Memori dan tubuh

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Memori dan tubuh

  1. 1. Minggu 6
  2. 2. Tak Kenal maka Tak Sayang: Fact about memory database • 72-78% air • Mengkonsumsi 20% oksigen & 20% kalori • 1 trilyun sel otak, 100 milyar aktif, 900 milyar pendukung • Koneksi antar sel sampai 20.000 sel • Kecepatan rangsang 250-2.500 impuls per detik • Kapasitas penyimpanan 100 trilyun data • Cogito ergosum-Rene Descartes
  3. 3. Just let it go, ujian nih repressed memory penculikan
  4. 4. 3 alasan lupa They don’t get it to begin with They had it but they lost it They have it but they can’t find it
  5. 5. Pencatatan Encoding-encoded Storage-memory store Retrieval-recall or recognition
  6. 6. KATEGORI MEMORI • Eksplicit • Implicit (pak Arsip)
  7. 7. Atkinson & Shiffrin Stimulus Sensory Register Working memory Long term pengulangan hilang
  8. 8. • Sensory register • Working memory/short term memory • Long term memory • rehearshal • decay • displacement-interference • storage capacity
  9. 9. Kapasitas terbatas Diukur dengan memory span tasks The magic numbers: 7 ± 2
  10. 10. 490616027409
  11. 11. fbiibmtwacia
  12. 12. Mana yang lebih baik? • Pendengaran atau penglihatan? Siap!
  13. 13. 4906 1602 1409 9041 2061 6094
  14. 14. Active memory Orang ingat: • 30% of what they HEAR • 40% of what they SEE • 50% of what they SAY • 60% of what they DO • 90% of what they HEAR, SEE, SAY & DO
  15. 15. 149 162 536 496 481 100 121 182 518 301 708 194 584 512
  16. 16. Prosedural dan Deklaratif
  17. 17. Bentuk-bentuk ingatan a. Deklaratif-fakta • Episodik memory-ingatan terhadap kejadian yang khusus Pikiran, perasan dan informasi yang telah terjadi • Semantic/ Generic memory-ingatan arti dasar kata dan konsep & pengetahuan dasar
  18. 18. Bentuk-bentuk ingatan b. Prosedural • how things are done-sulit untuk dikomunikasikan
  19. 19. Bagaimana informasi dapat Masuk ke LTM? • Depth of processing-SQ3R Organization-chunks & mnemonics
  20. 20. Mnemonics • Kode singkat mengasosiasikan fakta dengan sesuatu yang familiar atau telah tersimpan sebelumnya  Natural language mediators “It doesn’t make sense that she’s working so long”  The method of loci Menempatkan pada sesuatu tempat yang sudah dikenal dan menempatkan informasi tersebut disekelilingnya  Visual imagery membayangkan barang dengan jelas dalam gambaran mental
  21. 21. Gunakan image positif. Gunakan humor Jelas dan berwarna Gunakan semua indera Bergerak
  22. 22. Terima Kasih To be continued... Mengapa ingatan hilang?
  23. 23. Chapter 7 Memory
  24. 24. What is MEMORY? • Memory – internal record of some prior event or experience; a set of mental processes that receives, encodes, stores, organizes, alters, and retrieves information over time
  25. 25. Video • Remembering and Forgetting… –w/ Phil Zimbardo  from the “Discovering Psychology” series
  26. 26. Three Stages of Memory • Stage 1 - Sensory Memory is a brief representation of a stimulus while being processed in the sensory system • Stage 2 - Short-Term Memory (STM) is working memory – Limited capacity (7 items) – Duration is about 30 seconds • Stage 3 - Long-Term Memory (LTM) is large capacity and long duration
  27. 27. Overview of Memory Model
  28. 28. Integrated Model Concepts • Encoding – process of translating info into neural codes (language) that will be retained in memory • Storage – the process of retaining neural coded info over time • Retrieval – the process of recovering info from memory storage
  29. 29. Integrated Model of Memory
  30. 30. Overview of LTM
  31. 31. Varieties of LTM • Two types of LTM – Semantic memory refers to factual information – Episodic memory refers to autobiographical information as to where and when an event happened
  32. 32. Organization of LTM • Retrieval Cue – a clue or prompt that helps stimulate recall and retrieval of a stored piece of information from longterm memory – 2 types: 1. Recognition 2. Recall 1. Ziegarnik Effect
  33. 33. Memory Measures • Recognition is when a specific cue (face or name) is matched against LTM • Recall is when a general cue is used to search memory • Relearning - situation where person learns material a second time. • Quicker to learn material 2nd time
  34. 34. Flashbulb Memories • Where were you when you first heard: – That The WTC had been crashed into? – That the federal building had been bombed in Oklahoma City? – That Princess Diana had been killed in a car wreck?
  35. 35. Anatomy of Memory Bilateral damage to the hippocampus results in anterograde amnesia (Patient H.M.)
  36. 36. Anatomy of Memory Amygdala: emotional memory and memory consolidation Basal ganglia & cerebellum: memory for skills, habits and CC responses Hippocampus: memory recognition, spatial, episodic memory, laying down new declarative long-term memories Thalamus, formation of new memories and working memories Cortical Areas: encoding of factual memories, storage of episodic and semantic memories, skill learning, priming.
  37. 37. Forgetting • Forgetting is the inability to recall previously learned information Forgetting rate is steep just after learning and then becomes a gradual loss of recall
  38. 38. Serial Position Effect Recall immediately after learning Recall several hours after learning LTM Recall from LTM Recall from Primacy effect – remembering stuff at STM beginning of list better than middle Recency Effect – remembering stuff at the end of list better than middle
  39. 39. Study Strategies • Distributed practice refers to spacing learning periods in contrast to massed practice in which learning is “crammed” into a single session • Distributed practice leads to better retention
  40. 40. Theories of Forgetting • Proactive interference: old information interferes with recall of new information • Retroactive interference: new information interferes with recall of old information • Decay theory: memory trace fades with time • Motivated forgetting: involves the loss of painful memories (protective memory loss) • Retrieval failure: the information is still within LTM, but cannot be recalled because the retrieval cue is absent
  41. 41. Organization of LTM • Tip-of the tongue phenomenon: person can’t easily recall the item, but shows some recall for its characteristics (“…it begins with the letter ….”)
  42. 42. Amnesia • Amnesia is forgetting produced by brain injury or by trauma – Retrograde amnesia refers to problems with recall of information prior to a trauma – Anterograde amnesia refers to problems with recall of information after a trauma Retrograde amnesia Anterograde amnesia Point of Trauma
  43. 43. Issues in Memory • Reasons for inaccuracy of memory: – Source amnesia: attribution of a memory to the wrong source (e.g. a dream is recalled as an actual event) – Sleeper effect: a piece of information from an unreliable source is initially discounted, but is recalled after the source has been forgotten – Misinformation effect: we incorporate outside information into our own memories
  44. 44. Memory Strategies • Mnemonic devices are strategies to improve memory by organizing information – Method of Loci: ideas are associated with a place or part of a building – Peg-Word system: peg words are associated with ideas (e.g. “one is a bun”) – Word Associations: verbal associations are created for items to be learned
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