Technological practice has always been one of great interest to many people as technology is a marvel that is dynamic, in other words there will always be anticipation for change or upgrades when it comes to this domain. Linking technology to education; over the past years the “teaching profession” has continuously been analysed from a critical point of view on methods of how to make the activity of “teaching and learning” more effective, as time passed new educational approaches has been put into practice some which are partly effective for the concept of “improving education” as a whole, and others which were disregarded because of recognizable flaws of the proposed methods.
After many attempts of trying to improve teaching, educational experts now identify a fantastic relationship between using technology constructively for the purpose of educating, using technology in terms of more consistently and really integrating the use of technology during daily lessons and not just using it once in a while, like how it was used in the past. The relationship of education and technology has numerous advantages such as thorough learning, fast learning, better explanation and less strenuous on the teacher. Having been introduced to the concept of technological education the following essay will argue in favour of supporting “technological education” through providing support from the following articles “knowledge society agenda”, “Pervasiveness of technology”, “Education for All”-goals, this essay will also specify the future national strategic objectives and lastly highlight the aims of the national and international initiatives regarding continuous professional development of teachers.
To start out there are two types of crucial societies that one can familiarise oneself with namely; the information society and knowledge society .An information society-is a collection of data that is meaningful in which people can exchange the data, it is considered product like where people can buy ,sell ,store ,transport , process somewhat like a “digital divide.” The other society is knowledge society- a community or culture in which “knowledge” should bring about fair practices, harmony and democracy. A society in which knowledge is seen as a way to communicate and unite people, basically a way to support civilization and serves as a guide to run society smoothly. A society which strives to support the universal and equitable access to information (UNESCO).
Using computers in order to build knowledge society-through the use of computers learners should begin to understand what ICT is all about, they should be able to learn new capacities through ICT and communicate better with each other.Education in technology requires a networked society where people can exchange ideas and information, including favourable conditions for an open elaboration and acquisition of knowledge. The benefits of having an educational networked society are that there is continuous new knowledge available for learners to look into, access to numerous amounts of knowledge about various topics and it also designs a new method for teaching and learning to take place, by providing new tools ,resources ,pedagogies ,new space and time ,ultimately making teaching an upgraded profession.
Collective intelligence-can be defined as individual people who through means of research and learning or acquiring knowledge on certain topics are able to share what they have learnt or studied with other people throughout the world by means of technology, other people who receives this knowledge and share the same interest as the person who provided information and shared their knowledge, is then able to make upgrades on the other persons proposed ideas and include more of their own knowledge on the topic building up collective online learning and knowledge exchanging. Ultimately leading to groups of people building on each other’s knowledge which then becomes collective intelligence. The networked society requires and enhances collective intelligence.
e-learning- The actual integration of technology as a new teaching strategy the “new way” of teaching, learning and training.
Expectations of teachers by the OECD-teachers should be able to teach in and maintain a knowledge society as opposed to just an information society; teachers should be able to teach in a networked society where collaborative intelligence can occur, ultimately support collaborative learning. The expectations of using technology educationally is that new pedagogical strategies are introduced, provision for time and space are better then when educating learners the traditional style, new knowledge is Incorporated and lastly society is able to have better expectations of the education system.
Technology being encouraged worldwide-The major goal for educators is to now strive for both an information and knowledge society through the use of technology, by achieving this goal it will be beneficial to all people in society and not only scholars, however in order to achieve this goal people around the world has to help encourage developing countries to participate in developments of ICT in education.
The aims for beneficial use of technology in education- first would be digital solidarity ensuring that all learners have access to digital information and a communication framework. Second Learners transforming into lifelong learners- the initial introduction of content must be set out with an intention for lifelong learning; ICT is the ideal tool to achieve this. Third strategies for making effective decisions when it comes to education-when decisions are being made it has to meet needs therefore great care should be taking during this stage, a good way to start would be to acknowledge the experiences of practitioners and the findings of researchers
Educators, practitioners and researchers can then set out a vision clear to all and strive to achieve it. Fourthly in order to achieve a knowledge society networking is essential, so the main goal would be to establish networks worldwide in all countries, most of all in developing countries so that a knowledge society can be promoted correctly and fairly. The fifth aspect is research, without research it will be impossible to achieve a knowledge networked society because exchanging information is the vital factor of this processes.
To add in order to use technology one has to be familiar with the application of these technologies and to pay attention to working to achieve the following ; “Bridging the gap between technology and pedagogy; development of solid theoretical frameworks; development of an understanding of the use and the effects of ICT in Education; finding an appropriate balance between fundamental, applied, and development research as well as between public research and research made by the private sector”, as stated in the Stellenbosch declaration. Lastly teachers need to improve their skills, capabilities and competencies for this system to work, basically teachers are the main agents in education and would have to be familiarised with educational upgrades for the development of a better society and only good teaching practices can make provision for better education.
This concept place emphasis on the use of technology in our daily lives, the fact that technology is all around use this includes mobile cell phones, computers, new digital devices available and so on. The digital age where we are so dependent on technology that it will be almost impossible to do without e.g. electricity . Technology the most convenient era ever.
Examples of pervasive technology.
“Education for all”- this concept emphasizes the need to make education accessible to all citizens, as education is a right to all, therefore even those in developing countries with many aspects preventing them from having a good education has to be assisted so that they are able to get a good education as well .
In order to make this possible the goals that need to be achieved are as follows; “1. Expand early childhood care and education, 2. Provide free and compulsory primary education to all, 3. Promote learning and life skills for young people and adults, 4. Increase adult literacy by 50 percent, 5. Achieve gender parity by 2005, gender equality by 2015 and 6. Improve the quality of education” by putting these goals into practice hopefully desired outcomes can be achieved.
In order to incorporate the use of ICT in education, one has to know how it works, especially the teacher who has to make use of it constantly, therefore teacher training and development has to be the foundation phase of implementing the “technological teaching.” In 2007 teachers were provided with a book that includes guidelines on how teachers can attempt to improve when it comes to ICT.
An interesting and important focus is the teacher development framework which consists of sub-levels namely; “Innovation, appropriation, adaptation, adoption and lastly entry” as stated in the framework. This is how it works; the above stated concepts are targets that need to be achieved by student teachers and current practising teachers in order to prepare them for the ICT inclusive education.
To elaborate on the framework, the expectation at an “adoption level” requires that teachers who are entering the teaching profession must at least have basic knowledge and skills about how a computer works and should transfer their knowledge to the learners as well. At the adaptation level teachers must now be familiar with how a computer works and should be able to complete tasks on the computer, basically it is at this point at which teachers have the required knowledge, skills and values to support ICT.
The most challenging level on the framework would be “innovation” as it focuses on the transformational use of ICT; it is where application of integrating ICT actually takes place. ICT development for all is most important and should be taken care of during the early educational phase of the future teacher as a result all educational institutions are expected to offer compulsory ICT courses as stated in the framework, also students in higher education institutions should be at least on the “adoption level”, students completing the course should be at “adaptation level” as well as current teachers who have access to ICT resources.
Over the past years there have been continuous discussions on how to improve education and finally through the use of technology we are able to do so in a beneficial manner. When reviewing the national development plan it is obvious that the South African government has a lot of ideas to bring forward however the focus of discussion will be on education only. In the national development plan it is stated that to improve education mobilization of technical capacity is necessary.
The objectives to achieve are as follows, firstly- gather professionals and urge them to assess the functionality of schools, develop a plan to address the issues and constantly assess whether implementations are working. Secondly-select members with appropriate expertise to assess schools. Thirdly-Each underperforming school will be allocated a team of three to five members to introduce change and after six months a mentor that will recommend to the school management a turnaround plan over a period of three years.
Fourthly-the members mentioned above will be skilled in various affairs such as “financial managers, accountants, educational experts, management consultants, engineers and academics.” Fifthly-after six months a development infrastructure will be established, including an in service training for all staff members. Sixthly-the group of experts need to be large enough to cover up all targeted schools. Seventhly-For the initiative to work a reasonable budget must be drawn up or negotiations can take place. Lastly-This scheme should be led by the “department of basic education.”
Around the world especially in African countries there are still disputes about education, lack of access to basic education and not appropriately qualified teachers are still the current issues that need to be addressed. ICT forms part of the plan to address these issues, ICT can be viewed as a collaborated idea of educational professionals and international institutions which combined their ideas on how to set appropriate standards for teachers which clearly states the knowledge, skills and values that Candidates are expected to have, ICT standards forms a guide for other educational institutions on how to prepare future teachers and it also helps to distinguish the teachers competencies, not to mention it is a great way to infuse technology in education.
The following outcomes are anticipated by using ICTeTSA; “1.Engage in Instructional Design Processes”, “2.Facilitate and Inspire Student Learning, Innovation and Creativity”, “3.Create and Manage ¬effective Learning Environments”, “4. Engage in Assessment and Communication of Student Learning”, “5. Engage in Professional Development and Model Ethical Responsibilities”, “6. Understand Subject Matter for Use in Teaching.” In addition the above mentioned outcomes can be implemented by a 4-step process 1-the emerging stage, 2-applying stage, 3-infusing stage and 4-transforming stage by following these stages the outcomes could be achieved effectively.
There is much room for improvement when it comes to education, improvement in one area leads to improvement in another.
As adopted from the white paper 7 document-ICT allows faster access to information which is relevant and it allows for complex information to be collected at the same time . ICT is an area for fast development where teachers are able to use computers to manage various tasks such as managing , orgainising learner data , with ICT the process is automatic enabling the teacher to save time.
ICT allows for quality information to be distributed in the school for the purpose of administration and in doing so it ensures that quality information is available at all times especially during the process of decision making . Managerial and other institutions do not completely appreciate the use of ICT therefore workshops for educational managers would be ideal for them to become aware of the complex benefits in using ICT.
In order to incorporate technology in education in Outcomes-based paradigm the following provisions will be considered- to comply with the “entry” level of developments framework , learners will have to be computer literate , hence they will be taught how to use computers.
Adoption level would require them to know how to use different technological devices in order for them to know how to manage documents on the computer and how to manipulate tasks on the computer . When a member who is participating in the use of ICT is on the adaptation level the member will then be able to use technology fruitfully . Appropriation learners will then make actual use of technology when performing tasks and lastly innovation new learning environments can occur at this stage.
With the standards set by the iste.nets.t teachers are expected to really involve themselves in the proposed teaching activity as they have to apply their knowledge to support teaching environments that molds the learners into innovative and creative thinkers, teachers are further expected to encourage students to “explore real world issues and solve problems” ,teachers should also urge learners to be reflective thinkers and lastly teachers are expected to support collaborative knowledge construction allowing learners the opportunity to educationally engage with one and another. The point of the “technological education” idea is to design programs , educational tasks that allows for technology to be used, so as a teacher you could even allow your learners the chance of exploring with other technological devices or even documents which they seldom use. As a teacher you have a choice to provide learners with activities that could either be “personalized” or “customized” and in doing so the learners could be assessed by summative or formative assessments which correspond to technological standards.
Teachers must be able to bridge the gap smoothly between the transfer of current knowledge to new technologies and situations , a chain relationship between peers ,learners , community support and parents to promote the use of “digital tools” and “resources” could be beneficial to all and is a huge inspiration to learners . Teachers should strive to educate society on the use of different digital tools and how it is used including information about these devices should be shared so that community members along with learners are educated in the process and can also use technology effectively. Teachers are also expected to illustrate and recommend tools that they are familiar with so that people around can understand the value of such tools .” When using these tools and technology in general teachers should be aware of the “legal and ethical” boundaries when using technology , hence teachers should promote responsible social interactions and information.
Teachers are expected to be flexible and willing to develop themselves individually and professionally therefore they are encouraged to participate in local and global communities that are willing to explore technology further. Teachers are expected to “give back” to the community therefore a teacher should always have the status of leadership so that he/she is able to transfer his/her knowledge and help empower others.
Arifah carvelo student no.201104848
THE USE OFEDUCATIONALTECHNOLOGIESINTO TEACHERTRAINING ANDPROFESSIONALDEVELOPMENT.
PERVASIVENESS FOR EDUCATIONTECHNOLOGYEVERYWHERE!ALL AROUND USDAILY
Examples: Telephones Cell phones Computers Hair-dryerPERVASIVENESS OF TECHNOLOGY
EDUCATION FOR ALLEveryone has a right to education therefore education must beaccessible to all
EDUCATION FOR ALLCONTINUES…Goals1. Provide education to all2. Promote learning life skills for all3. Expand childhood education4. Increase adult literacy by 50%5. Achieve gender parity by 2005.6. Improve the quality of educationby putting these goals intopractice.
PRESENT FUTURE NATIONALSTRATEGIC OBJECTIVESTeacher training and professional development
OBJECTIVES TO ACHIEVE DESIREDOUTCOMESGathering experts –finding a group of professionals whowould assess the functionality of schools making elementsthat needs to be changed more identifiable so that schoolscan function properly.The members selected for this project should containappropriate skills and knowledge including this projectshould be budgeted in such a way that it does not cost muchto support.
INFORMATION ANDCOMMUNICATIONTECHNOLOGIESICT –A plan to address lack of access to basiceducation and teachers who are not qualifiedsuitably.A guide for educational institutions to preparefuture teachers.A method to distinguish competent teachers fromincompetent teachers , symbol for improvement.
OUTCOMES ANTICIPATED BYICTETSA ENGAGE IN INSTRUCTIONAL DESGIN PROCESSES FACILLITATE AND INSPIRE STUDENT LEARNING CREATE AND MANAGE EFFECTIVE LEARNINGENVIRONMENTS ENGAGE IN ASSESSMENT AND COMMUNICATION OFSTUDENT LEARNING ENGAGE IN PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT UNDERSTAND SUBJECT MATTER FOR USE INTEACHING
MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.2. Achieve universal and primary education3. Promote gender equality and empower woman.4. Reduce child mortality.5. Improve maternal health6. Combat HIV/AIDS , malaria and other diseases7. Ensure environmental sustainability.8. Develop a global partnership for development
STANDARDS TEACHERS SHOULDMEET1. Facilitate and inspire studentcreativity.2. Design and develop digital agelearning experiences andassessments.
CONTINUATION3. Model digital age work andlearning.4.Promote and model digitalcitizenship and responsibility.
CONTINUATION5. Engage in professional growth and leadership
CONCLUSIONTechnology and education=excellent combination!
REFERENCES Guidelines for teacher training and professional development inICT(2007),viewed February 18 2013,http:https://edulink.uj.ac.za/bbcswebdav/pid-421218-dt-content-rid-12446141_1/courses/13PFS3A10/DOE%20Guidelines%20for%20Teacher%20Training%20Book.pdf Iste.nets.t:advancing digital age teaching (2008),viewed February 182013,https://edulink.uj.ac.za/bbcswebdav/pid-421220-dt-content-rid-12446142_1/courses/13PFS3A10/NETST.PDF
REFERENCES Learning for all :DFID’s education strategy (2010),viewedFebruary 18 2013,http:https://edulink.uj.ac.za/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?url=%2Fwebapps%2Fblackboard%2Fexecute%2Flauncher%3Ftype%3DCourse%26id%3D_12958_1
RE FE RE N CE S National development plan vision for 2030(20110),viewed February18 2013,http:https://edulink.uj.ac.za/ bbcswebdav /pid-421219-dt-content-rid-12446143_1/courses/13PFS3A10/NPC%20National%20Development%20Plan%20Vision%202030%20-l