures, collage or drawn by hand, having students describe themselves can be fun, informative, and occasionally surprising. Of course, the self-portrait will be most effective if you do one of yourself, too. Create a Time Capsule Have students create a sample of their current work -- for example, have students take a pre- test, write a paragraph or even video tape them reading aloud or speaking in a foreign language. Bring the examples out in June and let students recognize how much they’ve grown. Goal: Introducing Your Subject(s) For some teachers, the first step is helping students to understand what they are going to learn this year. But you don’t always want to start right off with a lecture or worksheet, so try one of these: Get Them Guessing Prediction activities can be a great way to activate students’ prior knowledge on a topic and get them excited about what lies ahead in the course. Guessing Game 1: Give them a series of true and false statements about the content of the course and have them guess the right answers. Guessing Game 2: Or do a demonstration experiment and have students guess about the results. If you teach English, try this trick: get a movie of the first novel students will read and show one brief, suspenseful or exciting scene. Make sure to stop the film so that students are ―left
    • hanging‖ and tell them they’ll have to read the book to find out what happens. You may get kids begging to start the book! Start with a Challenge This is especially effective for older students or for classes in which you want to set a specific tone. Since most teachers spend the first day of school distributing syllabi and lecturing about class rules, you will really get the students’ attention if you make them work the first day and get around to that ―business‖ stuff on the second or third day of class. Give students an assignment that will really challenge them. One drama teacher actually starts her beginning drama class by making students do an audition where they read a speech aloud in front of the class. It’s not graded, but it gives her valuable information about the students and it helps them get past their initial ―I can’t act‖ attitude. If you teach an AP class, why not start the first day by giving the students part of a practice AP exam? The students will see them soon enough – just jump right in! Begin with a Book This approach is especially effective for non-language arts teachers. Find a book that puts a different spin on your subject and share it (or part of it) on the first day. Ways to Use Books to Introduce Subjects Outside Language Arts  - Maybe a children’s book on animals is a fun way to begin studying biology.  - A coffee table photo book might provide striking images for students to think about as they begin studying history.  - For older history students, consider taking an excerpt from a book like Guns, Germs, and Steel; Founding Brothers; or Citizen Soldiers. These books describe history in a different way and may grab the attention of students inclined to ―tune out‖ their textbook. Whatever method you choose, the first day of school offers a great opportunity to learn about your students and set the tone for a terrific school year!
    • A. COMMENTS The example of article above has much new vocabulary that improve student’s ability in vocabulary. The content of this article is good for students of junior and senior high school. It will give the new knowledge about science also. But
    • B. SUGGESTIONS Teacher should be use internet article for teaching in class. Because the content of article are the actual ideas and controversial etc, that learned to students. So students can relate with their experience and also to increase their knowledge. But the teacher should be smart to choose the topic of the material, which is make students interested to read it.
    • C. STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING INTERNET ARTICLE Integrating the internet into the classroom: The use of technology, the web in particular, has become an important skill for both students and teachers to master. The internet has a vast amount of information and infinitely many uses, but it takes practice to learn to effectively navigate its resources. This is the tips: 1. Use the internet with a unit study. Integrate the internet into unit of study by setting up a learning center. 2. Use the internet with a unit study. Integrate the internet into unit of study by setting up a learning center. 3. Manage time on the internet. Encourage students to make good use of their computer time. 4. Organize information on the internet. Create a graphic organizer for students to use as they research on the web. 5. Use computer software with the internet. Demonstrate ways in which the internet can be integrated into other computer application. 6. Teach students to cite internet sources. Build a respect for the works of others by requiring the citation of internet sources. That’s the strategy can be used by the teachers to get the students read the internet article in order they can get many information of it.
    • 4. NOVEL
    • A. COMMENTS Novel is good to help the beginning activity in teaching, because it consists of organized units of work. And the series of novel is good because it provide with a balanced, chronological presentation of information. The sequence of novel is mentioned detail for teaching procedure that tell what to do and when to do it. But for the students, the information is not current. The students only see one perspective on a concept, it means novel is designed as the sole source of information. And for understanding novel, the students cannot read and understand the important concept because the level is very difficult.
    • B. SUGGESTIONS The teacher should be use novel for teaching in class. Because novel can build the students English ability, can build the students experiences of the world, and increase their knowledge of the unknown something. The teacher teach the students novel by explain about value such as morality and there are many life lesson while teach about grammar and other English skill.
    • C. STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING NOVEL Once a novel has been selected, it must not simply be assigned to students as is sometimes done in mainstream literature courses. Rather, the instructor should do the following: 1. Reread the novel and highlight and annotate important and potentially difficult passages before assigning it. 2. Use a reading schedule. 3. Have students lead class discussions (this will allow you to quickly assess how well they are comprehending the novel). 4. Exploit the creative possibilities of each novel (bring in period music, historic photographs, film versions on DVD). 5. Require the use of a high-quality dictionary. 6. Promote careful, annotated reading of the text. 7. Have students keep a reading journal. Berthoff (1981) suggests having students keep a double-entry notebook. Students select a quote from the reading and write it on the left-hand page. On the opposite page they write their response to it. The response may include an explanation of what the quote says and why the student chose it. 8. As much as you can, select a novel that will be a pleasurable reading experience for your students. 9. Do not pass out study sheets until students have finished reading the novel. 10. Be enthusiastic about the novels you teach. To climax novel teaching, the teacher may devise some activities so that the course will be more intriguing and lively. Here are some suggestions: A. Short Play Contest The teacher divides students into groups and tries to help organize the members of each group to deal with different kinds of work to prepare for a short play. Students can choose their favorite part of the novel and modify the story by themselves, and the teacher is just a counselor or a supervisor to offer help if asked. Students can learn to do team work together and practice their language skills.
    • B. Create a New Novel The teacher could take one of climax parts of the novel as examples, and ask students if the key characters choose different ways to face the hardship or new challenges, what could happen next and if that could change the ending. Then, the teacher asks students to do brainstorming and discussion, and later share their ideas in class. The final step of this activity is to ask students to create their own ending of the novel. This activity will bring fun and senses of accomplishment to students while they are thinking how to write their own novels.
    • 5. ENGLISH JOURNAL April of 2008 Journal Writing Examples 04/17/2008 This would be a lot easier if kids would cooperate. But I guess it comes with being a Mom. (But it makes it even more important for me to be an examples for my girls.) I actually eat a lot in response to the stresses of being a mom. Mis behavior, or having my buttons pushed- drives me to binge- sometimes its the only way that makes me feel ok. It's comfort... or maybe more like "numbness". Later that day... ok so I gave in and made brownies. The kicker is thatwhile they were cooking I must have left my bedroom dooropen! My Niece got up to the computer and pushed a crazy amount of buttons and was talking on my fax machine headset! I was fuming! I set her in a timeout (kind of not nicely) and had to undo all the things she had done to my computer. My temper flared up hardcore-- and those brownies were calling me. So... I had a little binge. but I did stop myself before my second brownie! A small success. Again later that day... -make that.... I"m not sure how many more brownies! But thebest part is that grabbing my journal and writing is helping me use my hand for holding a pen rather than stuffing brownies in mymouth. If I didn't have this to write in, the whole pan would be eaten! So in a way I've had another success. April of 2008 Journal Writing Examples 04/18/2008 Last night, Kurt and I were watching a movie and about 9:30... I really wanted a brownie warmed up with ice cream on top! It's my favorite "feel good" food. I asked him s he wanted any... he said, "I'd thought about it, but I'm really not hungry". I was bummed... but I thanked him later. It helps when I hear his reasoning for not eating sweets. Very simply... he wasn't hungry! I didn't follow his
    • example and not have any. I didn't want it for hunger... it was just to numb out. Later.... I had to put the brownies away. I need them out ofsight. I've been snitching some every time I pass by. Sometimes I feel so empty inside... and food "fills" that void. But not today... I put them away. Later again... Okay... I"m really tired of playing referee! Is it reallyinevitable that kids won't share and always want the same toy? Ahhh.... Actually... its really not that bad. But when my house doesn't feel peaceful I run to thekitchen. I'm getting hungry; I think it's actually mystomach. I just need to make the right choice...it's been so long since I've listened to my hunger cues. April of 2008 Journal Writing Examples 04/21/2008 My husband is amazing... he has been willing to step in the "line of fire" to ask me if I"m really hungry. Normally it's after a meal when I'm rummaging through the kitchen for something to fill my emotional void. I'm not sure if it's bravery or stupidity... but I know he does it because he cares and knows that I"m on my road to stop binge eating. I love him very much. Later... I need to slow down and enjoy my food. I tend to eat as fast as I can. Its almost as if I have to literally stuff all my emotions down with food. Then when the food is gone... I don't feel satisfied because I barely even tasted the food. Half the time I go back for more just to taste it. That night... I really think that journaling is helping me. I get to sortout my feelings and why I'm eating. But it doesn't make mewant to eat more... it's almost like a release. It makes mefeel like I"m really changing this. And that is a greatthing. I just finished dinner... Kurt still isn't home... and I really wanted another roll. Just to fill the void of being alone again! But I pulled this out instead. And I feel better after writing. The rolls are sitting in front of me... But I don't feel like eating another one anymore.
    • April of 2008 Journal Writing Examples 04/22/2008 What a day: I went to my Mom's house to help her pack somemore. They're leaving for Texas on Saturday. I'mreally gonna miss them. Especially my weekly visits fromMom. I'm a little drained from packing... but its nice to be able to help out. It's amazing what service can do foryou. I was a little too tired when I got home. I ate two no bake cookies out of pure hunger! Later... I feel like this is never going to end. I don't want food to be the center of attention! I want to live my life... not eat my life away. later again... Sometimes I wish there was a "magic pill" out there to dissolve all my problems. But the more I learn and understand, I realize that it all starts in my head. With my thoughts. That is what I need to change; my thoughts. This is what I want:  They are now positive and up lifting.  I'm attracting friends, money, and time to become my perfect self.. to become Christlike.  I love myself.  I accept myself as-is.  I'm happy. April of 2008 Journal Writing Examples 04/23/2008 I'm done... I feel like giving up! Just throwing in thetowel! Why is this such a problem for me? All Iwant to do is wallow in the kitchen. Food is comforting...but after a binge I feel horrible about myself. It's like I'm searching to fill my "void"... but nothing fills it. I want to feel complete.
    • Journal Writing Examples August 2008 08/26/2008 Its easy to cycle back into old habits of binging and feelingsad. The difference now is that I'm aware of whatshappening. It becomes easier to snap back out of itevery time. Thats how I know I'm making progress. Even though I make mistakes, I now have the tools to pull myself back to "normal". I'm very grateful for finding Tom and Jerry Fuhriman and the Power to Lose Program. Journal Writing Examples August 2008 08/29/2008 What a beautiful morning :) I'm really looking forward to my day. Its just my girls and me. Then @nap time Kurtis coming home to pick us up and take up with him to get horses. I'm excited for my day. later that morning... The walk with Sheri today was good. It's nice to take aleisurely walk and talk with a friend. She invited me back to her home and we played Mario cart Wii. It's prettyneat. All you do is push the gas button and steer thewheel. Literally- you hold a steering wheel in you hands! It was neat. Elissa and I came home for asnack and to start laundry before Ashley gets out of school. I'm enjoying one on one time with Elissa. I can truly focus on her! Her little personality is blooming and her smile makes my heart melt. I feel like a very large weight has been taken off my shoulders. Journal Writing Examples September 2008 09/01/2008 It is already September! This year has simply flownby. But not in a bad way- I feel as if I've made some realprogress so far this year. I've began many permanent changes in my life. While I have made incredible progress, I still have more to go.
    • I'm still binging and turning to food when I'm not hungry. But its further and farther between now. And it doesn't seem as drastic. So even in regards to emotional eating; I'm doing well. I feel as if I'm still avoiding something... and I will find it and face it! I am choosing to create my life of joy and peace :) Journal Writing Examples September 2008 09/22/2008 Its a beautiful day... not necessarily weather wise, but in the way I'm choosing to feel. I remember to say my personal prayer this morning, and I think that really has helped me. It helps to be in tune with my Heavenly Father. There is just an indescribable comfort and peace in doing so. I ordered another journal this morning through amazon.com. I hope it gets here before I run out of room in this one :) I love writing in my journal, its my way of releasing stress and learning to love myself.
    • A. COMMENTS English journal is good for reading material. Because it help the teacher prepare for class discussion by collecting the student’s insight or raising questions to pursue and help the teacher to prepare notes on the material with test questions. The vocabulary of English journal is easy to understand, because the words are simple and it is a daily record of happening.
    • B. SUGGESTIONS The teacher should be use English journal for teaching in class. Because the teacher can give the students a chance to write creatively, to create fiction journal for an imagined character or historical figure and write fictional newspaper article as well. There are many function of studying English journal, they are to provide a ―live‖ picture of the student’s growing understanding of a subject experience, to keep a record of the student’s thoughts and ideas throughout the student’s experiences, and also to help for identifying the student’s strengths, areas for improvement and preferences in learning.
    • C. STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING ENGLISH JOURNAL There are several variations of journals that can be adapted to fit the needs of the classroom. 1. Personal Journals These journals allow students the freedom to write about their feelings, opinions, expressions and about topics of personal interest. If they wish, students may share these entries with others. 2. Dialogue Journals Dialogue journals are conversations in writing. Most often the conversation is between the student and the teacher or classmates. These journals are interactive - the two conversation partners comment on one another's entries. These conversations encourage students to express themselves in thoughtful and informal ways. 3. Reading Response Journals These journals are used to capture students' reactions to books and to track their reading. The entries might include questions, comparisons, evaluations, letters to characters, predictions and comments on style or mood. 4. Science Journals Writing science journals could be a great way for the teacher to have a better understanding on how the students are thinking about the science lesson. Science journals are a way to incorporate personal ideas with observation and interference. Students can express their opinions with every experiment. Encourage students to write questions about process or outcomes of explorations. They can use drawings, diagrams, data charts and graphs. 5. Art Journals The art journal gives students a place to plan, to gather resource and research materials, to do preliminary drawings and to experiment with media; in short, to explore and document their personal creative processes. On a very basic level, it helps students keep all required and exploratory material together.
    • 6.COMICS
    • A. COMMENTS Comic is good for developing thinking skill for the students, because the students can develop their imagination with positive thinking in their real life. Comic is attract (presentation of image and the colors create more interesting) and direct (material presented directly without having to read a lot of words so that the students do not get bored quickly). For about the picture, it is interesting because it presented with color. But the negative effects are novel can damage the student’s imagination, because sometimes the student’s imagination is not correct with the student’s real life.
    • B. SUGGESTIONS The teacher should be use comics for teaching in class. Because it is stimulated interest of the students, but it must be selected to choose the correct and fun comics for the students. By studying comics, it can motivate the students during the learning process, can improve the quality of learning, can refresh after following a full day of lesson, can be utilized as a means and fun media learning for students, etc.
    • C. STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING COMICS Here are some specific strategies to ponder as you select a graphic novel or comic to read, or as you consider how students might create their own. Thinking about them will help you focus your purpose in your instruction. All of them are useful, as long as the purpose is clear to the teacher and the learner. 1) A Tool to Differentiate Instruction Graphic novels and comics can be a great way to differentiate instruction for learners in terms of reading and also in terms of assessment. Perhaps you want to offer your students a graphic novel to support their reading of a chapter in a rigorous text. If this text is a classic, there are many graphic novel adaptations of classics out there. Maybe you're doing a project-based learning (PBL) project where you want to provide voice and choice for the student assessment. Students might be choosing between a letter, comic or podcast to answer a driving question, such as: how can we debunk myths and stereotypes about world religions? 2) Build Critical Reading Skills Reading standards around Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) can be built through the complex analysis and evaluation of graphic novels and comics. Have students look at how the authors and illustrators use colors, textures, words, text boxes, frames and camera angles; then make connections between these elements and evaluated their effectiveness. 3) Assess Student Learning PBL calls for the creation of authentic products that are useful and credible to the group. You can have students create comics or graphic novels, or components of them, as a useful formative assessment tool to check for understanding of important content. If used as a summative assessment, the comic could be made to combat bullying, such as the suggestion Suzie Boss made in an earlier post. Make the graphic novel or comic a product that students create to meet a need. Don't just make it a regurgitation of knowledge. Instead, give it an authentic purpose.
    • 4) Study the Genre Itself Scott McCloud, in his book Understanding Comics, asserts the legitimacy and complexity of comics and graphic novels as a genre. Pairing selections from his work with a graphic novel or comic can provide interesting discussion and inquiry into the elements of the genre itself. Genre study is an easy way to utilize literature circle groups and instructional lessons, where students get to pick from a variety of options. 5) Examine Literary Elements In addition to traditional literary elements like symbol, character and plot, graphic novels take these elements and modify them, where characters become heroes and villains, where symbols are actually drawn and created. Consider this clip from the movie "Unbreakable," where the "normal" arch villain and hero confront each other, not in a fantasy, but in real life.
    • 7.FUNNY STORY The Genie A Frenchman, an Englishman and a German were travelling in a boat from France to Australia. Unfortunately, the boat sank but the three men swam to a small island. There was nobody on the island and the men waited for two months. No boat came to rescue them. They were very unhappy. ―We will have to live here forever.‖ said the Englishman ― We will have to eat bananas every day.‖ said the German ―We will never see our families again.‖ said the Frenchman. One day, while walking along the beach, they found a bottle. They opened the bottle and out came a genie. The genie said, ―Thank you for letting me out of the bottle. I was inside for 500 years! Now I am free. I will give you each one wish.‖ The German said, ―I want to be back in German at a soccer game. With a beer and sausage and singing songs in the stadium.‖ ―POOF‖, ―Your wish is granted‖ said the genie. The German was back in Germany. The Frenchman said, ―I want to be at the dinner table with my family in France, eating cheese, drinking wine.‖ ―POOF‖, ―Your wish is granted‖ said the genie. The Frenchman was back in France. The Englishman just looked at the genie. The genie said, ―Hurry up! I want to enjoy my freedom.‖ The Englishman thought for a moment and said, ―I am rather lonely here. Can you bring back my two friends?‖ “Poof”, the German and the Frenchman were back on theisland.
    • Fish Tale It was a cold winter day when an old man walked out onto a frozen lake, cut a hole in the ice, dropped in his fishing line and began waiting for a fish to bite. He was there for almost an hour without even a nibble when a young boy walked out onto the ice, cut a hole in the ice not to far from the old man and dropped in his fishing line. It only took about a minute and WHAM!, a Largemouth Bass hit his hook and the boy pulled in the fish. The old man couldn't believe it but figured it was just luck. But the boy dropped in his line and again within just a few minutes pulled in another one. This went on and on until finally the old man couldn't take it any more since he hadn't caught a thing all this time. He went to the boy and said, "Son, I've been here for over an hour without even a nibble. You have been here only a few minutes and have caught about half a dozen fish! How do you do it?" To which the boy responded, "roo raf roo reep ra rums rrarm." "What was that?" The old man asked. Again the boy responded, "roo raf roo reep ra rums rarrm." "Look" said the old man, "I can't understand a word you are saying." So the boy spit into his hand and said, "You have to keep the worms warm!"
    • THE SHOPKEEPER Once there was a Korean shopkeeper named Mr. Park. He lived in New York and had had a small corner store for 45 years. He worked very hard, 16 hours every day and he never took a holiday. One day, his daughter arrived at the store and found Mr. Park lying on the floor. He had had a heart attack! She called 911 and he was rushed to the hospital. He survived and was very weak, resting in the hospital. A day later he awoke and slowly looked around his hospital room. He asked in a weak voice, ―Are you there, my dear wife?‖ ―Yes,‖ she replied ―I am here my dearest.‖ Mr. Park asked, ―Are you here, my oldest son?‖ ―Yes, I am here.‖ replied his oldest son. ―Are you here, my daughter?‖ Mr. Park asked in a faint voice. ―Yes, father, I am here.‖ the daughter replied with a tear in her eye. ―Are you here, my youngest son?‖ asked Mr. Park. ―Yes, papa. I am here by your side.‖ said the baby of the family. Suddenly Mr. Park’s eyes grew big and threw off the bed covers and jumped up, screaming, “SO THEN, WHO IS WATCHING THE STORE!” .
    • A. COMMENTS Funny story is good material for the students, because it is interested for students and can make the students laugh, so that the learning condition is pleased and the students do not feel bored. The using of words vocabulary is easy to understand for students in reading skill. But it still less interesting because there is not the picture beside the story.
    • B. SUGGESTIONS The teacher should be use funny story for teaching in class. Because funny story is good for extensive reading material, there are much topic of funny story can make the students more interested in reading activity and enjoy with the story during learning.
    • C. STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING FUNNY STORY There are some strategies for teaching funny story in class, they are : 1. Discuss and identify what makes a story compelling. They may reflect on their favorite stories and what elements work together to create powerful tales. These may include: - types of stories they prefer, such as adventure or science fiction - strong characters - exciting action - a surprising plot - details about a place you’ve never been 2. Generate story starters that inspire. Students can choose a theme and then produce prompts using the Spin lever. They can adjust one piece of the prompt at a time with the Spin This Wheel buttons. 3. Write a short creative writing piece. Students may choose to use the notebook, letter, newspaper, or postcard templates for their writing and may choose to include a drawing with their story. When students print their work, they are rewarded with a brief animation.
    • 1.LOVE STORY
    • . A. COMMENTS Love story is one of the material which is interested for students because the topic of the love story usually related to the student’s lifestyle. For the content of love story is good, because it can motivate the students in learning and interesting for the students to read it. And the using of words vocabulary is easy to understand for students also
    • B. SUGGESTIONS Sometimes the teacher should be use love story for teaching in class. Because it is good for extensive reading material, there are much topics of love story related to the student’s experience. So that the student will interested in reading activity.
    • C. STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING LOVE STORY Students who are taught reading comprehension strategies are more successful readers. While some students may eventually learn some of these strategies on their own, they can be taught quite effectively in the early elementary grades. Here are ten reading comprehension strategies from Ellin Keene’s book Assessing Comprehension Thinking Strategies to consider. 1. Think out loud. Good readers monitor their thinking while reading 2. Use schema. Consciously connect the text to preexisting knowledge and experiences and consider how it helps their understanding of the text. 3. . Inferring. Use experience and information from the text to draw conclusions, make connections, predictions, and form opinions. 4. Ask questions about the text before, during, and after reading 5. Make decisions about what is important in the text (elements and themes). Be able to summarize the main points. 6. Set a purpose for reading to make it meaningful. 7. Monitor comprehension. Make sure students have strategies in place if they find the text too difficult. 8. . Visualize what is being read. Make brain movies! Tune into the sensory and emotional images of the text to enhance the visualization. Use this information to help make inferences and draw conclusions. 9. Synthesizing and retelling. Keeping track of their impressions while reading and identifying the underlying meaning of the text. Connect the text to information from other sources. Extending that information beyond the text to form opinions and read critically. 10. Text structure. Understanding the elements of a story and how stories are put together helps students analyze and think critically about meaning.
    • 9. POEM A Girl by Ezra Pound The tree has entered my hands, The sap has ascended my arms, The tree has grown in my breast- Downward, The branches grow out of me, like arms. Tree you are, Moss you are, You are violets with wind above them. A child – so high – you are, And all this is folly to the world. The Moon By Robert Louis Stevenson The moon has a face like the clock in the hall; She shines on thieves on the garden wall, On streets and fields and harbour quays, And birdies asleep in the forks of the trees. The squalling cat and the squeaking mouse, The howling dog by the door of the house, The bat that lies in bed at noon, All love to be out by the light of the moon. But all of the things that belong to the day Cuddle to sleep to be out of her way; And flowers and children close their eyes Till up in the morning the sun shall rise.
    • The Road Not Taken By Frost Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood And looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth; Then took the other, as just as fair, And having perhaps the better claim, Because it was grassy and wanted wear; Though as for that the passing there Had worn them really about the same, And both that morning equally lay In leaves no step had trodden black. Oh, I kept the first for another day! Yet knowing how way leads on to way, I doubted if I should ever come back. I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and I I took the one less travelled by, And that has made all the difference. The Rainbow Fairies By L.M.Hadley Two little clouds, one summer’s day, Went flying through the sky. They went so fast they bumped their heads, And both began to cry. Old Father Sun looked out and said, ―Oh! Never mind my dear, I’ll send my little fairy folk, To dry your falling dears.‖
    • One fairy came in violet, And one wore Indigo. In blue, green, yellow, orange, red, They made a pretty row. They wiped the clouds-tears all away. And then from out the sky, Upon a line the sunbeams made, They hung their gowns to dry.
    • A. COMMENTS poem is a good for students. Because it can give the moral value based on the topic. Studying poem is interesting, because it can make the students enjoy that poem, they can express their gesture to read the poem. So it will increase the student’s skill in literature. But, the students who dislike in this material, so that they will feel bored.
    • B. SUGGESTIONS The teacher should be use poem for teaching in class. Because poem is one of the way to respect the Indonesia’s literature as a good culture and human intellectual of Indonesia. In addition, the teacher as a motivator should give understanding about the important of study poem. By studying poem, the students can train to imagine, increase their insight and give a new knowledge about their life surrounding.
    • C. STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING POEM How to get started Begin the school year by preparing a pocket folder for each child labeled "Poetry" and by preparing copies of two poems. I used a school theme. On the first day of school, begin this activity by reading a poem to the students. Then pass out a copy of the poem to each child and reread it to the students as they follow along. Then read the poem together chorally. Poetry lends itself to choral reading because of its rhythm. Follow the same procedure with the second poem. On the second day, reread the poems chorally. Use the poems to do some word study activities. You might have the students search for rhyming words, or synonyms of words you give them. On the third day, introduce another new poem by reading it to them, passing out the poem, reading it again, and then have the students read it chorally. Then read the old poems. By the third day the children usually will have become fluent reading the old poems. So if the poem contains conversational parts (and try to pick many poems that have this feature) assign an individual child to read a character's part. The remainder of the class chorally reads any parts that would be considered narration. The children will enjoy the opportunity to read the individual parts. They have to be really alert and tracking to come in at the proper place. Continue to follow this procedure throughout the school year:  Introduce a new poem by reading it to the class. I tried to do this with lots of expression to give the students some idea of the possibilities of the poem. You may want to pick poems that go with the subject matter you are studying or the season of the year.  Pass out the poem and have the children follow along as you reread it to them.  Read the poem chorally with you as the leader to keep the class together.  If there is new vocabulary in the poem that is crucial to comprehension, discuss it the first day the poem is introduced.
    •  As poems become old poems, use them to work on word skills. These can be done orally, or as pencil and paper activities.  Allow children to read individual character parts during the group choral reading.  Read old poems as mini-Reader Theater scripts. This should be done after the children are very familiar with the poem. A child is assigned to each of the character/narrator parts or to a particular stanza of the poem. The group of children presents the poem at the front of the classroom.  If you have too many poems to read them all at once, have the children take turns picking an old favorite to read. This can go on as long as you need. It is a great way to fill up those few minutes while waiting for PE, art, etc. when there isn't time to start another lesson. How to choose the poems  Start with humorous poems that rhyme. The humor will hook your students and the rhythm of the rhyme helps with the choral reading.  Choosing poems that go with other subjects can be effective. You can often find poems in theme resource books or maybe even in your teacher's manual. There are some teacher resource books that have poems to use with content areas. That way you have permission to reproduce the poem for classroom use. For instance, when I did a spider unit in science in the fall, I used The Spider and the Fly, by Mary Howitt. This poem, an old classic, is in the Spiders book of the Creative Teaching Press Theme Series. It remained a favorite old poem and mini-Readers Theater all year long.  Find poems that have conversational parts that can be turned into a mini-Readers Theater.  Find poems that have definite parts where the children can be divided into groups. For example, using Shel Silverstein's The Meehoo with an Exactlywatt from A Light in the Attic, which is a take-off on a knock-knock joke, you could divide the class in half and have them chorally read the two parts.  Always be looking for a good poem. You can never be sure where a really good one will turn up.
    • Using poems to practice skills Relating skills to what is actually being read is always a good practice. Skills practiced in isolation on a worksheet do not always transfer to actual reading. The one caution here is that you not do this to excess. The main purpose of reading the poems is to create enthusiasm for reading. Always turning it into a skills drill can defeat that purpose. Examine the poem to decide which skill to work on. If the poem has numerous contractions, then use that poem to work on contractions. If it has many short vowel words, use it to work on short vowels. You can make these oral activities or make up a worksheet for the children to complete as a written assignment. Some of the skills I worked into these sessions:  Find synonyms/antonyms. I would say a word and the children would search for a synonym/antonym. Sometimes I told them in which stanza to search.  Work on alphabetical order using words from old poems.  Use words from old poems in word sorts.  Find the nouns, verbs, adjectives.  Find the contractions and possessives. Since both have apostrophes, the students had to use the context to decide which it was.  Paraphrase a short poem. You can see the rhythm of the poem disappear as it turns to prose. It really illustrates the difference.
    • 10. ENCYCLOPEDIA English language From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other uses of "English", see English (disambiguation). English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now the most widely used language in the world.[4] It is spoken as a first language by the majority populations of several sovereign states, including the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand and a number of Caribbean nations. It is the third-most-common native language in the world, after Mandarin Chinese and Spanish.[5] It is widely learned as a second language and is an official language of the European Union, many Commonwealth countries and the United Nations, as well as in many world organisations. English arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and what is now southeast Scotland. Following the extensive influence of Great Britain and the United Kingdom from the 17th century to the mid-20th century, through the British Empire, and also of the United States since the mid-20th century,[6][7][8][9] it has been widely propagated around the world, becoming the leading language of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions.[10][11] Historically, English originated from the fusion of closely related dialects, now collectively termed Old English, which were brought to the eastern coast of Great Britain by Germanic settlers (Anglo-Saxons) by the 5th century – with the word English being derived from the name of the Angles,[12] and ultimately from their ancestral region of Angeln (in what is now Schleswig-Holstein). A significant number of English words are constructed on the basis of roots from Latin, because Latin in some form was the lingua franca of the Christian Church and of European intellectual life.[13] The language was further influenced by the Old Norse language because of Viking invasions in the 9th and 10th centuries. The Norman conquest of England in the 11th century gave rise to heavy borrowings from Norman French, and vocabulary and spelling conventions began to give the appearance of a close relationship with Romance languages[14][15] to what had then become Middle English.
    • The Great Vowel Shift that began in the south of England in the 15th century is one of the historical events that mark the emergence of Modern English from Middle English. Owing to the assimilation of words from many other languages throughout history, modern English contains a very large vocabulary, with complex and irregular spelling, particularly of vowels. Modern English has not only assimilated words from other European languages, but from all over the world. The Oxford English Dictionary lists over 250,000 distinct words, not including many technical, scientific, and slang terms.[16][17] Etymology The word English derives from the eponym Angle, the name of a Germanic tribe thought to originate from the Angeln area of Jutland, now in northern Germany.[18] For possible etymologies of these words, see the articles Angeln and Angles. Significance See also: Anglosphere Modern English, sometimes described as the first global lingua franca,[19][20] is the dominant language or in some instances even the required international language of communications, science, information technology, business, seafaring,[21] aviation,[22] entertainment, radio and diplomacy.[23] Its spread beyond the British Isles began with the growth of the British Empire, and by the late 19th century its reach was truly global.[24] Following British colonisation from the 16th to 19th centuries, it became the dominant language in the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The growing economic and cultural influence of the US and its status as a global superpower since World War II have significantly accelerated the language's spread across the planet.[20] English replaced German as the dominant language of science Nobel Prize laureates during the second half of the 20th century.[25] English equalled and may have surpassed French as the dominant language of diplomacy during the last half of the 19th century. A working knowledge of English has become a requirement in a number of fields, occupations and professions such as medicine and computing; as a consequence over a billion people speak English to at least a basic level (see English as a second or foreign language). It is one of six official languages of the United Nations.[26]
    • One impact of the growth of English is the reduction of native linguistic diversity in many parts of the world. Its influence continues to play an important role in language attrition.[27] Conversely, the natural internal variety of English along with creoles and pidgins have the potential to produce new distinct languages from English over time.[28] History Main article: History of the English language English originated in those dialects of North Sea Germanic that were carried to Britain by Germanic settlers from various parts of what are now the Netherlands, northwest Germany, and Denmark.[29] Up to that point, in Roman Britain the native population is assumed to have spoken the Celtic language Brythonic alongside the acrolectal influence of Latin, from the 400-year Roman occupation.[30] One of these incoming Germanic tribes was the Angles,[31] whom Bede believed to have relocated entirely to Britain.[32] The names 'England' (from Engla land[33] "Land of the Angles") and English (Old English Englisc[34] ) are derived from the name of this tribe—but Saxons, Jutes and a range of Germanic peoples from the coasts of Frisia, Lower Saxony, Jutland and Southern Sweden also moved to Britain in this era.[35][36][37] Initially, Old English was a diverse group of dialects, reflecting the varied origins of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Great Britain[38] but one of these dialects, Late West Saxon, eventually came to dominate, and it is in this that the poem Beowulf is written. Old English was later transformed by two waves of invasion. The first was by speakers of the North Germanic language branch when Halfdan Ragnarsson and Ivar the Boneless started the conquering and colonisation of northern parts of the British Isles in the 8th and 9th centuries (see Danelaw). The second was by speakers of the Romance language Old Norman in the 11th century with the Norman conquest of England. Norman developed into Anglo-Norman, and then Anglo-French – and introduced a layer of words especially via the courts and government. As well as extending the lexicon with Scandinavian and Norman words these two events also simplified the grammar and transformed English into a borrowing language— more than normally open to accept new words from other languages. The linguistic shifts in English following the Norman invasion produced what is now referred to as Middle English; Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales is its best-known work. Throughout all this period Latin in some form was the lingua franca of European intellectual life, first the Medieval Latin of the Christian Church, but later the humanist Renaissance
    • Latin, and those that wrote or copied texts in Latin[13] commonly coined new terms from Latin to refer to things or concepts for which there was no existing native English word. Modern English, which includes the works of William Shakespeare[39] and the King James Bible, is generally dated from about 1550, and after the United Kingdom became a colonial power, English served as the lingua franca of the colonies of the British Empire. In the post- colonial period, some of the newly created nations that had multiple indigenous languages opted to continue using English as the lingua franca to avoid the political difficulties inherent in promoting any one indigenous language above the others. As a result of the growth of the British Empire, English was adopted in North America, India, Africa, Australia and many other regions, a trend extended with the emergence of the United States as a superpower in the mid-20th century. Classification and related languages Germanic family The English language belongs to the Anglo-Frisian sub-group of the West Germanic branch of the Germanic family, a member of the Indo-European languages. Modern English is the direct descendant of Middle English, itself a direct descendant of Old English, a descendant of Proto-Germanic. Typical of most Germanic languages, English is characterised by the use of modal verbs, the division of verbs into strong and weak classes, and common sound shifts from Proto-Indo-European known as Grimm's Law. The closest living relatives of English are Scots (spoken primarily in Scotland and parts of Northern Ireland where Ulster Scots is spoken) and Frisian (spoken on the southern fringes of the North Sea in Denmark, the Netherlands, and Germany). After Scots and Frisian come those Germanic languages that are more distantly related: the non-Anglo-Frisian West Germanic languages (Dutch, Afrikaans, Low German, High German), and the North Germanic languages (Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic, and Faroese). With the (partial) exception of Scots, none of the other languages are mutually intelligible with English, owing in part to the divergences in lexis, syntax, semantics, and phonology, and to the isolation afforded to the English language by the British Isles, although some, such as Dutch, do show strong affinities with English, especially to earlier stages of the language. Isolation has allowed English and Scots (as well as Icelandic and Faroese) to develop independently of the Continental Germanic languages and their influences over time.[40]
    • In addition to isolation, lexical differences between English and other Germanic languages exist due to diachronic change, semantic drift, and to substantial borrowing in English of words from other languages, especially Latin and French (though borrowing is in no way unique to English). For example, compare "exit" (Latin), vs. Dutch uitgang and German Ausgang (literally "out-going", though outgang continues to survive dialectally) and "change" (French) vs. Dutch verandering and German Änderung (literally "elsing, othering", i.e. "alteration"); "movement" (French) vs. Dutch beweging and German Bewegung ("beway-ing", i.e. "proceeding along the way"); etc. With the exception of exit (a Modern English borrowing), Middle English had already distanced itself from other Germanic languages, having the terms wharf, schift (="shift"), and wending for "change"; and already by Old English times the word bewegan meant "to cover, envelop", rather than "to move". Preference of one synonym over another also causes differentiation in lexis, even where both words are Germanic, as in English care vs. German Sorge. Both words descend from Proto-Germanic *karō and *surgō respectively, but *karō has become the dominant word in English for "care" while in German, Dutch, and Scandinavian languages, the *surgō root prevailed. *Surgō still survives in English, however, as sorrow. Despite extensive lexical borrowing, the workings of the English language are resolutely Germanic, and English remains classified as a Germanic language due to its structure and grammar. Borrowed words get incorporated into a Germanic system of conjugation, declension, and syntax, and behave exactly as though they were native Germanic words from Old English. For example, the word reduce is borrowed from Latin redūcere; however, in English one says "I reduce – I reduced – I will reduce" rather than "redūcō – redūxī – redūcam"; likewise, we say: "John's life insurance company" (cf. Dutch "Johns levensverzekeringsmaatschappij" [= leven (life) + verzekering (insurance) + maatschappij (company)] rather than "the company of insurance life of John", cf. the French: la compagnie d'assurance-vie de John). Furthermore, in English, all basic grammatical particles added to nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs are Germanic. For nouns, these include the normal plural marker -s/-es (apple – apples; cf. Frisian appel – appels; Dutch appel – appels; Afrikaans appel – appels), and the possessive markers -'s (Brad's hat; German Brads Hut; Danish Brads hat) and -s' . For verbs, these include the third person present ending -s/-es (e.g. he stands/he reaches ), the present participle ending -ing (cf. Dutch -ende; German -end(e)), the simple past tense and past participle ending -ed (Swedish -ade/-ad), and the formation of the English infinitive using to (e.g. "to drive"; cf. Old English tō drīfenne; Dutch te drijven; Low German to
    • drieven; German zu treiben). Adverbs generally receive an -ly ending (cf. German -lich; Swedish -ligt), and adjectives and adverbs are inflected for the comparative and superlative using -er and -est (e.g. hard/harder/hardest; cf. Dutch hard/harder/hardst), or through a combination with more and most (cf. Swedish mer and mest). These particles append freely to all English words regardless of origin (tsunamis; communicates; to buccaneer; during; calmer; bizarrely) and all derive from Old English. Even the lack or absence of affixes, known as zero or null (-Ø) affixes, derive from endings which previously existed in Old English (usually -e, -a, -u, -o, -an, etc.), that later weakened to -e, and have since ceased to be pronounced and spelt (e.g. Modern English "I sing" = I sing-Ø < I singe < Old English ic singe; "we thought" = we thought-Ø < we thoughte(n) < Old English wē þōhton). Old Norse impact Due to the Viking colonisation and influence of Old Norse upon Middle English, English syntax follows a pattern similar to that of North Germanic languages (Danish, Swedish, Icelandic, etc.) in contrast to other West Germanic languages, such as Dutch and German. This is especially evident in the order and placement of verbs. For example, English "I will never see you again" = Danish "Jeg vil aldrig se dig igen"; Icelandic "Ég mun aldrei sjá þig aftur", whereas in Dutch and German the main verb is placed at the end (e.g. Dutch "Ik zal je nooit weer zien"; German "Ich werde dich nie wieder sehen", literally, "I will you never again see"). This is also observable in perfect tense constructions, as in English "I have never seen anything in the square" = Danish "Jeg har aldrig set noget på torvet"; Icelandic "Ég hef aldrei séð neitt á torginu", where Dutch and German place the past participle at the end (e.g. Dutch "Ik heb nooit iets op het plein gezien"; German "Ich habe nie etwas auf dem Platz gesehen", literally, "I have never anything in the square seen"). As in most Germanic languages, English adjectives usually come before the noun they modify, even when the adjective is of Latinate origin (e.g. medical emergency, national treasure). Also, English continues to make extensive use of self-explaining compounds (e.g. streetcar, classroom), and nouns which serve as modifiers (e.g. lamp post, life insurance company), traits inherited from Old English (See also Kenning). The kinship with other Germanic languages can also be seen in the tensing of English verbs (e.g. English fall/fell/fallen/will or shall fall, West Frisian fal/foel/fallen/sil falle, Dutch vallen/viel/gevallen/zullen vallen, German fallen/fiel/gefallen/werden fallen, Norwegian faller/falt/falt or falne/vil or skal falle), the comparatives of adjectives and adverbs (e.g. English good/better/best, West Frisian goed/better/best, Dutch goed/beter/best, German
    • gut/besser/best), the treatment of nouns (English shoemaker, shoemaker's, shoemakers, shoemakers'; Dutch schoenmaker, schoenmakers, schoenmakers, schoenmakeren; Swedish skomakare, skomakares, skomakare, skomakares), and the large amount of cognates (e.g. English wet, Scots weet, West Frisian wiet, Swedish våt; English send, Dutch zenden, German senden; English meaning, Swedish mening, Icelandic meining, etc.). It occasionally gives rise to false friends (e.g. English time vs Norwegian time, meaning "hour"; English gift vs German Gift, meaning "poison"), while differences in phonology can obscure words that really are related (tooth vs. German Zahn; compare also Danish tand, North Frisian toth). Sometimes both semantics and phonology are different (German Zeit ("time") is related to English "tide", but the English word, through a transitional phase of meaning "period"/"interval", has come primarily to mean gravitational effects on the ocean by the moon, though the original meaning is preserved in forms like tidings and betide, and phrases such as to tide over).[citation needed] Many North Germanic words entered English due to the settlement of Viking raiders and Danish invasions which began around the 9th century (see Danelaw). Many of these words are common words, often mistaken for being native, which shows how close-knit the relations between the English and the Scandinavian settlers were (See below: Words of Old Norse origin). Dutch and Low German also had a considerable influence on English vocabulary, contributing common everyday terms and many nautical and trading terms (See below: Words of Dutch and Low German origin). Dialects and varieties Main article: List of dialects of the English language English has been subject to a large degree of regional dialect variation for many centuries. Its global spread now means that a large number of dialects and English-based creole languages and pidgins can be found all over the world. Several educated native dialects of English have wide acceptance as standards in much of the world. In the United Kingdom much emphasis is placed on Received Pronunciation, an educated dialect of South East England. General American, which is spread over most of the United States and much of Canada, is more typically the model for the American continents and areas (such as the Philippines) that have had either close association with the United States, or a desire to be so identified. In Oceania, the major native dialect of Australian English is spoken as a first language by the vast majority of the inhabitants of the Australian
    • continent, with General Australian serving as the standard accent. The English of neighbouring New Zealand as well as that of South Africa have to a lesser degree been influential native varieties of the language. Aside from these major dialects, there are numerous other varieties of English, which include, in most cases, several subvarieties, such as Cockney, Scouse and Geordie within British English; Newfoundland English within Canadian English; and African American Vernacular English ("Ebonics") and Southern American English within American English. English is a pluricentric language, without a central language authority like France's Académie française; and therefore no one variety is considered "correct" or "incorrect" except in terms of the expectations of the particular audience to which the language is directed. Scots has its origins in early Northern Middle English[75] and developed and changed during its history with influence from other sources. However, following the Acts of Union 1707 a process of language attrition began, whereby successive generations adopted more and more features from Standard English. Whether Scots is now a separate language or is better described as a dialect of English (i.e. part of Scottish English) is in dispute, although the UK government accepts Scots as a regional language and has recognised it as such under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.[76] There are a number of regional dialects of Scots, and pronunciation, grammar and lexis of the traditional forms differ, sometimes substantially, from other varieties of English. English speakers have many different accents, which often signal the speaker's native dialect or language. For the most distinctive characteristics of regional accents, see Regional accents of English, and for a complete list of regional dialects, see List of dialects of the English language. Within England, variation is now largely confined to pronunciation rather than grammar or vocabulary. At the time of the Survey of English Dialects, grammar and vocabulary differed across the country, but a process of lexical attrition has led most of this variation to die out.[77] Just as English itself has borrowed words from many different languages over its history, English loanwords now appear in many languages around the world, indicative of the technological and cultural influence of its speakers. Several pidgins and creole languages have been formed on an English base, such as Jamaican Patois, Nigerian Pidgin, and Tok Pisin. There are many words in English coined to describe forms of particular non-English languages that contain a very high proportion of English words.
    • Register effects It is well-established[78] that informal speech registers tend to be made up predominantly of words of Anglo-Saxon or Germanic origin, whereas the Latinate vocabulary is usually reserved for more formal uses such as legal, scientific, and otherwise scholarly or academic texts. Child-directed speech, which is an informal speech register, also tends to rely heavily on vocabulary rife in words derived from Anglo-Saxon. The speech of mothers to young children has a higher percentage of native Anglo-Saxon verb tokens than speech addressed to adults.[79] In particular, in parents' child-directed speech the clausal core [80] is built in the most part by Anglo-Saxon verbs, namely, almost all tokens of the grammatical relations subject-verb, verb-direct object and verb-indirect object that young children are presented with, are constructed with native verbs.[81] The Anglo-Saxon verb vocabulary consists of short verbs, but its grammar is relatively complex. Syntactic patterns specific to this sub-vocabulary in present-day English include periphrastic constructions for tense, aspect, questioning and negation, and phrasal lexemes functioning as complex predicates, all of which also occur in child-directed speech. The historical origin of vocabulary items affects the order of acquisition of various aspects of language development in English-speaking children. Latinate vocabulary is in general a later acquisition in children than the native Anglo-Saxon one.[82][83] Young children almost exclusively use the native verb vocabulary in constructing basic grammatical relations, apparently mastering its analytic aspects at an early stage.[81] Formal written English Main article: Formal written English A version of the language almost universally agreed upon by educated English speakers around the world is called formal written English. It takes virtually the same form regardless of where it is written, in contrast to spoken English, which differs significantly between dialects, accents, and varieties of slang and of colloquial and regional expressions. Local variations in the formal written version of the language are quite limited, being restricted largely to minor spelling, lexical and grammatical differences between different national varieties of English (e.g. British, American, Indian, Australian, South African, etc.).
    • Simplified and constructed varieties Artificially simplified versions of the language have been created that are easier for non- native speakers to read. Basic English is a constructed language, with a restricted number of words, created by Charles Kay Ogden and described in his book Basic English: A General Introduction with Rules and Grammar (1930). Ogden said that it would take seven years to learn English, seven months for Esperanto, and seven weeks for Basic English.[citation needed] Thus, Basic English may be employed by companies that need to make complex books for international use, as well as by language schools that need to impart some knowledge of English in a short time. Ogden did not include any words in Basic English that could be said instead with a combination of other words already in the Basic English lexicon, and he worked to make the vocabulary suitable for speakers of any other language. He put his vocabulary selections through a large number of tests and adjustments. Ogden also simplified the grammar but tried to keep it normal for English users. Although it was not built into a program, similar simplifications were devised for various international uses. Simplified English is a controlled language originally developed for aerospace industry maintenance manuals. It employs a carefully limited and standardised[84] subset of English. Simplified English has a lexicon of approved words and those words can only be used in certain ways. For example, the word close can be used in the phrase "Close the door" but not "do not go close to the landing gear". Other constructed varieties of English include:  E-Prime excludes forms of the verb to be.  English reform is an attempt to improve collectively upon the English language.  Manually Coded English consists of a variety of systems that have been developed to represent the English language with hand signals, designed primarily for use in deaf education. These should not be confused with true sign languages such as British Sign Language and American Sign Language used in Anglophone countries, which are independent and not based on English.  Seaspeak and the related Airspeak and PoliceSpeak, all based on restricted vocabularies, were designed by Edward Johnson starting from the 1980s to aid international cooperation and communication in specific areas.
    •  Special English is a simplified version of English used by the Voice of America. It uses a vocabulary of only 1500 words. Phonology Main article: English phonology The phonology (sound system) of English differs between dialects. The descriptions below are most closely applicable to the standard varieties known as Received Pronunciation (RP) and General American. For information concerning a range of other varieties, see IPA chart for English dialects. Consonants The table below shows the system of consonant phonemes that functions in most major varieties of English. The symbols are from the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), and are also used in the pronunciation keys of many dictionaries. For more detailed information see English phonology: Consonants. Bilabial Labio- dental Dental Alveolar Post- alveolar Palatal Velar Labial- velar Glottal Nasal m n ŋ Plosive p b t d k ɡ Affricate tʃ dʒ Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ (x) h Approximant r J w Lateral l Where consonants are given in pairs (as with "p b"), the first is voiceless, the second is voiced. Most of the symbols represent the same sounds as they normally do when used as letters (see Writing system below), but /j/ represents the initial sound of yacht. The symbol /ʃ / represents the sh sound, /ʒ / the middle sound of vision, /tʃ / the ch sound, /dʒ / the sound of j in jump, /θ/ and /ð/ the th sounds in thing and this respectively, and /ŋ/ the ng sound in sing. The voiceless velar fricative /x/ is not a regular phoneme in most varieties of English,
    • although it is used by some speakers in Scots/Gaelic words such as loch or in other loanwords such as Chanukah. Some of the more significant variations in the pronunciation of consonants are these:  In non-rhotic accents such as Received Pronunciation and Australian English, /r/ can only appear before a vowel (so there is no "r" sound in words like card). The actual pronunciation of /r/ varies between dialects; most common is the alveolar approximant [ɹ].  In North American English and Australian English, /t/ and /d/ are flapped [ɾ] in many positions between vowels.[85] This means that word pairs such as latter and ladder may become homophones for speakers of these dialects.  The th sounds /θ/ and /ð/ are sometimes pronounced as /f/ and /v/ in Cockney, and as dental plosives (contrasting with the usual alveolar plosives) in some Irish varieties. In African American Vernacular English, /ð/ has merged with dental /d/.  A voiceless w, [ʍ], sometimes written /hw/, for the wh in words like when and which, is preserved in Scottish and Irish English and by some speakers elsewhere.  The voiceless plosives /p/, /t/ and /k/ are frequently aspirated, particularly at the start of stressed syllables, but they are not aspirated after an initial /s/, as in spin. Vowels The system of vowel phonemes and their pronunciation is subject to significant variation between dialects. The table below lists the vowels found in Received Pronunciation (RP) and General American, with examples of words in which they occur. The vowels are represented with symbols from the International Phonetic Alphabet; those given for RP are in relatively standard use in British dictionaries and other publications. For more detailed information see English phonology: Vowels. RP GAm word monophthongs iː I need ɪ ɪ Bid e ɛ bed RP GAm word monophthongs (cont.) ʊ ʊ good uː u food ʌ ʌ but RP GAm word diphthongs eɪ eɪ bay əʊ oʊ road aɪ aɪ cry
    • æ Æ back ɒ (ɑ) box ɔː ɔ paw ɑː ɑ bra ɜː ɜr bird ə ə comma (ɪ) ɨ roses aʊ aʊ cow ɔɪ ɔɪ boy ɪə (ɪr) fear ɛə (ɛr) fair ʊə (ʊr) lure Some points to note:  For words which in RP have /ɒ/, most North American dialects have /ɑ/ (as in the example of box above) or /ɔ/ (as in cloth). However some North American varieties do not have the vowel /ɔ/ at all (except before /r/); see cot–caught merger.  In present-day Received Pronunciation, the realization of the /æ/ phoneme is more open than the symbol suggests, and is closer to [a], as in most other accents in Britain. The sound [æ] is now found only in conservative RP.[86]  In General American and some other rhotic accents, the combination of vowel+/r/ is often realized as an r-colored vowel. For example, butter /ˈbʌtər/ is pronounced with an r-colored schwa, [ɚ]. Similarly nurse contains the r-colored vowel [ɝ].  The vowel conventionally written /ʌ/ is actually pronounced more centrally, as [ɐ], in RP. In the northern half of England this vowel is replaced by /ʊ/ (so cut rhymes with put).  In unstressed syllables there may or may not be a distinction between /ə/ (schwa) and /ɪ/ (/ɨ/). So for some speakers there is no difference between roses and Rosa's. For more information see Reduced vowels in English.  The diphthongs /eɪ/ and /əʊ/ (/oʊ/) tend towards the monophthongal pronunciations [eː] and [oː] in some dialects, including Canadian, Scottish, Irish and Northern English.  In parts of North America /aɪ/ is pronounced [ʌɪ] before voiceless consonants. This is particularly true in Canada, where also /aʊ/ is pronounced [ʌʊ] in this position. See Canadian raising.  The sound /ʊə/ is coming to be replaced by /ɔː/ in many words; for example, sure is often pronounced like shore. See English-language vowel changes before historic r. Stress, rhythm and intonation English is a strongly stressed language, in which stress is said to be phonemic, i.e. capable of distinguishing words (such as the noun increase, stressed on the first syllable, and the verb
    • increase, stressed on the second syllable; see also Initial-stress-derived noun). In almost any word of more than one syllable there will be one syllable identified as taking the primary stress, and possibly another taking a secondary stress, as in civilization /ˌ sɪ vəlaɪ ˈ zeɪ ʃ n /, in which the first syllable carries secondary stress, the fourth syllable carries primary stress, and the other syllables are unstressed.[87] Closely related to stress in English is the process of vowel reduction; for example, in the noun contract the first syllable is stressed and contains the vowel /ɒ / (in RP), whereas in the verb contract the first syllable is unstressed and its vowel is reduced to /ə/ (schwa).[88] The same process applies to certain common function words like of, which are pronounced with different vowels depending on whether or not they are stressed within the sentence. For more details, see Reduced vowels in English. English also has strong prosodic stress – the placing of additional emphasis within a sentence on the words to which a speaker wishes to draw attention, and corresponding weaker pronunciation of less important words. As regards rhythm, English is classed as a stress-timed language – one in which there is a tendency for the time intervals between stressed syllables to become equal, with corresponding faster pronunciation of groups of unstressed syllables. As concerns intonation, the pitch of the voice is used syntactically in English; for example, to convey surprise or irony, or to change a statement into a question. Most dialects of English use falling pitch for definite statements, and rising pitch to express uncertainty, as in questions (particularly yes-no questions). There is also a characteristic change of pitch on strongly stressed syllables, particularly on the "nuclear" (most strongly stressed) syllable in a sentence or intonation group. For more details see Intonation (linguistics): Intonation in English. Grammar Main article: English grammar English grammar has minimal inflection compared with most other Indo-European languages. For example, Modern English, unlike Modern German or Dutch and the Romance languages, lacks grammatical gender and adjectival agreement. Case marking has almost disappeared from the language and mainly survives in pronouns. The patterning of strong (e.g. speak/spoke/spoken) versus weak verbs (e.g. love/loved or kick/kicked) inherited from its Germanic origins has declined in importance in modern English, and the remnants of inflection (such as plural marking) have become more regular.
    • At the same time, the language has become more analytic, and has developed features such as modal verbs and word order as resources for conveying meaning. Auxiliary verbs mark constructions such as questions, negative polarity, the passive voice and progressive aspect. Vocabulary English vocabulary has changed considerably over the centuries.[89] Like many languages deriving from Proto-Indo-European (PIE), many of the most common words in English can trace back their origin (through the Germanic branch) to PIE. Such words include the basic pronouns I, from Old English ic, (cf. German Ich, Gothic ik, Latin ego, Greek ego, Sanskrit aham), me (cf. German mich, mir, Gothic mik, mīs, Latin mē, Greek eme, Sanskrit mam), numbers (e.g. one, two, three, cf. Dutch een, twee, drie, Gothic ains, twai, threis (þreis), Latin ūnus, duo, trēs, Greek oinos "ace (on dice)", duo, treis), common family relationships such as mother, father, brother, sister etc. (cf. Dutch moeder, Greek meter, Latin mater, Sanskrit matṛ ; mother), names of many animals (cf. German Maus, Dutch muis, Sanskrit mus, Greek mus, Latin mūs; mouse), and many common verbs (cf. Old High German knājan, Old Norse kná, Greek gignōmi, Latin gnoscere, Hittite kanes; to know). Germanic words (generally words of Old English or to a lesser extent Old Norse origin) tend to be shorter than Latinate words, and are more common in ordinary speech, and include nearly all the basic pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, modal verbs etc. that form the basis of English syntax and grammar. The shortness of the words is generally due to syncope in Middle English (e.g. OldEng hēafod > ModEng head, OldEng sāwol > ModEng soul) and to the loss of final syllables due to stress (e.g. OldEng gamen > ModEng game, OldEng ǣrende > ModEng errand), not because Germanic words are inherently shorter than Latinate words (the lengthier, higher-register words of Old English were largely forgotten following the subjugation of English after the Norman Conquest, and most of the Old English lexis devoted to literature, the arts, and sciences ceased to be productive when it fell into disuse. Only the shorter, more direct, words of Old English tended to pass into the Modern language.) Consequently, those words which tend to be regarded as elegant or educated in Modern English are usually Latinate. However, the excessive use of Latinate words is considered at times to be either pretentious or an attempt to obfuscate an issue. George Orwell's essay "Politics and the English Language", considered an important scrutinisation of the English language, is critical of this, as well as other perceived misuses of the language.
    • An English speaker is in many cases able to choose between Germanic and Latinate synonyms: come or arrive; sight or vision; freedom or liberty. In some cases, there is a choice between a Germanic derived word (oversee), a Latin derived word (supervise), and a French word derived from the same Latin word (survey); or even Germanic words derived from Norman French (e.g., warranty) and Parisian French (guarantee), and even choices involving multiple Germanic and Latinate sources are possible: sickness (Old English), ill (Old Norse), infirmity (French), affliction (Latin). Such synonyms harbour a variety of different meanings and nuances. Yet the ability to choose between multiple synonyms is not a consequence of French and Latin influence, as this same richness existed in English prior to the extensive borrowing of French and Latin terms. Old English was extremely resourceful in its ability to express synonyms and shades of meaning on its own, in many respects rivaling or exceeding that of Modern English (synonyms numbering in the thirties for certain concepts were not uncommon). Take for instance the various ways to express the word "astronomer" or "astrologer" in Old English: tunglere, tungolcræftiga, tungolwītega, tīdymbwlātend, tīdscēawere.[90] In Modern English, however, the roles of such synonyms have largely been replaced by equivalents taken from Latin, French, and Greek, as English has taken the position of a diminished reliance upon native elements and resources for the creation of new words and terminologies. Familiarity with the etymology of groups of synonyms can give English speakers greater control over their linguistic register. See: List of Germanic and Latinate equivalents in English, Doublet (linguistics). A commonly noted area where Germanic and French-derived words coexist is that of domestic or game animals and the meats produced from them. The nouns for meats are often different from, and unrelated to, those for the corresponding animals, the animal commonly having a Germanic name and the meat having a French-derived one. Examples include: deer and venison; cow and beef; swine/pig and pork; and sheep/lamb and mutton. This is assumed to be a result of the aftermath of the Norman conquest of England, where an Anglo-Norman- speaking elite were the consumers of the meat, produced by lower classes, which happened to be largely Anglo-Saxon, although a similar duality can also be seen in other languages like French, which did not undergo such linguistic upheaval (e.g. boeuf "beef" vs. vache "cow"). With the exception of beef and pork, the distinction today is gradually becoming less and less pronounced (venison is commonly referred to simply as deer meat, mutton is lamb, and chicken is both the animal and the meat over the more traditional term poultry. Use of the term mutton, however, remains, especially when referring to the meat of an older sheep,
    • distinct from lamb; and poultry remains when referring to the meat of birds and fowls in general.) There are Latinate words that are used in everyday speech. These words no longer appear Latinate and oftentimes have no Germanic equivalents. For instance, the words mountain, valley, river, aunt, uncle, move, use, and push are Latinate. Likewise, the inverse can occur: acknowledge, meaningful, understanding, mindful, lavish, behaviour, forbearance, behoove, forestall, allay, rhyme, starvation, embodiment come from Anglo-Saxon, and allegiance, abandonment, debutant, feudalism, seizure, guarantee, disregard, wardrobe, disenfranchise, disarray, bandolier, bourgeoisie, debauchery, performance, furniture, gallantry are of Germanic origin, usually through the Germanic element in French, so it is oftentimes impossible to know the origin of a word based on its register. English easily accepts technical terms into common usage and often imports new words and phrases. Examples of this phenomenon include contemporary words such as cookie, Internet and URL (technical terms), as well as genre, über, lingua franca and amigo (imported words/phrases from French, German, Italian, and Spanish, respectively). In addition, slang often provides new meanings for old words and phrases. In fact, this fluidity is so pronounced that a distinction often needs to be made between formal forms of English and contemporary usage. See also: sociolinguistics Number of words in English The vocabulary of English is undoubtedly very large, but assigning a specific number to its size is more a matter of definition than of calculation – and there is no official source to define accepted English words and spellings in the way that the French Académie française and similar bodies do for other languages. Archaic, dialectal, and regional words might or might not be widely considered as "English", and neologisms are continually coined in medicine, science, technology and other fields, along with new slang and adopted foreign words. Some of these new words enter wide usage while others remain restricted to small circles. The General Explanations at the beginning of the Oxford English Dictionary states:
    • The Vocabulary of a widely diffused and highly cultivated living language is not a fixed quantity circumscribed by definite limits... there is absolutely no defining line in any direction: the circle of the English language has a well-defined centre but no discernible circumference. The current FAQ for the OED further states: How many words are there in the English language? There is no single sensible answer to this question. It's impossible to count the number of words in a language, because it's so hard to decide what actually counts as a word.[91] The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (OED2) includes over 600,000 definitions, following a rather inclusive policy: It embraces not only the standard language of literature and conversation, whether current at the moment, or obsolete, or archaic, but also the main technical vocabulary, and a large measure of dialectal usage and slang (Supplement to the OED, 1933).[92] The editors of Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged include 475,000 main headwords, but in their preface they estimate the true number to be much higher. Comparisons of the vocabulary size of English to that of other languages are generally not taken very seriously by linguists and lexicographers. Besides the fact that dictionaries will vary in their policies for including and counting entries,[93] what is meant by a given language and what counts as a word do not have simple definitions. Also, a definition of word that works for one language may not work well in another,[94] with differences in morphology and orthography making cross-linguistic definitions and word-counting difficult, and potentially giving very different results.[95] Linguist Geoffrey K. Pullum has gone so far as to compare concerns over vocabulary size (and the notion that a supposedly larger lexicon leads to "greater richness and precision") to an obsession with penis length.[96] In December 2010 a joint Harvard/Google study found the language to contain 1,022,000 words and to expand at the rate of 8,500 words per year.[97] The findings came from a computer analysis of 5,195,769 digitised books. Others have estimated a rate of growth of 25,000 words each year.[98] Word origins Main article: Lists of English loanwords by country or language of origin
    • One of the consequences of the French influence is that the vocabulary of English is, to a certain extent, divided between those words that are Germanic (mostly West Germanic, with a smaller influence from the North Germanic branch) and those that are "Latinate" (derived directly from Latin, or through Norman French or other Romance languages). The situation is further compounded, as French, particularly Old French and Anglo-French, were also contributors in English of significant numbers of Germanic words, mostly from the Frankish element in French (see List of English Latinates of Germanic origin). The majority (estimates range from roughly 50%[99] to more than 80%[100] ) of the thousand most common English words are Germanic. However, the majority of more advanced words in subjects such as the sciences, philosophy and mathematics come from Latin or Greek, with Arabic also providing many words in astronomy, mathematics, and chemistry.[101] Source of the most frequent 7,476 English words 1st 100 1st 1,000 2nd 1,000 Subsequent Germanic 97% 57% 39% 36% Italic 3% 36% 51% 51% Hellenic 0 4% 4% 7% Others 0 3% 6% 6% Source: Nation 2001, p. 265 Numerous sets of statistics have been proposed to demonstrate the proportionate origins of English vocabulary. None, as yet, is considered definitive by most linguists. A computerised survey of about 80,000 words in the old Shorter Oxford Dictionary (3rd ed.) was published in Ordered Profusion by Thomas Finkenstaedt and Dieter Wolff (1973)[102] that estimated the origin of English words as follows:
    • Influences in English vocabulary  Langue d'oïl, including French and Old Norman: 28.3%  Latin, including modern scientific and technical Latin: 28.24%  Germanic languages (including words directly inherited from Old English; does not include Germanic words coming from the Germanic element in French, Latin or other Romance languages): 25%  Greek: 5.32%  No etymology given: 4.03%  Derived from proper names: 3.28%  All other languages: less than 1% A survey by Joseph M. Williams in Origins of the English Language of 10,000 words taken from several thousand business letters gave this set of statistics:[103]  French (langue d'oïl): 41%  "Native" English: 33%  Latin: 15%  Old Norse: 2%  Dutch: 1%  Other: 10% Words of Old Norse origin Main article: List of English words of Old Norse origin
    • Many words of Old Norse origin have entered the English language, primarily from the Viking colonisation of eastern and northern England between 800–1000 during the Danelaw. These include common words such as anger, awe, bag, big, birth, blunder, both, cake, call, cast, cosy, cross, cut, die, dirt, drag, drown, egg, fellow, flat, flounder, gain, get, gift, give, guess, guest, gust, hug, husband, ill, kid, law, leg, lift, likely, link, loan, loose, low, mistake, odd, race (running), raise, root, rotten, same, scale, scare, score, seat, seem, sister, skill, skin, skirt, skull, sky, stain, steak, sway, take, though, thrive, Thursday, tight, till (until), trust, ugly, want, weak, window, wing, wrong, the pronoun they (and its forms), and even the verb are (the present plural form of to be) through a merger of Old English and Old Norse cognates.[104] More recent Scandinavian imports include angstrom, fjord, geyser, kraken, litmus, nickel, ombudsman, saga, ski, slalom, smorgasbord, and tungsten. Words of French origin Main article: List of English words of French origin A large portion of English vocabulary is of French or Langues d'oïl origin, and was transmitted to English via the Anglo-Norman language spoken by the upper classes in England in the centuries following the Norman Conquest. Words of Norman French origin include competition, mountain, art, table, publicity, role, pattern, joust, choice, and force. As a result of the length of time they have been in use in English, these words have been anglicised to fit English rules of phonology, pronunciation and spelling. Some French words were adopted during the 17th to 19th centuries, when French was the dominant language of Western international politics and trade. These words can normally be distinguished because they retain French rules for pronunciation and spelling, including diacritics, are often phrases rather than single words, and are sometimes written in italics. Examples include police, routine, machine, façade, table d'hôte and affaire de cœur. These words and phrases retain their French spelling and pronunciation because historically their French origin was emphasised to denote the speaker as educated or well-travelled at a time when education and travelling was still restricted to the middle and upper classes, and so their use implied a higher social status in the user. (See also: French phrases used by English speakers). Words of Dutch and Low German origin Main article: List of English words of Dutch origin
    • Many words describing the navy, types of ships, and other objects or activities on the water are of Dutch origin. Yacht, skipper, cruiser, flag, freight, furlough, breeze, hoist, iceberg, boom, duck ("fabric, cloth"), and maelstrom are examples. Other words pertain to art and daily life: easel, etch, slim, staple (Middle Dutch stapel "market"), slip (Middle Dutch slippen), landscape, cookie, curl, shock, aloof, boss, brawl (brallen "to boast"), smack (smakken "to hurl down"), shudder, scum, peg, coleslaw, waffle, dope (doop "dipping sauce"), slender (Old Dutch slinder), slight, gas, pump. Dutch has also contributed to English slang, e.g. spook, and the now obsolete snyder (tailor) and stiver (small coin). Words from Low German include bluster, cower, dollar, drum, geek, grab, lazy, mate, monkey, mud, ogle, orlop, paltry, poll, poodle, prong, scurvy, smug, smuggle, trade. Writing system Main articles: English alphabet, English braille, and English orthography Since around the 9th century, English has been written in the Latin script, which replaced Anglo-Saxon runes. The modern English alphabet contains 26 letters of the Latin script: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z (which also have majuscule, capital or uppercase forms: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z). Other symbols used in writing English include the ligatures, æ and œ (though these are no longer common). There is also some usage of diacritics, mainly in foreign loanwords (like the acute accent in café and exposé), and in the occasional use of a diaeresis to indicate that two vowels are pronounced separately (as in naïve, Zoë). For more information see English terms with diacritical marks. The spelling system, or orthography, of English is multilayered, with elements of French, Latin and Greek spelling on top of the native Germanic system; further complications have arisen through sound changes with which the orthography has not kept pace. This means that, compared with many other languages, English spelling is not a reliable indicator of pronunciation and vice versa (it is not, generally speaking, a phonemic orthography). Though letters and sounds may not correspond in isolation, spelling rules that take into account syllable structure, phonetics, and accents are 75% or more reliable.[105] Some phonics spelling advocates claim that English is more than 80% phonetic.[106] However, English has fewer consistent relationships between sounds and letters than many other languages; for example, the letter sequence ough can be pronounced in 10 different ways. The consequence of this complex orthographic history is that reading can be challenging.[107] It takes longer for
    • students to become completely fluent readers of English than of many other languages, including French, Greek, and Spanish.[108] English-speaking children have been found to take up to two years longer to learn to read than children in 12 other European countries.[109] As regards the consonants, the correspondence between spelling and pronunciation is fairly regular. The letters b, d, f, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, z represent, respectively, the phonemes /b/, /d/, /f/, /h/, /dʒ /, /k/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /p/, /r/, /s/, /t/, /v/, /w/, /z/ (as tabulated in the Consonants section above). The letters c and g normally represent /k/ and /g/, but there is also a soft c pronounced /s/, and a soft g pronounced /dʒ /. Some sounds are represented by digraphs: ch for /tʃ /, sh for /ʃ /, th for /θ/ or /ð/, ng for /ŋ/ (also ph is pronounced /f/ in Greek-derived words). Doubled consonant letters (and the combination ck) are generally pronounced as single consonants, and qu and x are pronounced as the sequences /kw/ and /ks/. The letter y, when used as a consonant, represents /j/. However this set of rules is not applicable without exception; many words have silent consonants or other cases of irregular pronunciation. With the vowels, however, correspondences between spelling and pronunciation are even more irregular. As can be seen under Vowels above, there are many more vowel phonemes in English than there are vowel letters (a, e, i, o, u, y). This means that diphthongs and other long vowels often need to be indicated by combinations of letters (like the oa in boat and the ay in stay), or using a silent e or similar device (as in note and cake). Even these devices are not used consistently, so consequently vowel pronunciation remains the main source of irregularity in English orthography.
    • A. COMMENTS Encyclopedia is good for the students, because it can provide the factual information on all branches of knowledge. In encyclopedia, there are many articles that present broad overviews of different topic. So, the students can look for and browsing anything based on their learning topic.
    • B. SUGGESTIONS The teacher should be use encyclopedia for teaching in class. Because it can increase their knowledge and their new vocabularies. So encyclopedia is good for teaching extensive reading.
    • C. STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING ENCYCLOPEDIA There are some strategies that used by the teacher in class, they are : 1. Clarify what an encyclopedia is. Encyclopedias are referred to as "reference books" because people look to encyclopedias to find authoritative facts about a variety of subjects. 2. Explain how encyclopedias are organized. Be sure to cover all of the following points: Encyclopedias are organized alphabetically, by subject. Encyclopedias generally come in volumes, meaning a complete encyclopedia collection is usually comprised of more than one book. Each book in the encyclopedia collection represents a letter(s) of the alphabet. The letter(s) assigned to an encyclopedia volume is an indication of the kind of topics addressed in a particular encyclopedia volume. 3. Offer a demonstration. For example, show the students if they want to find authoritative information about the subject of "apples," this information can be looked up in the "A" volume of a general encyclopedia collection. 4. Gauge how well students comprehend your explanation of encyclopedias thus far. Present the students with a few simple sample subjects and ask them if the know which encyclopedia volume most likely contains the most facts about that subject. For example, "fruit," "the moon," and "music." 5. Demonstrate how to actually look up a subject in a specific encyclopedia volume after the most appropriate volume is selected. It may help to draw a correlation between how subjects are looked up in an encyclopedia to how words are looked up in dictionaries. The same alphabetical principle applies. 6. Let the students practice looking up simple topics you assign them. Have them write down what encyclopedia volume they found the assigned topic in and what page number in the encyclopedia volume the subject is found on. 7. Present the students with more complex sample subjects. For example, "fruit grown in Argentina," or "first man to walk on the moon." Use this exercise to demonstrate to students how to isolate a primary subject from the secondary subjects, and how to rephrase a topic to more precisely hone in on the subject. In the examples above, "Argentina" is the primary subject, and "Neil Armstrong" is a more on-point description of the subject.
    • 8. Show the students how subjects in encyclopedias are often broken down into different sections. For example, the main subject of Argentina may contain different subsections about Argentina's "Climate," "History," "Plant and Animal Life" and so forth. 9. Explain then demonstrate how the "Related Articles" section at the end of a subject's blurb can point to the reader to additional information about the subject. For example, if you did not originally know who the first man on the moon was, but you looked up moon in the encyclopedia, you'd likely find a reference to Neil Armstrong being the first person to walk on the moon. If the encyclopedia collection contains a blurb on Neil Armstrong as well, "Armstrong, Neil" will appear in the "Related Article" section of the Moon blurb.