Chapter 6 deviance and crimePresentation Transcript
What Is Social Deviance?• Social deviance is any transgression of socially established norms. – Formal deviance or crime involves the violation of laws. 8
Minor transgressions of these norms can be described as informal deviance. 9
Deviance and Social Control Social cohesion refers to the way people formsocial bonds, relate to each other, and get along on a day-to-day basis. 10
Deviance and Social Control• Social control is the set of mechanisms that create normative compliance in individuals.• Normative compliance is the act of abiding by society’s norms or simply following the rules of group life. 11
Deviance and Social Control• Punitive justice is focused on making the violator suffer and thus defining the boundaries of acceptable behavior.• Rehabilitative justice examines the specific circumstances of an individual transgressor and attempts to find ways to rehabilitate him or her. 12
Deviance and Social Control• Informal social sanctions: – are unspoken rules and expectations about people’s behavior. – help maintain a base level of order and cohesion in society and form a foundation for formal social control. 13
Once Deviance Now Fashion 14
Deviance and Social Control (Structural Functionalism)Émile Durkheim theorized that social cohesion isestablished either through: mechanical solidarity — based on the sameness of society’s parts or members (fraternity – sorority) organic solidarity — based on the interdependence of specialized parts or members. (football team) 15
Deviance and Social Control A Functionalist View Robert Merton’s strain theory argues that deviance occurs when a society does not give all its members equal ability to achieve socially acceptable goals. 16
Strain TheoryConformists acceptthe goals of thesociety and themeans of achievingthose goals
Strain Theory Innovators accept the goals of the society, but they look for new, or innovative, ways of achieving those goals
Strain TheoryRitualists aren’tinterested in the goals ofthe society, but they doaccept the means ofachieving those goals.
Strain Theory Retreatists don’t accept the goals of the society or the means of achieving those goals.
Strain TheoryRebels don’t acceptthe goals of thesociety or the meansof achieving thosegoals, so they createtheir own goals usingnew means.
Weaknesses of Strain Theory1. It is difficult to empirically test.2. It works on the assumption that conformity is the norm and assumes a concensual society.3. It doesnt explain all forms of criminal behavior.4. It over-predicts criminality. does not explain hate-crime, violence etc 23
Symbolic Interactionist Theories of Deviance• Symbolic interactionists take a micro view of society, examining the beliefs and assumptions people bring to their everyday interactions to find the causes or explanations for deviance. 24
Symbolic Interactionist Theories of Deviance• Labeling theory – People see how they are labeled and accept the label as being “true.” – People behave the way that they think someone with their label should behave. 25
Symbolic Interactionist Theories of Deviance• Primary deviance: – the first act of rule breaking, which may result in the rule breaker being labeled “deviant” and thus influence how people think about and act toward him or her.• Secondary deviance: – refers to acts of rule breaking that occur after primary deviance and as a result of a person’s new, deviant label. 26
Symbolic Interactionist Theories of Deviance• Stigma – negative social label that changes your behavior toward a person; also changes that person’s self- concept and social identity – has serious consequences in terms of the opportunities made available – or rather, not made available – to people in a stigmatized group 27
Interview, Devah PagerCrime Reduction Devah Pager discusses her field experiments, racism, and the stigma menwith a criminal record face when theyre on the job market. 28
Symbolic Interactionist Theories of DevianceBroken window theory of deviance (Philip Zimbardo):explains howsocial context and social cues impact the way individuals act People who wouldn’t exhibit a certain behavior in one social context might do so in another context where the behavior seems more permissible. 29
People inspect an abandoned car in the South Bronx. Zimbardo placed this car inNew York City and University in Palo Alto, California. The car near Stanford wentuntouched for days, but the car pictured above was in New Your City wasrelieved of its hubcaps and other parts almost immediately.
Deviance and Social Control• Examples of formal social control include laws and the authority of police officers. 31
Formal deviance or crime involves the violation of laws. George Zimmerman Trevor Martin 32
Crime• street crime — refers to crime committed in public and is often associated with violence, gangs, and poverty• white-collar crime — committed by a professional against a corporation, agency, or other business• corporate crime — type of white-collar crime committed by the officers or executives of a company 33
Crime• It can be difficult to measure crime rates over time for a variety of reasons, including: 1. changes in how crimes are defined. 2. fluctuations in whether people report crimes. 3. in the case of murders, improvements in medical technology. CSI 34
Crime ReductionDeterrence theory is a philosophy of criminaljustice based on the notion that crime results froma rational calculation of its costs and benefits. 41
Unintended Consequences of Deterrence 42
Crime ReductionRecidivism occurs when a person who has been involved in thecriminal justice system reverts back to criminal behavior. 43
Crime ReductionSince the 1970s, there has been a change from a more rehabilitative sense ofjustice to a more punitive one in the United States.This is evidenced by historically high rates of incarceration. 44
Societal Effects of Mass Incarcerationhttp://www.youtube.com/embed/lUt_fIB6A_Y • staggering costs • the disenfranchisement of millions of former felons • a disproportionately high rate of imprisonment for black males • a ripple effect throughout black communities and beyond. 45