1.X is a village in northern Karnataka state, India. It is located within the ruins of Vijayanagara, the former capital of the Vijayanagara Empire. Predating the city of Vijayanagara, it continues to be an important religious centre, housing the Virupaksha Temple, as well as several other monuments belonging to the old city. The ruins are a UNESCO World Heritage Site, listed as the Group of Monuments at X.
2.X met reformist South African president-in-waiting F.W. de Klerk in London in June 1989, and stressed that Mandela must be freed and reforms put in place before she would visit the country. In July 1989 she called for the release not only of Mandela, but also Walter Sisulu and Oscar Mpetha, before all-group talks could continue.X therefore welcomed de Klerks decision in February 1990 to release Mandela and lift the ban on the ANC, and said the change vindicated her positive policy: We believe in carrots as well as sticks. However X had also set the freeing of Mandela as a condition of friendship with the white government.
3.Around 1350 Germany and almost the whole of Europe were ravaged by the X Jews were persecuted on religious and economic grounds; many fled to Poland. X is estimated to have killed 30–60 percent of Europes population in the 14th century. It was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, peaking in Europe between 1348 and 1350, and killing between 75 million and 200 million people. Although there were several competing theories as to the etiology of the X, recent analysis of DNA from victims in northern and southern Europe indicates that the pathogen responsible was the Yersinia pestis bacterium probably causing several forms of plague.