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King Pakal’s jade burial      mask                             October 22nd                                  The Maya     ...
Pyramids at Giza, Egypt                          Building an experimental pyramid,                          in the film “T...
Carving on the lid of the sarcophagus    Erich Von Daniken believes that the carving(stone casket) of King Pakal, Palenque...
Cityscape in ApocalyptoArtist’s rendition of Maya city of Tikal,   700 AD
Scene from the movie “Star Wars”, the ruin here is the ancient Maya city of Tikal
Main activities for today’s class    We will answer the question “Who are the Maya?”    We will talk about why the Maya ar...
Modern Maya (2002)   Ancient Maya (700 AD)
Maya language family contains 31 modern languages     Romance language family(it is called “Romance” because it developedf...
Who are the Maya?--A large group of ancient and modern people that       --speak a Maya language       --live in the north...
Core of Maya cuisine   slash and burn agriculture                                            digging stick                ...
Other foods eaten by the earliest Maya   agoutiWhite-tailed deer                                                          ...
Basic houses of the Maya
Feature 262: early house floor from Cuello, Belize, 700 BC
By 300 BC, somevillages have developedinto massive citiessuch as El Mirador,GuatemalaIn these cities, religion ishuge (lar...
The Maya                            Birth of the maizemaize god                          god from a turtle shell(Hunahpu) ...
Blood sacrifice depicted on walls of the ruins of San Bartolo, 200 BC
By 300 AD, Maya culture                         hits full stride with the                         emergence of powreful   ...
Tikal city center
Pyramid of themagician, Uxmal
Rosalila temple,Copan, Honduras
King Pakal’sjade burialmask, Palenque                 Jade burial mask, Calakmul
Pottery produced by attached specialists in workshops located within Palaces
Copan Stela AWaxaklahunUbah K’awil(18 are thefaces of theGod K’awil)(695-738)                Copan                 Copan
Copan Stela A            Copan                        Stela A,WaxaklahunUbah K’awil             reverse(18 are thefaces of...
Structure 10L-26
Structure 10L-26 andThe Hieroglyphic Stairway,constructed by Copan’s 14th Ruler, K’akJoplah Chan K’awil, after the13th rul...
In summary, the Maya have the most attractive art and architecture of the new world, anda very complex writing system. The...
Carving on the lid of the sarcophagus    Erich Von Daniken believes that the carving(stone casket) of King Pakal, Palenque...
Carving on the lid of the sarcophagus(stone casket) of King Pakal, Palenque                                         The se...
Carving on the lid of the sarcophagus(stone casket) of King Pakal, Palenque                                         The eq...
Carving on the lid of the sarcophagus(stone casket) of King Pakal, Palenque                                         The wo...
Carving on the lid of the sarcophagus(stone casket) of King Pakal, Palenque                                         Double...
Reasons why the Ancient Maya are said to be mysterious   1) Many people believe the claims about ancient spaceships Conclu...
Reasons why the Ancient Maya are saidto be mysterious    2) Advanced ancient culture in the    middle of a rain forest
The Maya had few rivers, lots of swamps             slash and burn agriculture     Agriculture along the Nile Advantage of...
To build this, you need a large population
The mystery of the rainforest civilization: how did the Maya support a large population?    Answer: they had forms of agri...
Raised fieldsalong the edges    of a swamp
The mystery of the rainforest civilization: how did the Maya support a large population?    Answer: they had forms of agri...
Terraces toprevent soilerosion
Terracesat Caracol
Reasons why the Ancient Maya are said to be mysterious    2) Advanced ancient culture in the middle of a rain forest Concl...
Reasons why the Ancient Maya are saidto be mysterious 3) Mysterious writing, difficult to decipher    --leads to mistaken ...
Reasons why the Ancient Maya are saidto be mysterious 3) Mysterious writing, difficult to decipher    --leads to mistaken ...
Moat surrounding the centerof Becan
Bonampakmurals
Yaxchilan lintel 6: Bird Jaguar and ally capture two enemies             (grabbing one of them by the hair)
Yaxchilan lintel 17   Early 20th century rendering
Reasons why the Ancient Maya are said to be mysterious 3) Mysterious writing, difficult to decipher    --leads to mistaken...
Reasons why the Ancient Maya are said to be mysterious  4) The ancient Maya appear to have disappeared. What happened to t...
Reasons why the Ancient Maya are said to be mysterious    4) The ancient Maya appear to have disappeared. What happened to...
Reasons why the Ancient Maya are said to be mysterious    4) The ancient Maya appear to have disappeared. What happened to...
Reasons why the Ancient Maya are said to be mysterious    4) The ancient Maya appear to have disappeared. What happened to...
Reasons why the Ancient Maya are said to be mysterious    4) The ancient Maya appear to have disappeared. What happened to...
Reasons why the Ancient Maya are said to be mysterious    4) The ancient Maya appear to have disappeared. What happened to...
--Evaluating evidence   Drought expectations       You would see paleo-ecological evidence of less rainfall           Ther...
Aguateca
Commoner settlements move to hilltops and defend themselves with walls
3. Evaluating evidence   Drought expectations       You would see paleo-ecological evidence of less rainfall           The...
Aspects of Intellectual Inquiry in the Social Sciences    1. Recognizing multiple dimensions to a good question    2. Reco...
Wk 10 mysterious maya pt 1 oct 22
Wk 10 mysterious maya pt 1 oct 22
Wk 10 mysterious maya pt 1 oct 22
Wk 10 mysterious maya pt 1 oct 22
Wk 10 mysterious maya pt 1 oct 22
Wk 10 mysterious maya pt 1 oct 22
Wk 10 mysterious maya pt 1 oct 22
Wk 10 mysterious maya pt 1 oct 22
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Transcript of "Wk 10 mysterious maya pt 1 oct 22"

  1. 1. King Pakal’s jade burial mask October 22nd The Maya Tikal, Guatemala
  2. 2. Pyramids at Giza, Egypt Building an experimental pyramid, in the film “This Old Pyramid”
  3. 3. Carving on the lid of the sarcophagus Erich Von Daniken believes that the carving(stone casket) of King Pakal, Palenque Shows Pakal beaming up to a space ship.
  4. 4. Cityscape in ApocalyptoArtist’s rendition of Maya city of Tikal, 700 AD
  5. 5. Scene from the movie “Star Wars”, the ruin here is the ancient Maya city of Tikal
  6. 6. Main activities for today’s class We will answer the question “Who are the Maya?” We will talk about why the Maya are seen to be so mysterious and then show that the Maya are in fact not that mysterious We talk about one particular mystery (What happened to the ancient Maya?) and use inquiry in the social sciences to resolve this mystery
  7. 7. Modern Maya (2002) Ancient Maya (700 AD)
  8. 8. Maya language family contains 31 modern languages Romance language family(it is called “Romance” because it developedfrom Latin, the language of ancient Romans)The word “difference” in Romance languages Italian: Differenza Spanish: Diferencia French: Difference The word “eight” in Mayan languages Yukatek: Ox Quiche: Ux Chorti: Uax
  9. 9. Who are the Maya?--A large group of ancient and modern people that --speak a Maya language --live in the northern part of Central America (Guatemala, Belize, and parts of Honduras, El Salvador, and Mexico) --share a heritage based on farming corn
  10. 10. Core of Maya cuisine slash and burn agriculture digging stick for planting seeds
  11. 11. Other foods eaten by the earliest Maya agoutiWhite-tailed deer “apple” snail (Pomacea)
  12. 12. Basic houses of the Maya
  13. 13. Feature 262: early house floor from Cuello, Belize, 700 BC
  14. 14. By 300 BC, somevillages have developedinto massive citiessuch as El Mirador,GuatemalaIn these cities, religion ishuge (largest buildings aretemples). Religion isa source of power.
  15. 15. The Maya Birth of the maizemaize god god from a turtle shell(Hunahpu) The Maya The face of rain god Chac on the (Chac) corner of a building
  16. 16. Blood sacrifice depicted on walls of the ruins of San Bartolo, 200 BC
  17. 17. By 300 AD, Maya culture hits full stride with the emergence of powreful kings (as seen in tombs, carvings, and texts) Maya tomb at Rio AzulTomb of Pakal,at Palenque Photo of Pakal’s burial
  18. 18. Tikal city center
  19. 19. Pyramid of themagician, Uxmal
  20. 20. Rosalila temple,Copan, Honduras
  21. 21. King Pakal’sjade burialmask, Palenque Jade burial mask, Calakmul
  22. 22. Pottery produced by attached specialists in workshops located within Palaces
  23. 23. Copan Stela AWaxaklahunUbah K’awil(18 are thefaces of theGod K’awil)(695-738) Copan Copan
  24. 24. Copan Stela A Copan Stela A,WaxaklahunUbah K’awil reverse(18 are thefaces of theGod K’awil)(695-738) Copan
  25. 25. Structure 10L-26
  26. 26. Structure 10L-26 andThe Hieroglyphic Stairway,constructed by Copan’s 14th Ruler, K’akJoplah Chan K’awil, after the13th ruler, WaxaklahunUbah K’awil, was capturedand in battle with the rival kingdomof Quirigua
  27. 27. In summary, the Maya have the most attractive art and architecture of the new world, anda very complex writing system. They seem more intellectually and aesthetically gifted thanother new world cultures. Reasons why the Ancient Maya are said to be mysterious 1) Many people believe the claims about ancient spaceships 2) Advanced ancient culture in the middle of a rain forest 3) Mysterious writing, difficult to decipher --leads to mistaken ideas, such as the idea that the Maya were peaceful 4) The ancient Maya appear to have disappeared. What happened to them?We will show that all of these mysteries have been solved. In other words, the Mayawere and are a very exciting group of people, but they are not more mysterious thanany other group of people.
  28. 28. Carving on the lid of the sarcophagus Erich Von Daniken believes that the carving(stone casket) of King Pakal, Palenque Shows Pakal beaming up to a space ship.
  29. 29. Carving on the lid of the sarcophagus(stone casket) of King Pakal, Palenque The serpent’s mouth: a portal between the world of the living and the world of the ancestors
  30. 30. Carving on the lid of the sarcophagus(stone casket) of King Pakal, Palenque The equipment that opens the portal: stingray spice for blood letting, shell as symbol of blood, bowl/incense burner to contain and enliven the blood
  31. 31. Carving on the lid of the sarcophagus(stone casket) of King Pakal, Palenque The world tree: this is what links the two sides of the portal.
  32. 32. Carving on the lid of the sarcophagus(stone casket) of King Pakal, Palenque Double headed snake: symbol of rulership as well as the sky, place of ancestors. Shows the direction in which Pakal is traveling
  33. 33. Reasons why the Ancient Maya are said to be mysterious 1) Many people believe the claims about ancient spaceships Conclusion: The carving on the lid of Pakal’s sarcophagus does not depict a spaceship. The carving on the lid shows a local Maya belief about how deceased rulers travel to the sky to join the ancestors.
  34. 34. Reasons why the Ancient Maya are saidto be mysterious 2) Advanced ancient culture in the middle of a rain forest
  35. 35. The Maya had few rivers, lots of swamps slash and burn agriculture Agriculture along the Nile Advantage of rivers: --predictable water for irrigation --flood provide nutrients The problem: Slash and burn agriculture does not support a large population…
  36. 36. To build this, you need a large population
  37. 37. The mystery of the rainforest civilization: how did the Maya support a large population? Answer: they had forms of agriculture that were more intensive than slash and burn Raised field agriculture
  38. 38. Raised fieldsalong the edges of a swamp
  39. 39. The mystery of the rainforest civilization: how did the Maya support a large population? Answer: they had forms of agriculture that were more intensive than slash and burnAgricultural terraces atthe city of Caracol,Belize
  40. 40. Terraces toprevent soilerosion
  41. 41. Terracesat Caracol
  42. 42. Reasons why the Ancient Maya are said to be mysterious 2) Advanced ancient culture in the middle of a rain forest Conclusion: It is unusual to have an advanced culture in a rainforest, but not mysterious. We now know that the Maya used a number of intensive farming techniques that sustained the high populations necessary to support an advanced culture.
  43. 43. Reasons why the Ancient Maya are saidto be mysterious 3) Mysterious writing, difficult to decipher --leads to mistaken ideas, such as the idea that the Maya were peaceful =5 October 14thConstantine Rafinesque (1783-1840) Transylvania University professor, Lexington, KY, 1819-1826
  44. 44. Reasons why the Ancient Maya are saidto be mysterious 3) Mysterious writing, difficult to decipher --leads to mistaken ideas, such as the idea that the Maya were peaceful Glyphs highlighted in red are calendrical glyphs. They give the impression that Maya hsitory was about the passage of time, not war.
  45. 45. Moat surrounding the centerof Becan
  46. 46. Bonampakmurals
  47. 47. Yaxchilan lintel 6: Bird Jaguar and ally capture two enemies (grabbing one of them by the hair)
  48. 48. Yaxchilan lintel 17 Early 20th century rendering
  49. 49. Reasons why the Ancient Maya are said to be mysterious 3) Mysterious writing, difficult to decipher --leads to mistaken ideas, such as the idea that the Maya were peaceful Conclusion: Though hieroglyphs have been difficult to decipher, there is nothing unusually mysterious about what the Maya wrote. Hieroglyphic inscriptions talk about warfare, the lives of kings, relations between cities, religious ceremonies, the passage of time, and the objects on top of which the hieroglyphs were written.
  50. 50. Reasons why the Ancient Maya are said to be mysterious 4) The ancient Maya appear to have disappeared. What happened to them?
  51. 51. Reasons why the Ancient Maya are said to be mysterious 4) The ancient Maya appear to have disappeared. What happened to them?Aspects of Intellectual Inquiry in the Social Sciences 1. Recognizing multiple dimensions to a good question 2. Recognizing multiple answers to a question or a problem 3. Evaluating evidence 4. Developing potential solutions to problems based on sound evidence and reasoning 5. Exploring the ethical implications of differing approaches, methods or conclusions
  52. 52. Reasons why the Ancient Maya are said to be mysterious 4) The ancient Maya appear to have disappeared. What happened to them?Aspects of Intellectual Inquiry in the Social Sciences 1. Recognizing multiple dimensions to a good question --Did they disappear or just move elsewhere? --If they disappeared, what does this mean? They died out They became less visible
  53. 53. Reasons why the Ancient Maya are said to be mysterious 4) The ancient Maya appear to have disappeared. What happened to them?Aspects of Intellectual Inquiry in the Social Sciences 1. Recognizing multiple dimensions to a good question --Did they disappear or just move elsewhere? --If they disappeared, what does this mean? They died out They became less visible --If they moved, where did they go?
  54. 54. Reasons why the Ancient Maya are said to be mysterious 4) The ancient Maya appear to have disappeared. What happened to them?Aspects of Intellectual Inquiry in the Social Sciences --Recognizing multiple dimensions to a good question --Did they disappear or just move elsewhere? --If they disappeared, what does this mean? They died out They became less visible --If they moved, where did they go? Northern Yucatan, Guatemalan Highlands, Belize --What caused them to disappear and to move elsewhere? --What similarities exist between contemporary Maya and ancient Maya? --What has caused Maya culture to change between 900 AD and today?
  55. 55. Reasons why the Ancient Maya are said to be mysterious 4) The ancient Maya appear to have disappeared. What happened to them?Aspects of Intellectual Inquiry in the Social Sciences --Recognizing multiple dimensions to a good question --Recognizing multiple answers to a question or a problem Drought Foreign invasion Internal warfare --Evaluating evidence --What caused them to disappear and to move elsewhere?
  56. 56. --Evaluating evidence Drought expectations You would see paleo-ecological evidence of less rainfall There is such evidence but some cities were abandoned before drought You would see deterioration of nutrition (skeletons in burials should indicate people dying young, would stunted growth, and more disease) Yes, there was bad health but there was also bad health before drought Foreign invasion expectations You would see find a big increase in artifacts from foreign areas No such increase was found Internal warfare expectations You would see lots of fortifications, at both big sites and small sites
  57. 57. Aguateca
  58. 58. Commoner settlements move to hilltops and defend themselves with walls
  59. 59. 3. Evaluating evidence Drought expectations You would see paleo-ecological evidence of less rainfall There is such evidence but some cities were abandoned before drought You would see deterioration of nutrition (skeletons in burials should indicate people dying young, would stunted growth, and more disease) Yes, there was bad health but there was also bad health before drought Foreign invasion expectations You would see find a big increase in artifacts from foreign areas No such increase was found Internal warfare expectations You would see lots of fortifications, at both big sites and small sites Yes, there are such fortifications but only in some parts of the Maya area 4. Developing potential solutions to problems based on sound evidence and reasoning Drought may play a role in some cases, internal warfare may play a role in other cases
  60. 60. Aspects of Intellectual Inquiry in the Social Sciences 1. Recognizing multiple dimensions to a good question 2. Recognizing multiple answers to a question or a problem 3. Evaluating evidence 4. Developing potential solutions to problems based on sound evidence and reasoning 5. Exploring the ethical implications of differing approaches, methods or conclusions The Maya did not “disappear”: there are 7 million Maya living today. Rather, they migrated and changed. To say that the ancient Maya disappeared is to deny a connection between modern and ancient Maya, thus robbing modern people of a proud heritage.Modern Maya (2002) Ancient Maya (700 AD)
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