Intro to development sites and site migration
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Intro to development sites and site migration

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Presentation slides from WordCamp Toronto Developers 2012 talk. ...

Presentation slides from WordCamp Toronto Developers 2012 talk.

As you begin doing any website design or development, or even just a site restructuring, you will quickly realize that a place to work, test and/or demonstrate a new site without impacting a production site is a necessity. A development site provides that place. This presentation will show you how to setup a simple local (on your pc/laptop) dev site or a hosted dev site. we’ll also see how to migrate WordPress sites, either to clone an existing site to a dev site for updates/testing or to move your finished dev site to the final production site.

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    Intro to development sites and site migration Intro to development sites and site migration Presentation Transcript

    • “Intro to Development Sitesand Site Migration”Rick Radko WordCamp Toronto Developersr3df.com November 3rd, 2012
    • A little bit about meRick Radko – R-Cubed Design Forge  Software, web and app designer/developer.  Creating custom web sites since 1996.  Artistic and creative engineer.  Co-organizer of: The Ottawa WordPress Group.  If you have questions or need help, contact me at: wpinfo@r3df.com.Slides are posted at:  http://www.slideshare.net/r3df© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 1
    • Why a “Dev” site?A development “Dev” site:  Safe place to work that won’t disturb a live site.  A site where it does not matter if you:  WSOD the site.  WSOD – White Screen Of Death – blank page from WordPress when you have an error in your PHP code.  http://wordpress.org/tags/wsod  Dump error messages.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 2
    • Why a “Dev” site? Continued…  Safely test, add and remove plugins and themes  Plugins and themes can have conflicts with other plugins/themes or some versions of WordPress.  Many plugins and themes don’t clean up after themselves and leave junk in your database.  Public dev sites:  Can be used for client review/demo before going live.  Allow clients to add content before the site is live.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 3
    • Creating a Dev site for WordPressWordPress needs a web server with PHP andMySQL to run.  2 common options for a dev site server:  Hosted:  On a sub-domain of the live site.  On an alternate domain.  Or a sub-domain on another site (like yours).  “Local” web server on your pc or laptop.  May use both local and hosted in the process of a site’s development.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 4
    • Hosted dev sitesHosted dev sites:  Easy for users (clients) to make updates on.  Public, but can be protected.  Requires an internet connection.  Constantly moving files across the net: slow.  Uses existing facilities. (Nothing to set-up)  Domain can be:  A spare domain.  A subdomain on the client site.  A subdomain on your site subdomain.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 5
    • A hosted exampleLet’s create a dev site that:  Is a copy or “clone” of an existing site.  Is hosted.  Will be on a subdomain of the existing site.Creating a dev site like this:  Normally takes about 10-15 minutes.  Is one of the easiest dev setups to create:  Copying the files and database is local to the server.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 6
    • cPanelThis demo will use cPanel, you may need to adjustto use your hosting’s control panel.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 7
    • Add the sub-domainAdd a sub-domain to the hosted site.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 8
    • Copy over the WordPress filesCopy all of theWordPress files overto the demo folder.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 9
    • Copy the database to a new one – “demo”Use phpMyAdmin tocopy the database.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 10
    • Fix up three things1) You may need to add a user for the database:  phpMyAdmin in most set-ups does not manage the users.  Use the Databases tool to do that.  Just add the current user to the new database.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 11
    • Add all privilegesWordPress recommends “All Privileges”, for thedatabaseuser. Youcan reducethis someif you want.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 12
    • Update the config.php file2) In config.php file you will need to change:  The database name.  The database user name and password if you created a new user.  Config.php is in the top folder of your WordPress install, in this case: public_html/demo/.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 13
    • Update the database – if needed3) Update the database (if the domain changed).  The database is full of links and settings with the site domain. If the domain changes:  Links, including the menus, will take you to the original site.  You won’t be able to login to admin, you will go to the original site.  Despite what a lot of tutorials say, DO NOT do a search and replace in MySQL, or any text search and replace on an SQL dump.  If you are lucky you may get away with it, but you will more likely break serialized data representations.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 14
    • Use a scriptThe codex page: http://codex.wordpress.org/Moving_WordPress has some lengthy discussionon the topic of moving sites, but just use the scriptmentioned in the change URL section.  searchreplacedb2.php  http://interconnectit.com/124/search-and- replace-for-wordpress-databases/  It’s easy to use, and does the job in one step.  Is aware of serialization, even recursive (nested) serialization.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 15
    • Run searchreplacedb2.phpTo use searchreplacedb2.php  Upload searchreplacedb2.php to the top level WordPress folder, public_html/demo in this case.  Enter searchreplacedb2.php in the URL of your browser, in this case: demo.wpottawa.org/searchreplacedb2.php© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 16
    • Opening screen© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 17
    • The database settingsThe script retrieved the settings…© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 18
    • Select the tables to update© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 19
    • Enter the URL changes© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 20
    • It’s done  Over 7500 changes!!!Remember to remove the script!© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 21
    • Dev site on a subdomain – complete duplicate© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 22
    • The site is publicIn WordPress admin, under Settings -> Privacy  Set to “Ask search engines not to index this site”  Don’t want the dev site listed in Google etc.May also consider password protection.  .htaccess or maintenance mode plugins© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 23
    • Copying the site backSame process to copy a revised dev site back.  Beware: the original site may change after the copy to dev.  Post/page etc. updates – easy to restrict  Comments – no control  May need to do a database merge to accommodate changes.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 24
    • “Local” web servers“Local” web server on your pc/laptop.  Fast, no internet lag, no FTP’ing of files.  All work is local on the computer.  Easier to integrate IDE.  No internet connection needed to use it.  Can work anywhere you that you can take your computer. (airplane, remote locations)  Usually private.  Need to install a web server© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 25
    • Local servers – web server stackWAMP stack  Windows, Apache, MySQL, PHPLAMP stack  Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHPMAMP stack  Mac, Apache, MySQL, PHP*Apache is a web server© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 26
    • Some available server stacksAll platforms:  BitNami: http://bitnami.org  XAMPP: http://www.apachefriends.orgWindows only options:  EasyPHP: http://www.easyphp.org  WampServer: http://www.wampserver.comMac only options:  MAMP: http://www.mamp.info  Native installsLinux only options:  Native installs© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 27
    • BitNamiBitNami  Available for all platforms  Easiest to install:  If you use the WordPress version.  http://bitnami.org/stack/wordpress  Production ready versions  Virtual machine versions  Cloud deployment (amazon)© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 28
    • InformationBitNami install tutorial on wordpress.org:  Bit out of date, but still good  http://codex.wordpress.org/BitNamiBitNami FAQ:  More detailed:  http://wiki.bitnami.org/Applications/BitNami_Word press© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 29
    • A quick BitNami installLets see how easy it is to install BitNami:© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 30
    • A quick BitNami install: screen 2© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 31
    • A quick BitNami install: screen 3© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 32
    • A quick BitNami install: screen 4© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 33
    • A quick BitNami install: screen 5 - some details© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 34
    • A quick BitNami install: port 80 conflict!© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 35
    • Port conflictsPossible conflicts:  Skype  Other web servers  Chat software© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 36
    • A quick BitNami install: port 3306 conflict!© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 37
    • A quick BitNami install: screen 6© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 38
    • A quick BitNami install: screen 7© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 39
    • A quick BitNami install: mail settingsMail settings screens if you want to set them up.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 40
    • A quick BitNami install: screen 8© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 41
    • A quick BitNami install: screen 9© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 42
    • A quick BitNami install: screen 10© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 43
    • A quick BitNami install: screen 11© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 44
    • Install complete!© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 45
    • The installed WordPress Site© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 46
    • XAMPPXAMPP  Available for all platforms  http://www.apachefriends.org/en/xampp.html  Easy to install (not as easy as BitNami)  More tends to go wrong during installs.  Mimics common server setups  NOT production ready (security)© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 47
    • Installing XAMPPDetailed install instructions are available forWindows, Mac and Linux at:  http://www.apachefriends.org/en/xampp-windows.html  http://www.apachefriends.org/en/xampp-macosx.html  http://www.apachefriends.org/en/xampp-linux.htmlThere is also a version for memory sticks:  http://www.apachefriends.org/en/xampp-windows.html#646© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 48
    • Manual WordPress installIf you don’t know how to install WordPress usingthe .zip copied from wordpress.org, you shouldlearn.  Most of the web server stacks do not include WordPress.  If you want more than one WordPress site on BitNami you will also need to do WordPress installs.See codex for help with a WordPress install:http://codex.wordpress.org/Installing_WordPress© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 49
    • An additional note on scripted installsA native install allows you to tweak settings likethe table prefix, which you can’t with a scriptedinstall (Fantastico, Simplescripts etc.).  Installer applications:  may add files to your site for “internal” tracking.  may not install the latest version of WordPress.  usually use default database settings for names and table prefixes – security weakness.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 50
    • Installing WordPressThe most complicated thing to installingWordPress is setting up the database.  It’s not that hard.  Lots of tutorials online.  On hosted servers you can use GUI tools like cPanel.  On a local server you can use phpMyAdmin  Hosted installs usually have the DB management in phpMyAdmin disabled.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 51
    • Managing databasesThis is the cPanelDatabases toolwhich will allowyou to add/deletedatabases anddatabase users.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 52
    • More installing WordPressThe other question is where to put the files?On local servers the htdocs folder is the default. Butwhere is it?  Depends on the install:  apache/htdocs is a common default  BitNami default windows:  C:Program FilesBitNami WordPress Stackapache2htdocs  Note: the WordPress “module” we installed in the demo is in a special location: C:Program FilesBitNami WordPress Stackapps.Hosted servers:  public_html© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 53
    • Localhost or 127.0.0.1Default web servers setups will have your sites at:  http://localhost/<some_name>/  http://127.0.0.1/<some_name>/© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 54
    • Localhost or 127.0.0.1While this works most of the time:  Some things can have issues with the localhost or 127.0.0.1 address as they expect a domain name.  It’s not very nice for using as a set-up when you have lots of sites.  Wouldn’t http://dev.site.demo be nicer than http://127.0.0.1/wordpress/?  Or how about http://client_domain.local instead of http://localhost/clent_domain/wordpress/?© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 55
    • Virtual hostsVirtual host – vhosts are a web server feature thatlets you set up nice names “virtual host names”for your websites.  http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/vhosts/To get vhosts working you need to tell apache youwant to use them.  Find the apache/conf/ folder in your server install.  Open the httpd.conf file. (use a plain-text or programming editor)© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 56
    • Httpd.conf fileFind the line “# Virtual hosts”  remove the “#” from the start of the line below. to  Save the file. (You may need to alter permissions to be able to save it.)© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 57
    • Vhosts fileIn the apache/conf/ folder you should also find thefolder “extra” -> apache/conf/extra/  That is where you will find the file:  httpd-vhosts.conf  Open that file.Look for a line near the top like:  NameVirtualHost *:80  Make sure there are no “#”s in-front of it.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 58
    • Add a virtual hostFor a default BitNami install (on Windows) pastethis code after any other lines for bitnami.demo: <VirtualHost *:80> ServerName bitnami.demo DocumentRoot "C:/Program Files/BitNami WordPress Stack/apache2/htdocs" <Directory "C:/Program Files/BitNami WordPress Stack/apache2/htdocs"> Options Indexes FollowSymLinks Includes ExecCGI AllowOverride All Order allow,deny Allow from all </Directory> </VirtualHost>  You may need to adjust the 2 occurrences of: C:/Program Files/BitNami WordPress Stack/apache2/htdocs on other installs© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 59
    • Add another virtual hostAnd paste this code after that for dev.site.demo: <VirtualHost *:80> ServerName dev.site.demo DocumentRoot "C:/Program Files/BitNami WordPress Stack/apps/wordpress/htdocs" <Directory "C:/Program Files/BitNami WordPress Stack/apps/wordpress/htdocs"> Options Indexes FollowSymLinks Includes ExecCGI AllowOverride All Order allow,deny Allow from all </Directory> </VirtualHost>  You may need to adjust the 2 occurrences of: C:/Program Files/BitNami WordPress Stack/apps/wordpress/htdoc© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 60
    • Save and restart ApacheSave the vhosts file. (You may need to alterpermissions to be able to save it.)You will need to restart Apache to get the settings totake effect.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 61
    • Hosts filesTo final step to make this work is to add the virtualhost to the “hosts” files on your computer  There is a chart on Wikipedia that provides common host files locations (dependent on your operating system)  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hosts_(file)© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 62
    • Hosts filesOpen up the hosts file and add these 2 lines:  Tells your computer that the 2 virtual hosts are on your computer.Save the hosts file. (You may need to alterpermissions to be able to save it)© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 63
    • Sites on vhosts© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 64
    • Trick to avoid domain migration issuesAdd the final name of the site to your hosts file:Set up a vhost for “somesite.com” and now youcan work locally with the final name!  Easy migration  BUT - blocks access to any real external site of that name.  I don’t use this technique as I want to access both sites.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 65
    • Migration reviewWe did a migration in our first example and therewe saw that it is just a few steps: 1. Copy files.  Local copy or FTP to another server, does not matter. 2. Copy the database.  To move servers you will need to do an SQL dump/export and then an import on the new server. 3. Clean-up a few things.  Database user.  Database settings in wp-config.  URL’s - be aware of serialization.That’s all there is to migration!© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 66
    • MySQL exportTo export the database to move to another serveryou can use the export function in phpMyAdmin.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 67
    • MySQL importTo import the database on another server you canuse the import function in phpMyAdmin.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 68
    • Backup scriptsMany of the backup and maintenance scripts:  Backup Buddy,  InfiniteWP,  ManageWP, + many otherswill do site migrations.Make sure any one you use mentions serialization.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 69
    • Multisite migration quirksNeed to manually change the wp-config file. Lookfor the line: define( DOMAIN_CURRENT_SITE, ‘somesite.com ); and update it to your new domain.Unlike regular sites which will display, (just withbad links) with multisite, you will get a databaseerror until you fix URL’s. (Use the script, note – youneed to be aware of all the different site domains,particularly with sub-domain multisite installs, andyou may not want to change all tables at once.)© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 70
    • Checking for ports in usenetstat (network statistics)  A command-line tool that displays network connections.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netstatnetstat –an  Shows all active portsnetstat –anb  Shows process names.© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 71
    • ContactRick Radko  email: wpinfo@r3df.com  twitter: @r3designforgeSlides at:  www.slideshare.net/r3df© 2012 Rick Radko, r3df.com 72