Week 5

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  • ACCOUNT INFORMATION. TO DOWNLOAD AND INSTALL Paltalk YOU MUST BE AT LEAST EIGHTEEN (18) YEARS OF AGE. THERE ARE CERTAIN AREAS ON Paltalk THAT CONTAIN ADULT OR MATURE CONTENT. ACCORDINGLY, YOU REPRESENT THAT YOU ARE AT LEAST EIGHTEEN (18) YEARS OF AGE TO USE THOSE AREAS. NO ONE UNDER THE AGE OF THIRTEEN (13) IS PERMITTED TO USE Paltalk. NO ONE BETWEEN THE AGES OF THIRTEEN (13) AND EIGHTEEN (18) MAY USE Paltalk WITHOUT ADULT SUPERVISION. PARENTS AND GUARDIANS ASSUME ALL LIABILITY AND RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE USE OF THEIR ACCOUNTS BY OTHER PERSONS, INLCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO USE OF THEIR ACCOUNTS BY PERSONS UNDER EIGHTEEN (18) YEARS OF AGE. ANY USER FOUND TO BE UNDER THE AGE OF THIRTEEN (13) OR PERMITTING USE OF Paltalk BY A PERSON UNDER THE AGE OF THIRTEEN (13), MAY HAVE HIS OR HER ACCOUNT SUSPENDED OR TERMINATED WITH OR WITHOUT NOTICE AND OTHER ACTIONS MAY ALSO BE TAKEN. IF A CHILD UNDER THIRTEEN (13) HAS ACCESS TO YOUR COMPUTER, DO NOT SAVE YOUR Paltalk PASSWORD; THIS WILL RESTRICT THE CHILD AND ANY UNAUTHORIZED USER FROM USING YOUR ACCOUNT. IN ADDITION, WE STRONGLY RECOMMEND THAT YOU CHECK REGULARLY TO SEE IF ANY NEW, UNAUTHORIZED ACCOUNTS HAVE BEEN CREATED UNDER YOUR Paltalk ACCOUNT. TO DELETE ANY * Profile We store information that we collect through cookies, log files, clear gifs, to create a “profile” of your preferences. We tie your personally identifiable information, and your purchasing history, to information in the profile, in order to provide tailored promotions and marketing offers and to improve the content of the site for you. We do not share your profile with other third parties without your consent. Paltalk is the sole owner of the information collected on Paltalk.com. Paltalk collects personally identifiable information from our users at several different points on our Web site or through our downloaded software.
  • In order for us to create the most effective and targeted solutions, we have to know the exact nature of the problem.
  • Library access and CELL PHONE ACCESS is particularly important to African American, and to a lesser extent English-Speaking Hispanic students. One quarter of low income teens (HHI under $30K) and 25% of African American teens say they go online most often from school, compared to 15% of online teens overall. Fewer low SES and African American teens go online daily 53% of af-am, vs 67% of white teens 75% of high income teens go online daily, compared to 39% of low SES teens. Slight decrease in teens going online from home since we first asked – broader use/access and also wide variety of access points/mobile access.
  • Not just email, IM, but social networks, mobile devices and gaming platforms are all used to connect, talk and interact with others. And thus also may become platforms for bullying, too. This is where teens are - particularly outside of school - online, connected to each other by various means at all times.
  • Online safety concerns breakdown roughly into two parts – concerns over harmful contact and concern over harmful content. What we’re focusing on here today is online CONTACT, rather than content and specifically, online bullying aka cyberbullying.
  • Definition of bullying downloaded from http://olweus.org/public/bullying.page on May 12, 2009 and is also contained in Dan Olweus’ 1993 book “Bullying at School”: Olweus D. Bullying at School: What We Know and What We Can Do. Blackwell Publishing: Hoboken, NJ, 1993
  • Source: Willard, N. Cyberbullying & Cyberthreats: Responding to the Challenge of Electronic Aggression. Center for Safe and Responsible Internet use: Eugene, OR. 2006. Retrieved from http://www.csriu.org on May 11, 2009. Online – identity can be shrouded. Youth who are physically bullied can/do retaliate online. Can be hard to determine who instigated and where. These are the “bully-victims” and the “instigator-victims.” Other definitions of cyberbullying used in major research projects on the topic: “ willful use of the Internet as a technological medium through which harm or discomfort is intentionally and repeatedly inflicted through indirect aggression that targets a specific person or group of persons.” (Williams and Guerra, 2007) “ an overt, intentional act of aggression towards another person online” (19% of young and regular internet users reported experiencing this) (Ybarra, & Mitchell, 2004) “ Willful and repeated harm inflicted through the medium of electronic text.” (Patchin & Hinduja, 2006)
  • Invasive – computer and the internet bring the bullying into the sphere of the home, and cell phones, which are generally personal devices carried everywhere, mean that the bullying never stops.
  • Pew data is measuring online harassment, as our questions did not ask about repetition or power imbalance. 15% had private comm forwarded with out permission 13% had a rumor spread about them 13% received a threatening message or comm 6% had embarrassing picture posted w/out permission Limitations: we missed a big one Missing spoofed/faked profile But Teens are also endlessly creative when it comes to bullying (and many other things) e.g., Text bombing=when a person sends 1000 of texts to one number… can be difficult to block, must pay for each text – can run up $100s in bills & makes it impossible to receive communication from others. Bullying in games – e.g., killing a player’s character quickly and repeatedly so gamer can’t play the game. Sources in this slide: Lenhart, A. (2007) Cyberbullying. Pew Internet & American Life Project, Washington, DC. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2007/Cyberbullying.aspx Lenhart, A., et al. (2010) Teens and Mobile Phones. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Washington, DC. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Teens-and-Mobile-Phones.aspx
  • Lenhart, A et al. (2010) Teens and Mobile Phones. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Washington, DC. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Teens-and-Mobile-Phones.aspx p. 86
  • 9% data point is from: Wolak J, Mitchell KJ and Finkelhor D. Does Online Harassment Constitute Bullying? An Exploration of Online Harassment by Known Peers and Online-Only Contacts. J Adolescent Health. 2007 Dec: 41 S51-S58 33% data point is from: Ybarra M, Mitchell KJ, Espelage D. A comparison of bullying online and offline: Findings from a national survey. Presented to AERA Annual Meeting, April 16, 2009. [presentation] Lenhart, A. Cyberbullying. Pew Internet & American Life Project:Washington, DC. 2007. Available from http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2007/Cyberbullying.aspx Hinduja S and Patchin JW. Cyberbullying: an exploratory analysis of factors related to offending and victimization. J Deviant Behavior 2008;29: 129-156. Data unclear on likelihood of victims knowing perpetrator – 45-89% say they know who is harassing them. No major differences in SES, race/ethnicity, parent education in likelihood of being harassed online. (Pew 2007 data)
  • Slide source: Ybarra M, Mitchell KJ, Espelage D. A comparison of bullying online and offline: Findings from a national survey. Presented to AERA Annual Meeting, April 16, 2009. [presentation]
  • Lenhart, A. Cyberbullying. Pew Internet & American Life Project:Washington, DC. 2007. Available from http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2007/Cyberbullying.aspx Worth noting: Journal of Adolescent Health December 2007 issue has a special issue entirely devoted to research on Cyberbullying. Other research points to girls as more likely victims, or to boys and girls experiencing online bullying and harassment equally. (Wolak et al, 2007) – answers here not 100% conclusive. Ybarra data suggests that bullying does happen more at school than online. See following slide…
  • Source: Ybarra M, Mitchell KJ, Espelage D. A comparison of bullying online and offline: Findings from a national survey. Presented to AERA Annual Meeting, April 16, 2009. [presentation]
  • Ybarra M, Mitchell KJ, Wolak J, Finkelhor D. Examining characteristics and associated distress related to Internet harassment: Findings from the Second Youth Internet Safety Survey. Pediatrics. 2006. 118A(4):e1169-1177. Ybarra ML, Diener-West M, Leaf PJ. Examining the overlap in internet harassment and school bullying: implications for school intervention. J Adolescent Health. 2007 Dec;41(6 Suppl 1):S42-50. Ybarra ML. Linkages between depressive symptomatology and Internet harassment among young regular Internet users. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2004 Apr;7(2):247-57.
  • These are the “concurrent psychosocial problems” from Ybarra’s work. Source info for statements above: (see previous slides or bibliography for full cites) Bullying is broadly associated with: School violence – (Olweus, 2009 website ) Delinquency – (Hinduja & Patchin, 2007) Suicidal ideation (Hinduja & Patchin, in press @ Archives of Suicide Research) Depression and other psychological problems (Ybarra, 2007, Wolak, 2007) Substance abuse (Ybarra, 2007, Wolak, 2007) Delinquency / School avoidance (Hinduja & Patchin, 2007) Weapon-carrying (Nansel, 2003) Poor parent/caregiver relationships/offline victimization (Ybarra, 2007, Wolak, 2006)
  • Wolak J, Mitchell KJ and Finkelhor D. Does Online Harassment Constitute Bullying? An Exploration of Online Harassment by Known Peers and Online-Only Contacts. J Adolescent Health. 2007 Dec: 41 S51-S58 Ybarra M, Mitchell KJ, Wolak J, Finkelhor D. Examining characteristics and associated distress related to Internet harassment: Findings from the Second Youth Internet Safety Survey. Pediatrics. 2006. 118A(4):e1169-1177.
  • Ybarra, Michele. (2010) “ Youth Internet Victimization: Myths and Truths,” [Presentation] NASPAG conference, Las Vegas, April 15, 2010 http://is4k.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/NASPAG_2010_Las-Vegas-NV2.pdf
  • Ybarra, Michele. (2010) “ Youth Internet Victimization: Myths and Truths,” [Presentation] NASPAG conference, Las Vegas, April 15, 2010 http://is4k.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/NASPAG_2010_Las-Vegas-NV2.pdf
  • Lenhart, A et al. (2010) Teens and Mobile Phones. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Washington, DC. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Teens-and-Mobile-Phones.aspx
  • Lenhart, A. (2009) Teens and Sexting. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Washington, DC. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2009/Teens-and-Sexting.aspx
  • Lenhart, A. (2009) Teens and Sexting. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Washington, DC. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2009/Teens-and-Sexting.aspx
  • Lenhart, A. (2009) Teens and Sexting. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Washington, DC. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2009/Teens-and-Sexting.aspx
  • Lenhart, A. (2009) Teens and Sexting. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Washington, DC. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2009/Teens-and-Sexting.aspx
  • Lenhart, A. (2009) Teens and Sexting. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Washington, DC. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2009/Teens-and-Sexting.aspx

Transcript

  • 1. Week 5
  • 2. The Societal Consequences Digital Health
    • Emotional & Physical Health
    • Economic imperative
    • Political inclusion
    • Critical thinking
    • Personal safety
  • 3. Critical Thinking – Digital Literacy
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6. Or simply…media that is created to be shared freely http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MpIOClX1jPE&feature=related
  • 7. A Gateway for Dangerous Behavior?
  • 8. Visit these sites at your own risk!
  • 9. http://omegle.com/ http://www.chatroulette.com/
  • 10. Cyber Bullying and Social Isolation: Phoebe & Alexis
  • 11. Anonymity Breeds Irresponsibility The problem, say Formspring's critics, is the site offers a perfect haven for cyberbulllying. As the "Edumacation" blog puts it: "Anyone who works with young people can quickly point out that anonymity nearly always breeds irresponsibility." The recent suicide of 15-year-old Pheobe Prince has drawn attention to the problem of bullying in cyberspace because victims often have no idea who is tormenting them. A Boycott Formspring Group on Facebook claims almost 7,300 members. http://www.dailyfinance.com/story/media/do-you-know-who-your-children-are-online-formsprings-raunchy-f/19452194/?a_dgi=aolshare_email A young person speaks..then tribute http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8lyYjZyeN80 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q1Y5hH1ScY0&feature=related
  • 12. Cyberbullying What the research is telling us… Amanda Lenhart Youth Online Safety Working Group May 6, 2010 Washington, DC
  • 13. Teen internet use basics
    • 93% of teens 12-17 go online
    • 63% of online teens go online daily
    • 89% of online teens go online from home, and most of them go online from home most often
    • 77% of teen go online at school
    • 71% go online from friends or relatives house
    • 60% go online from a library
    • 27% go online on their mobile phone
    • 76% of households with teens go online via broadband, 10% via dial up, and 12% do not have access at home.
    May 2010
  • 14. What are teens doing online?
    • 94% go online to do research for school assignments; 48% do so on a typical day.
    • 81% go to websites about movies, TV shows, music groups, or sports stars
    • 64% of online teens have created some kind of content online
    • 62% go online to get news
    • 57% have watched a video on a video-sharing site like YouTube or GoogleVideo
    • 55% go online to get information about a college, university or other school that they are thinking about attending.
    • 48% have bought something online like books, clothes or music
    • 31% have looked online for health, dieting or physical fitness information; 17% have looked online for sensitive health information
    May 2010
  • 15. How else are teens connecting?
    • 75% of teens have a cell phone
      • No gender or race/ethnic differences in ownership
      • 50% of teens with phones talk to friends daily
      • 54% of teens send text messages daily
      • 27% use their phone to go online
    • 73% of teens use an online social network site
      • 37% of SNS users send messages through social networks daily
    • 80% of teens have a game console
    • 51% of teens have a portable gaming device
      • Teens connect and interact with others online through games
    May 2010
  • 16. Concerns in Online Safety Sphere
    • Inappropriate contact
      • Strangers
      • Bullies
    • Inappropriate content
      • Accidental Exposure
      • Deliberate Exposure
    May 2010
  • 17. Bullying
    • Olweus (1993)
    • “ A person is bullied when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons, and he or she has difficulty defending himself or herself."
    • This definition includes three important components:
    • 1. Bullying is aggressive behavior that involves unwanted, negative actions.
    • 2. Bullying involves a pattern of behavior repeated over time
    • 3. Bullying involves an imbalance of power or strength.”
    • Bullying
      • Physical
      • Relational/Verbal
      • -Internet
    May 2010
  • 18. Online Harassment & Cyberbullying
    • Online harassment: aggressive behavior, “harm doing,” insults, denigration, impersonation, exclusion, outing, activities associated with hacking – stealing information, breaking into accounts, damaging websites, profiles etc. (Willard, 2006)
    • Cyberbullying: online harassment that is
      • repeated over time
      • Involves a power imbalance between a perpetrator and a victim. Power imbalance may be differences in online skills.
    • Other complicating factor -- perpetrators are also often victims, sometimes online, sometimes elsewhere. Internet bullying can be particularly hard to disentangle. (Willard, 2006)
    May 2010
  • 19. What makes online harassment & bullying different?
    • Technology is vehicle
    • Persistence of content
      • Editable, alterable
    • Distributability of content
      • Speed
      • Breadth
    • Dis-inhibition over computer-mediated communication
    • Invasive
    May 2010
  • 20. Pew Internet: Online Harassment
    • 32% of online teens have experienced one of the following forms of online harassment:
      • 15% of teens reported having private material (IM, txt, email) forwarded without permission
      • 13% had received threatening messages
      • 13% said someone had spread a rumor about them online
      • 6% had someone post an embarrassing picture of them online without permission
      • (Lenhart, 2007)
    • 26% of teens have been harassed via their cell phones either by voice or text
      • (Lenhart, 2010)
    May 2010
  • 21. 01/30/11
  • 22. Cyberbullying
    • Other research shows prevalence of cyberbullying or online harassment between 9% and 33% of youth ages 10-18. (Wolak et al, 2007, Ybarra et al, 2007)
    • Much of the difference is definitional and depends on how the question was asked. Specific activities often yield higher levels of response than blanket definitions.
    • Mid-teens (ages 14-17) is the age of greatest prevalence of online harassment & bullying (Pew, 2007, Hinduja & Patchin, 2008)
    • Perpetrators of online bullying (similar to offline bullying) are generally the same age as their victim. (Wolak, 2007)
    May 2010
  • 23. Frequency of bullying victimization among 11-16 year olds May 2010 ( n =1,193) (Ybarra, 2009)
  • 24. Online Harassment (2)
    • Girls, particularly older girls, report more online harassment; 38% of all online girls reported experiencing some type of harassment (Pew, 2007)
    • Social network users are also more likely to report online harassment – 39% of SNS users have experience it. (Pew, 2007)
    • But most teens (67%) think bullying & harassment happens more OFFLINE. (Pew, 2007)
    May 2010
  • 25. Frequency of bullying victimization among 11-16 year olds by environment May 2010 ( n =1,193) (Ybarra, 2009)
  • 26. Online (or not) Harassment
    • School is by far the most common place youth report being bullied (31%) versus elsewhere (e.g., 13% online)
    • The prevalence rate of Internet harassment (both perpetration and victimization) appears to be stable (2006-2008) .
    • The majority (59%) of Internet harassment comes from other minors
    • Youth who report being harassed online report a myriad of concurrent psychosocial problems offline, too
    • Source: Michele Ybarra & colleagues work on the 2005 Youth Internet Safety Survey fielded by UNH CCRC & 2007-2008 Growing up with Media research funded by the CDC.
    May 2010
  • 27. Why should we worry?
    • Bullying is broadly associated with:
      • School violence
      • Delinquency
      • Suicidal ideation
    • Bullied teens (and often bullies themselves) have higher levels of:
      • Depression and other psychological problems
      • Substance abuse
      • Delinquency / School avoidance
      • Weapon-carrying
      • Poor parent/caregiver relationships
      • Offline victimization/sexual abuse/physical abuse
    May 2010
  • 28. Why should we worry (2)?
    • Some research suggests that significant portions of teens aren’t bothered by online harassment or bullying
    • Research suggests that 1/3 of teens (34%) are distressed by online harassment. (Wolak et al, 2007)
      • Distressed = “Extremely or very upset or afraid”
    • Teens who are high internet users are more likely to be distressed (Wolak, 2007)
    May 2010
  • 29. Overlap of cyberbullying & internet victimization May 2010 (Ybarra, 2010)
  • 30. Differences between cyberbullying & internet harassment
    • Cyberbullying is not more common than Internet harassment
    • On average (between 2007-2008): 37% were harassed, 14% were bullied online in the past year
    • Cyberbullying is not more damaging than Internet harassment
    • Among those cyberbullied, 15% report being very / extremely upset
    • Among those harassed, between 17-34% report being very / extremely upset
    May 2010
  • 31. Cell phone-based harassment
    • 75% of teens have cell phones
    • 54% of all teens text message daily
    • 26% have been harassed through their cell phone by voice calls or text messages
    • 47% have sent a text message they regretted sending
    • And then there’s sexting – which is generally not a form of harassment itself, but when the images are shared, can lead to harassment and bullying.
    May 2010
  • 32. 01/30/11
  • 33. Sending Sexts
    • No difference by gender
    • Oldest teens most likely to have sent
      • 8% of 17 year olds
      • 4% of 12 year olds
    • 17% who pay for all the costs of the phone send sexts vs. 3% of others
    May 2010
  • 34. Receiving Sexts
    • Again, no gender differences and increases by age
      • 4% of 12 year olds
      • 20% of 16 year olds
      • 30% of 17 year olds
    • Sending texts, having unlimited texting plan increases receipt
    May 2010
  • 35. Sexting Scenarios
    • Between two romantic partners, as a part of, instead of, or as a prelude to sex – never leaves couple
    • Between two romantic partners – but shared with others
    • Between two people where at least one would like to be in a relationship – shows interest
    May 2010
  • 36. Element of coercion for some sexting
    • “ When I was about 14-15 years old, I received/sent these types of pictures. Boys usually ask for them or start that type of conversation. My boyfriend, or someone I really liked asked for them. And I felt like if I didn’t do it, they wouldn’t continue to talk to me. At the time, it was no big deal. But now looking back it was definitely inappropriate and over the line.” - 17 year old girl
    May 2010
  • 37. Summary
    • Somewhere between 1/10 th and 1/3 rd of teens are being bullied online
    • Bullying still happens more offline – at school – than online.
    • For the majority of teens, it isn’t distressing, but for a minority, cyberbullying is extremely serious and paired with major problems that can affect their lives, their schools and their community.
    • Venues for bullying have diversified, and with it comes increased visibility. But impulse behind behaviors hasn’t changed – just the vehicle.
    May 2010
  • 38. Final Thoughts
    • Need more high-quality, national data on this issue.
    • Coordination in the definitions of cyberbullying.
    • When thinking about solutions, important to remember that bullying crosses boundaries – it’s everywhere that children are
    • Stay tuned for more work from Growing up with Media study (Ybarra - CDC) and research on cyberbullying and suicide by Hinduja & Patchin
    May 2010
  • 39. Thirty-two percent of online teens have experienced some form of harassment via the Internet, a problem also known as "cyberbullying." According to recent data, 15% of online teens have had private material forwarded without permission, 13% have received threatening messages and 6% have had embarrassing photos posted without permission.
  • 40.