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Intuit CTOF 2011 - Netflix for Mobile in the Cloud
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Intuit CTOF 2011 - Netflix for Mobile in the Cloud

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Here are the slides for a talk I gave recently at Intuit's Mobile Conference (May 2011).

Here are the slides for a talk I gave recently at Intuit's Mobile Conference (May 2011).

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  • 1. mobile first Netflix for Mobile in the Cloud May 2011 Siddharth “Sid” Anand
  • 2. A Very Special Thanks to …… the following folks for helping with the presentation:•  Ashish Khivesara – IPhone/Android UI Development•  Daniel Jacobson – Director of API•  Shyan-Ming Perng – PS3/IPad/IPhone UI Development•  Mike Cohen – API Development•  Yury Izrailevsky – Director of Cloud Systems… the entire company for pulling together to make Netflix forMobile in the Cloud a reality! mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 3. mobile first Our Business No Longer Going Postal!
  • 4. Our Business In 1999 • Netflix launched DVD rentals-by-mail – Unlimited rentals for a flat monthly fee – No due dates – No late fees – No shipping or handling fees – First attempt to target long-tail rental market • We can ship any of >100K titles, whereas Brick-and- Mortar are constrained by how much space they can rent - Only 1-2k rentals mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 5. Our Business Fast Forward to 2008 •  Netflix forecasts the gradual end of the DVD and starts switching to Movie Streaming •  Upside? –  We spend $500MM to $600MM annually on US Postage for DVD mailing –  Streaming a movie is a fraction of the cost of shipping a DVD –  Easier to craft a business model for international expansion mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 6. Our Business•  We have 22M+ subscribers in the US and Canada•  May account for 20% of US peak downstream bandwidth usage•  A top CDN user in the US •  Limelight, Akamai, & Level 3 deliver images and movies•  Grew subscribers 2008-2010 by partnering with device makers mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 7. Our Business•  A world of connected devices, some mobile mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 8. mobile first Our Problem
  • 9. Our Problem• Circa late 2008, Netflix had a single data center –  Single-point-of-failure (a.k.a. SPOF) –  Approaching limits on cooling, power, space, traffic capacity• Alternatives – Build more data centers – Outsource the majority of our capacity planning and scale out • Allows us to focus on core competencies mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 10. Our Problem’s Solution! • Winner : Outsource the majority of our capacity planning and scale out – Leverage a leading Infrastructure-as-a-service provider • Amazon Web Services • Footnote : As it has taken us a while (i.e. ~2+ years) to realize our vision of running on the cloud, we needed an interim solution to handle growth – We did build a second data center along the way • We did outgrow it soon afterward! mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 11. mobile firstCloud Migration Strategy What to Migrate? How?
  • 12. Cloud Migration Strategy• Components – Applications and Software Infrastructure – Data• Migration Considerations – Security • PII and PCI DSS stays in our DC, rest can go to the cloud – Web Scale – this goes! mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 13. Cloud Migration Strategy mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 14. Cloud Migration Strategy mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 15. Cloud Migration Strategy mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 16. Cloud Migration Strategy Examples of Applications that can be moved •  Web Scale – Personalized Video Discovery (e.g. browsing movie lists on the IPhone) – Streaming Video Playback (e.g. watching a movie on the IPhone) •  Off-line – Video Encoding • Encode and store in final form in CDN • ~40 encodes from a single mezzanine : bit rates, screen resolutions, codecs, etc… •  Infrastructure – Log Capture & Analysis, Monitoring, Alerting mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 17. Cloud Migration StrategyExamples of Data that can be moved•  Video-centric data – Critics’ and Users’ reviews – Video Metadata (e.g. director, actors, plot description, etc…)•  User-video-centric data – some of our largest data sets – Video Queue – Watched History – Video Ratings (i.e. a 5-star rating system) – Video Playback Metadata (e.g. streaming bookmarks, activity logs) mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 18. mobile first Cloud Migration What Does the Cloud Offer?
  • 19. Cloud Migration“The cloud lets its users focus on delivering differentiating business value instead of wasting valuable resources on the undifferentiated heavy lifting that makes up most of IT infrastructure.” - Werner Vogels, CTO, Amazon August 25, 2009, ‘All Things Distributed’ mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 20. mobile first AWS Services We Use Messaging Services
  • 21. Messaging ServicesData Center Amazon Web ServicesWebLogic Messaging SQS (Message Queues) SNS (Message Topics) mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 22. Messaging Services•  Use-cases for Message Queues –  System Dependency Decoupling •  e.g. Decouple Cloud and DC applications -  When user adds a movie to the instant queue in the cloud, we send the update back to the DC for DC-resident applications -  Message consumers are decoupled from message producers –  Fire-and-forget Write Scalability •  e.g. Application Logging -  Write to BI storage -  Consumers can process messages at their own rate mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 23. Messaging Services•  SQS –  Infinitely Scalable but does not guarantee in-order message delivery –  Never worry about overflowing the queue and crashing or becoming unresponsive! •  Often a problem with enterprise messaging systems –  Messages are automatically dropped from queues after a maximum of 4 days mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 24. Messaging Services•  SQS –  API for Queue Management •  CreateQueue •  ListQueues •  DeleteQueue – API for Message Management •  SendMessage (up to 64K in size) •  ReceiveMessage (up to 10 messages in a batch) •  DeleteMessage (a.k.a. ACK Message) •  SetVisibilityTimeout – after which, a message becomes visible to other ReceivedMessage calls mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 25. mobile first AWS Services We Use Persistence
  • 26. PersistenceData Center Amazon Web ServicesOracle SimpleDB S3 Cassandra mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 27. Persistence An ideal storage solution should have the following features: þ Hosted þ Managed Distribution Model þ Works in AWS þ AP from CAP þ Handles a majority of use-cases accessing high-growth, high-traffic data þ Specifically, key access by customer id, movie id, or both mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 28. Persistence• We picked SimpleDB and S3 – SimpleDB was targeted as the AP equivalent of our RDBMS databases in our Data Center – S3 was used for data sets where item or row data exceeded SimpleDB limits and could be looked up purely by a single key (i.e. does not require secondary indices and complex query semantics) • Video encodes • Streaming device activity logs (i.e. CLOB, BLOB, etc…) • Compressed (old) Rental History mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 29. Persistence Terminology SimpleDB Hash Table Relational Databases Domain Hash Table Table Item Entry Row Item Name Key Mandatory Primary Key Attribute Part of the Entry Column Value mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 30. PersistenceSoccer PlayersKey Value Nickname = Wizard of Teams = Leeds United,ab12ocs12v9 First Name = Harold Last Name = Kewell Oz Liverpool, Galatasaray Nickname = Czech Teams = Lazio,b24h3b3403b First Name = Pavel Last Name = Nedved Cannon Juventus Teams = Sporting, Manchester United,cc89c9dc892 First Name = Cristiano Last Name = Ronaldo Real MadridSimpleDB’s salient characteristics •  SimpleDB offers a range of consistency options •  SimpleDB domains are sparse and schema-less •  The Key and all Attributes are indexed •  Each item must have a unique Key •  An item contains a set of Attributes •  Each Attribute has a name •  Each Attribute has a set of values •  All data is stored as UTF-8 character strings (i.e. no support for types such as numbers or dates) mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 31. Persistence What does the API look like? •  Manage Domains – CreateDomain – DeleteDomain – ListDomains – DomainMetaData •  Access Data – Retrieving Data • GetAttributes – returns a single item • Select – returns multiple items using SQL syntax – Writing Data • PutAttributes – put single item • BatchPutAttributes – put multiple items – Removing Data • DeleteAttributes – delete single item • BatchDeleteAttributes – delete multiple items mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 32. mobile first AWS Services We Use Compute
  • 33. ComputeData Center Amazon Web ServicesHadoop EMR & S3Servers EC2 – heavy use of reserved instancesCitrix Load Balancer •  Elastic Load Balancer (ELB) •  Cloud Watch •  Auto Scale Group (ASG) mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 34. mobile first Filling the Gaps Netflix’s Undifferentiated Heavy Lifting
  • 35. Filling the GapsAWS provides various IAAS offerings, but applications need more!AWS IAAS• Persistence ? •  SimpleDB, RDS, S3, EBS• Compute Netflix • EC2, EMR, ASG, ELB Applications• Monitoring • CloudWatch mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 36. Filling the GapsAWS provides various IAAS offerings, but applications need more!Hence the need for Netflix’s infrastructure team to bridge the gap!AWS IAAS Netflix Platform• Persistence •  Platform.jar •  SimpleDB, RDS, S3, •  Middle-tier Load EBS Balancing• Load Handling Netflix •  Discovery • EC2, EMR, ASG, ELB Applications• Monitoring •  Encryption Services • CloudWatch •  Caching •  Configuration •  GeoLocation mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 37. Discovery & MTLB AWS ELB Netflix edge services (e.g. API)API EC2 EC2 ? Netflix mid-tier services (e.g. Q or Merch services) EC2 EC2 EC2 EC2Q Merch AWS IAAS Simple S3 SQS DB mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 38. Discovery & MTLB AWS ELB Netflix edge services (e.g. API)API EC2 EC2 Netflix PlatformMiddle Tier Load Balancer Discovery Netflix mid-tier services (e.g. Q or Merch services) w/ platform.jar EC2 EC2 EC2 EC2Q Merch AWS IAAS Simple S3 SQS DB mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 39. mobile first Building Mobile Apps Apple IPhone
  • 40. Mobile App Development Strategy•  We develop mobile web pages that run in Web Kit where available. Examples include: •  PS3 •  IPhone/IPad/etc…•  Enables •  A/B Testing •  Fast Deployments •  Leveraging code across devices (e.g. IPhone & Android) mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 41. IPhone• When you click on the app, you see the splash screen • It will disappear once we start loading the Home Page mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 42. IPhone•  Home Page Loading: Fetch 1.  Time service 2.  User resource 3.  Rental History for resume feature 4.  Fetch up to 12 Lists of Movies 1.  Get 3 movies for the top-most list (e.g. Children & Family) 2.  After it loads, fetch 3 movies for remaining 11 lists in parallel – slows scrolling 5.  Bulk rating request for all titles to fetch the star bars•  Average 11 API calls on Home Page mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 43. IPhone•  User Interaction Reasoning (in red) •  Rental History for resume feature •  Promotes fastest movie launch •  Fetch up to 12 Lists of Movies •  Get 3 movies for the top-most list (e.g. Children & Family) •  After it loads, fetch 3 movies for remaining 11 lists in parallel •  Remaining 11 may slow scrolling •  Bulk rating request for all titles to fetch the star bars •  Absence is least obvious to user mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 44. mobile first Tips & Tricks Apple IPhone
  • 45. Tips & Tricks - Prefetching mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 46. Tips & Tricks – Prefetching•  On any list (e.g. Home) page, we prefetch •  Box Shot Image •  Title •  Ratings (i.e. star bar) •  Year, MPAA rating, Duration •  Synopsis•  On the Movie Display Page, we load/reload •  “In Q” button status •  Play or Resume button status •  Cast/Director •  Episode List (for TV Shows) or Simliars (for Movies) mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 47. Tips & Tricks – Memory Savings• To save memory, when we navigate away from the MDP, we unload the following: •  Similars (for Movies) •  Episodes (for TV Shows)•  We keep the Cast & Director•  On future visit to this MDP, we will reload the following: •  Anything not loaded •  Button status for both buttons mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 48. Tips & Tricks – Bandwidth Savings•  Server responses are GZIP compressed –  Processor speed ample enough to handle the decompression –  Less power hungry than wireless 3G transfers of uncompressed data –  Rules of thumb, keep payload 20-100KB per call mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 49. Tips & Tricks – Bandwidth Savings•  Revising Netflix REST Model – Too chatty – Too many round-trips –  Or it returns data that is not needed • A lot of processing is needed to skip extraneous data•  Moving to a more structured query language (e.g. SQL-like)• This will reduce memory, bandwidth use, and round-trips• Great blog entry on the topic from Netflix’s Director of API @daniel_jacobson –  http://techblog.netflix.com/2011/02/redesigning-netflix- api.html mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 50. Tips & Tricks – Image Sprites•  Image Sprites are used to reduce memory and bandwidth by giving the user the impression of viewing different images, when in fact there is only one –  Ratings Star Bars –  Footer (i.e. Home, Genres, Search, & Q) mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 51. Tips & Tricks – Image SpritesWith Some Markup<span title="1 of 5" class="rating r1"><img width="0"height="1" src="sprite.gif" alt=""/>1 out of 5</span><span title="2 of 5" class="rating r2"><img width="0"height="1" src="sprite.gif" alt=""/>2 out of 5</span>…..And Some CSS.rating { position: relative; height: 1.6em;….. mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 52. Tips & Tricks – Security•  All traffic is over secure channels – https – Deny Man-in-the-Middle attacks•  All requests are signed with a time –  Use Netflix Time Service to avoid clock- skew –  Avoids replay attacks mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 53. mobile firstNetflix IPhone App Demo
  • 54. Netflix IPhone App Demo•  Link can be found at the location below: –  http://blog.netflix.com/2010/08/netflix-now-available-on-your-iphone.html mobile first Intuit Proprietary & Confidential
  • 55. mobile first Questions?