Number Sense Book

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Number Sense Book

  1. 1. NUMBER SENSE AT A FLIP
  2. 2. Number Sense Number Sense is memorization and practice. The secret to getting good at number sense is to learn how to recognize and then do the rules accurately . Then learn how to do them quickly. Every practice should be under a time limit.
  3. 3. The First Step The first step in learning number sense should be to memorize the PERFECT SQUARES from 1 2 = 1 to 40 2 = 1600 and the PERFECT CUBES from 1 3 = 1 to 25 3 = 15625. These squares and cubes should be learned in both directions. ie. 17 2 = 289 and the 289 is 17.
  4. 4. 2x2 Foil (LIOF) 23 x 12 <ul><li>The last number is the units digit of the product of the unit’s digits </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply the outside, multiply the inside </li></ul><ul><li>Add the outside and the inside together plus any carry and write down the units digit </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply the first digits together and add and carry. Write down the number </li></ul>Work Backwards The Rainbow Method 3(2) 2(2)+3(1) 2(1) 6 7 2 276 Used when you forget a rule about 2x2 multiplication
  5. 5. Squaring Numbers Ending In 5 75 2 <ul><li>First two digits = the ten’s digit times one more than the ten’s digit. </li></ul><ul><li>Last two digits are always 25 </li></ul><ul><li> 7(7+1) 25 </li></ul><ul><li> = 56 25 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Consecutive Decades 35 x 45 <ul><li>First two digits = the small ten’s digit times one more than the large ten’s digit. </li></ul><ul><li>Last two digits are always 75 </li></ul><ul><li>3(4+1) 75 </li></ul><ul><li> = 15 75 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ending in 5…Ten’s Digits Both Even 45 x 85 <ul><li>First two digits = the product of the ten’s digits plus ½ the sum of the ten’s digits. </li></ul><ul><li>Last two digits are always 25 </li></ul><ul><li>4(8) + ½ (4+8) 25 </li></ul><ul><li> = 38 25 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ending in 5…Ten’s Digits Both Odd 35 x 75 <ul><li>First two digits = the product of the ten’s digits plus ½ the sum of the ten’s digits. </li></ul><ul><li>Last two digits are always 25 </li></ul><ul><li>3(7) + ½ (3+7) 25 </li></ul><ul><li> = 26 25 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ending in 5…Ten’s Digits Odd&Even 35 x 85 <ul><li>First two digits = the product of the ten’s digits plus ½ the sum of the ten’s digits. Always drop the remainder. </li></ul><ul><li>Last two digits are always 75 </li></ul><ul><li>3(8) + ½ (3+8) 75 </li></ul><ul><li> = 29 75 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Multiplying By 12 ½ 32 x 12 ½ <ul><li>Divide the non-12 ½ number by 8. </li></ul><ul><li>Add two zeroes. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>8 = 4+00 = 4 00 (1/8 rule) 32
  11. 11. Multiplying By 16 2/3 42 x 16 2/3 <ul><li>Divide the non-16 2/3 number by 6. </li></ul><ul><li>Add two zeroes. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>6 = 7+00 = 7 00 (1/6 rule) 42
  12. 12. Multiplying By 33 1/3 24 x 33 1/3 24 3 = 8+00 = 8 00 (1/3 rule) <ul><li>Divide the non-33 1/3 number by 3. </li></ul><ul><li>Add two zeroes. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  13. 13. Multiplying By 25 32 x 25 <ul><li>Divide the non-25 number by 4. </li></ul><ul><li>Add two zeroes. </li></ul>4 = 8 +00 = 8 00 (1/4 rule) 32
  14. 14. Multiplying By 50 32 x 50 <ul><li>Divide the non-50 number by 2. </li></ul><ul><li>Add two zeroes. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>2 = 16 +00 = 16 00 (1/2 rule) 32
  15. 15. Multiplying By 75 32 x 75 <ul><li>Divide the non-75 number by 4. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply by 3. </li></ul><ul><li>Add two zeroes. </li></ul>4 = 8x3=24+00 = 24 00 (3/4 rule) 32
  16. 16. Multiplying By 125 32 x 125 <ul><li>Divide the non-125 number by 8. </li></ul><ul><li>Add three zeroes. </li></ul><ul><li> 32 </li></ul>8 = 4+000 = 4 000 (1/8 rule)
  17. 17. Multiplying When Tens Digits Are Equal And The Unit Digits Add To 10 32 x 38 <ul><li>First two digits are the tens digit times one more than the tens digit </li></ul><ul><li>Last two digits are the product of the units digits. </li></ul>3(3+1) = 12 16 2(8)
  18. 18. Multiplying When Tens Digits Add To 10 And The Units Digits Are Equal 67 x 47 <ul><li>First two digits are the product of the tens digit plus the units digit </li></ul><ul><li>Last two digits are the product of the units digits. </li></ul>6(4)+7 = 31 49 7(7)
  19. 19. Multiplying Two Numbers in the 90’s 97 x 94 <ul><li>Find out how far each number is from 100 </li></ul><ul><li>The 1 st two numbers equal the sum of the differences subtracted from 100 </li></ul><ul><li>The last two numbers equal the product of the differences </li></ul>100-(3+6) = 91 18 3(6)
  20. 20. Multiplying Two Numbers Near 100 109 x 106 <ul><li>First Number is always 1 </li></ul><ul><li>The middle two numbers = the sum on the units digits </li></ul><ul><li>The last two digits = the product of the units digits </li></ul>1 = 1 15 54 9+6 9(6)
  21. 21. Multiplying Two Numbers With 1 st Numbers = And A 0 In The Middle 402 x 405 <ul><li>The 1 st two numbers = the product of the hundreds digits </li></ul><ul><li>The middle two numbers = the sum of the units x the hundreds digit </li></ul><ul><li>The last two digits = the product of the units digits </li></ul>4(4) = 16 28 10 4(2+5) 2(5)
  22. 22. Multiplying By 3367 18 x 3367 <ul><li>Divide the non-3367 # by 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply by 10101 </li></ul>18/3 = 6 x 10101= = 60606 10101 Rule
  23. 23. Multiplying A 2-Digit # By 11 92 x 11 <ul><li>Last digit is the units digit </li></ul><ul><li>The middle digit is the sum of the tens and the units digits </li></ul><ul><li>The first digit is the tens digit + any carry </li></ul>9+ 1 = 10 1 2 9+2 2 121 Pattern (ALWAYS WORK FROM RIGHT TO LEFT)
  24. 24. Multiplying A 3-Digit # By 11 192 x 11 <ul><li>Last digit is the units digit </li></ul><ul><li>The next digit is the sum of the tens and the units digits </li></ul><ul><li>The next digit is the sum of the tens and the hundreds digit + carry </li></ul><ul><li>The first digit is the hundreds digit + any carry </li></ul>1+9+ 1 = 2 1 1 2 9+2 2 1221 Pattern (ALWAYS WORK FROM RIGHT TO LEFT) 1+ 1
  25. 25. Multiplying A 3-Digit # By 111 192 x 111 <ul><li>Last digit is the units digit </li></ul><ul><li>The next digit is the sum of the tens and the units digits </li></ul><ul><li>The next digit is the sum of the units, tens and the hundreds digit + carry </li></ul><ul><li>The next digit is the sum of the tens and hundreds digits + carry </li></ul><ul><li>The next digit is the hundreds digit + carry </li></ul>1+9+ 1 = 2 1 3 1 2 9+2 2 12321 Pattern (ALWAYS WORK FROM RIGHT TO LEFT) 1+ 1 1+9+2+ 1
  26. 26. Multiplying A 2-Digit # By 111 41 x 111 <ul><li>Last digit is the units digit </li></ul><ul><li>The next digit is the sum of the tens and the units digits </li></ul><ul><li>The next digit is the sum of the tens and the units digits + carry </li></ul><ul><li>The next digit is the tens digit + carry </li></ul>4 = 4 5 5 1 4+1 1 1221 Pattern (ALWAYS WORK FROM RIGHT TO LEFT) 4+1
  27. 27. Multiplying A 2-Digit # By 101 93 x 101 <ul><li>The first two digits are the 2-digit number x1 </li></ul><ul><li>The last two digits are the 2-digit number x1 </li></ul>= 93 93 93(1) 93(1)
  28. 28. Multiplying A 3-Digit # By 101 934 x 101 <ul><li>The last two digits are the last two digits of the 3-digit number </li></ul><ul><li>The first three numbers are the 3-digit number plus the hundreds digit </li></ul>= 943 34 934+9 34
  29. 29. Multiplying A 2-Digit # By 1001 87 x 1001 <ul><li>The first 2 digits are the 2-digit number x 1 </li></ul><ul><li>The middle digit is always 0 </li></ul><ul><li>The last two digits are the 2-digit number x 1 </li></ul>= 87 0 87 87(1) 0 87(1)
  30. 30. Halving And Doubling 52 x 13 <ul><li>Take half of one number </li></ul><ul><li>Double the other number </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply together </li></ul>= 26(26)= 676 52/2 13(2)
  31. 31. One Number in the Hundreds And One Number In The 90’s 95 x 108 <ul><li>Find how far each number is from 100 </li></ul><ul><li>The last two numbers are the product of the differences subtracted from 100 </li></ul><ul><li>The first numbers = the small number difference from 100 increased by 1 and subtracted from the larger number </li></ul>= 102 60 108-(5+1) 100-(5x8)
  32. 32. Fraction Foil (Type 1) 8 ½ x 6 ¼ <ul><li>Multiply the fractions together </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply the outside two numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply the inside two numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Add the results and then add to the product of the whole numbers </li></ul>= 53 1/8 (8)(6)+1/2(6)+1/4(8) (1/2x1/4)
  33. 33. Fraction Foil (Type 2) 7 ½ x 5 ½ <ul><li>Multiply the fractions together </li></ul><ul><li>Add the whole numbers and divide by the denominator </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply the whole numbers and add to previous step </li></ul>= 41 1/4 (7x5)+6 (1/2x1/2)
  34. 34. Fraction Foil (Type 3) 7 ¼ x 7 ¾ <ul><li>Multiply the fractions together </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply the whole number by one more than the whole number </li></ul>= 56 3/16 (7)(7+1) (1/4x3/4)
  35. 35. Adding Reciprocals 7/8 + 8/7 <ul><li>Keep the denominator </li></ul><ul><li>The numerator is the difference of the two numbers squared </li></ul><ul><li>The whole number is always two plus any carry from the fraction. </li></ul>2 = 2 1/56 (8-7) 2 7x8
  36. 36. Percent Missing the Of 36 is 9% of __ <ul><li>Divide the first number by the percent number </li></ul><ul><li>Add 2 zeros or move the decimal two places to the right </li></ul>36/9 = 400 00
  37. 37. Base N to Base 10 42 6 =____ 10 <ul><li>Multiply the left digit times the base </li></ul><ul><li>Add the number in the units column </li></ul>4(6)+2 = 26 10
  38. 38. Multiplying in Bases 4 x 53 6 =___ 6 <ul><li>Multiply the units digit by the multiplier </li></ul><ul><li>If number cannot be written in base n subtract base n until the digit can be written </li></ul><ul><li>Continue until you have the answer </li></ul>= 340 6 = 4x3=12 subtract 12 Write 0 = 4x5=20+2=22 subtract 18 Write 4 = Write 3
  39. 39. N/40 to a % or Decimal 21/40___ decimal <ul><li>Mentally take off the zero </li></ul><ul><li>Divide the numerator by the denominator and write down the digit </li></ul><ul><li>Put the remainder over the 4 and write the decimal without the decimal point </li></ul><ul><li>Put the decimal point in front of the numbers </li></ul>5 25 . 21/4 1/4
  40. 40. Remainder When Dividing By 9 867 / 9=___ remainder <ul><li>Add the digits until you get a single digit </li></ul><ul><li>Write the remainder </li></ul>8+6+7=21=2+1=3 = 3
  41. 41. Base 8 to Base 2 732 8 =____ 2 <ul><li>Mentally put 421 over each number </li></ul><ul><li>Figure out how each base number can be written with a 4, 2 and 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Write the three digit number down </li></ul>7 421 Method 3 2 421 421 421 111 011 010
  42. 42. Base 2 to Base 8 Of 111011010 2 =___ 8 <ul><li>Separate the number into groups of 3 from the right. </li></ul><ul><li>Mentally put 421 over each group </li></ul><ul><li>Add the digits together and write the sum </li></ul>7 421 Method 3 2 421 421 421 111 011 010
  43. 43. Cubic Feet to Cubic Yards 3 ft x 6 ft x 12 ft =__yds 3 <ul><li>Try to eliminate three 3s by division </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply out the remaining numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Place them over any remaining 3s </li></ul>3 12 6 3 3 3 1 x 2 x 4 = 8 Cubic yards
  44. 44. Cubic Feet to Cubic Yards 44 ft/sec __ mph <ul><li>Use 15 mph = 22 ft/sec </li></ul><ul><li>Find the correct multiple </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply the other number </li></ul>22x2=44 15x2=30 mph Cubic yards
  45. 45. Subset Problems {F,R,O,N,T} =______ <ul><li>Subsets=2 n </li></ul><ul><li>Improper subsets always = 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Proper subsets = 2 n - 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Power sets = subsets </li></ul>SUBSETS 2 5 =32 subsets
  46. 46. Repeating Decimals to Fractions .18=___ fraction <ul><li>The numerator is the number </li></ul><ul><li>Read the number backwards. If a number has a line over it then there is a 9 in the denominator </li></ul><ul><li>Write the fraction and reduce </li></ul>18 99 = 2 11 ___
  47. 47. Repeating Decimals to Fractions .18=___ fraction <ul><li>The numerator is the number minus the part that does not repeat </li></ul><ul><li>For the denominator read the number backwards. If it has a line over it, it is a 9. if not it is a o. </li></ul>18-1 90 = 17 90 _
  48. 48. Gallons Cubic Inches 2 gallons=__in 3 <ul><li>Use the fact: 1 gal= 231 in 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Find the multiple or the factor and adjust the other number. (This is a direct variation) </li></ul>2(231)= 462 in 3 (Factors of 231 are 3, 7, 11)
  49. 49. Finding Pentagonal Numbers 5 th Pentagonal # = __ <ul><li>Use the house method) </li></ul><ul><li>Find the square #, find the triangular #, then add them together </li></ul>25+10=35 5 5 25 1+2+3+4= 10
  50. 50. Finding Triangular Numbers 6 th Triangular # = __ <ul><li>Use the n(n+1)/2 method </li></ul><ul><li>Take the number of the term that you are looking for and multiply it by one more than that term. </li></ul><ul><li>Divide by 2 (Divide before multiplying) </li></ul>6(6+1)=42 42/2=21
  51. 51. Pi To An Odd Power 13 =____ approximation <ul><li>Pi to the 1 st = 3 (approx) Write a 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Add a zero for each odd power of Pi after the first </li></ul>3000000
  52. 52. Pi To An Even Power 12 =____ approximation <ul><li>Pi to the 2 nd = 95 (approx) Write a 95 </li></ul><ul><li>Add a zero for each even power of Pi after the 4 th </li></ul>950000
  53. 53. The “More” Problem 17/15 x 17 <ul><li>The answer has to be more than the whole number. </li></ul><ul><li>The denominator remains the same. </li></ul><ul><li>The numerator is the difference in the two numbers squared. </li></ul><ul><li>The whole number is the original whole number plus the difference </li></ul>= 19 4/15 (17-15) 2 15 17+2
  54. 54. The “Less” Problem 15/17 x 15 <ul><li>The answer has to be less than the whole number. </li></ul><ul><li>The denominator remains the same. </li></ul><ul><li>The numerator is the difference in the two numbers squared. </li></ul><ul><li>The whole number is the original whole number minus the difference </li></ul>= 13 4/15 (17-15) 2 17 15-2
  55. 55. Multiplying Two Numbers Near 1000 994 x 998 <ul><li>Find out how far each number is from 1000 </li></ul><ul><li>The 1 st two numbers equal the sum of the differences subtracted from 1000 </li></ul><ul><li>The last two numbers equal the product of the differences written as a 3-digit number </li></ul>1000-(6+2) = 992 012 6(2)
  56. 56. The (Reciprocal) Work Problem 1/6 + 1/5 = 1/X <ul><li>Use the formula ab/a+b. </li></ul><ul><li>The numerator is the product of the two numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>The denominator is the sum of the two numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce if necessary </li></ul>= 30/11 = 6(5) =6+5 Two Things Helping
  57. 57. The (Reciprocal) Work Problem 1/6 - 1/8 = 1/X <ul><li>Use the formula ab/b-a. </li></ul><ul><li>The numerator is the product of the two numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>The denominator is the difference of the two numbers from right to left. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce if necessary </li></ul>= 24 = 6(8) =8-6 Two Things working Against Each Other
  58. 58. The Inverse Variation % Problem 30% of 12 = 20% of ___ <ul><li>Compare the similar terms as a reduced ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply the other term by the reduced ratio. </li></ul><ul><li>Write the answer </li></ul>30/20=3/2 = 18 3/2(12)=18
  59. 59. Sum of Consecutive Integers 1+2+3+…..+20 <ul><li>Use formula n(n+1)/2 </li></ul><ul><li>Divide even number by 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply by the other number </li></ul>10(21)= 210 (20)(21)/2
  60. 60. Sum of Consecutive Even Integers 2+4+6+…..+20 <ul><li>Use formula n(n+2)/4 </li></ul><ul><li>Divide the multiple of 4 by 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply by the other number </li></ul>5(22)= 110 (20)(22)/4
  61. 61. Sum of Consecutive Odd Integers 1+3+5+…..+19 <ul><li>Use formula ((n+1)/2) 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Add the last number and the first number </li></ul><ul><li>Divide by 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Square the result </li></ul>10 2 = 100 (19+1)/2=
  62. 62. Finding Hexagonal Numbers Find the 5 th Hexagonal Number <ul><li>Use formula 2n 2 -n </li></ul><ul><li>Square the number and multiply by 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Subtract the number wanted from the previous answer </li></ul>50-5= 2(5) 2 = 50 45
  63. 63. Cube Properties Find the Surface Area of a Cube Given the Space Diagonal of 12 <ul><li>Use formula Area = 2D 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Square the diagonal </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply the product by 2 </li></ul>2(144)= 2(12)(12) 288
  64. 64. Cube Properties Find S, Then Use It To Find Volume or Surface Area 2 S 3 S S
  65. 65. Finding Slope From An Equation 3X+2Y=10 <ul><li>Solve the equation for Y </li></ul><ul><li>The number in front of X is the Slope </li></ul>3X+2Y=10 Slope = -3/2 Y = - 3 X +5 2
  66. 66. Hidden Pythagorean Theorem Find The Distance Between These Points (6,2) and (9,6) <ul><li>Find the distance between the X’s </li></ul><ul><li>Find the distance between the Y’s </li></ul><ul><li>Look for a Pythagorean triple </li></ul><ul><li>If not there, use the Pythagorean Theorem </li></ul>9-6=3 6-2=4 3 4 5 The distance is 5 3 4 5 5 12 13 7 24 25 8 15 17 Common Pythagorean triples
  67. 67. Finding Diagonals Find The Number Of Diagonals In An Octagon <ul><li>Use the formula n(n-3)/2 </li></ul><ul><li>N is the number of vertices in the polygon </li></ul>8(8-3)/2= 20
  68. 68. Finding the total number of factors 24= ________ <ul><li>Put the number into prime factorization </li></ul><ul><li>Add 1 to each exponent </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply the numbers together </li></ul>3 1 x 2 3 = 1+1=2 3+1=4 2x4=8
  69. 69. Estimating a 4-digit square root 80 2 =6400 7549 = _______ <ul><li>The answer is between 80 2 and 90 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Find 85 2 </li></ul><ul><li>The answer is between 85 and 90 </li></ul><ul><li>Guess any number in that range </li></ul>90 2 =8100 85 2 =7225 87
  70. 70. Estimating a 5-digit square root 19 2 =361 374 85 = _______ <ul><li>Use only the first three numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Find perfect squares on either side </li></ul><ul><li>Add a zero to each number </li></ul><ul><li>Guess any number in that range </li></ul>20 2 =400 195 190-200
  71. 71. C F 9/5(55) + 32 55C = _______F <ul><li>Use the formula F= 9/5 C + 32 </li></ul><ul><li>Plug in the F number </li></ul><ul><li>Solve for the answer </li></ul>= 131 99+32
  72. 72. C F 5/9(50-32) 50F = _______C <ul><li>Use the formula C = 5/9 (F-32) </li></ul><ul><li>Plug in the C number </li></ul><ul><li>Solve for the answer </li></ul>= 10 5/9(18)
  73. 73. Finding The Product of the Roots 6 / 4 = 3/2 4X 2 + 5X + 6 <ul><li>Use the formula c/a </li></ul><ul><li>Substitute in the coefficients </li></ul><ul><li>Find answer </li></ul>a b c
  74. 74. Finding The Sum of the Roots -5 / 4 4X 2 + 5X + 6 <ul><li>Use the formula -b/a </li></ul><ul><li>Substitute in the coefficients </li></ul><ul><li>Find answer </li></ul>a b c
  75. 75. Estimation 26/7 = 3 r5 142857 x 26 = <ul><li>Divide 26 by 7 to get the first digit </li></ul><ul><li>Take the remainder and add a zero </li></ul><ul><li>Divide by 7 again to get the next number </li></ul><ul><li>Find the number in 142857 and copy in a circle </li></ul>999999 Rule 5+0=50/7=7 3 714282
  76. 76. Area of a Square Given the Diagonal ½ D 1 D 2 Find the area of a square with a diagonal of 12 <ul><li>Use the formula Area = ½ D 1 D 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Since both diagonals are equal </li></ul><ul><li>Area = ½ 12 x 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Find answer </li></ul>72 ½ x 12 x 12
  77. 77. Estimation of a 3 x 3 Multiplication 35 x 30 346 x 291 = <ul><li>Take off the last digit for each number </li></ul><ul><li>Round to multiply easier </li></ul><ul><li>Add two zeroes </li></ul><ul><li>Write answer </li></ul>105000 1050 + 00
  78. 78. Dividing by 11 and finding the remainder 7258 / 11=_____ <ul><li>Start with the units digit and add up every other number </li></ul><ul><li>Do the same with the other numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Subtract the two numbers </li></ul><ul><li>If the answer is a negative or a number greater than 11 add or subtract 11 until you get a number from 0-10 </li></ul>10-12= -2 +11= 9 8+2=10 7+5= 12 Remainder
  79. 79. Multiply By Rounding 2994 x 6 = <ul><li>Round 2994 up to 3000 </li></ul><ul><li>Think 3000 x 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Write 179. then find the last two numbers by multiplying what you added by 6 and subtracting it from 100. </li></ul>6(6)=36 100-36=64 3000(6)=179_ _ =17964
  80. 80. The Sum of Squares 12 2 + 24 2 = <ul><li>Since 12 goes into 24 twice… </li></ul><ul><li>Square 12 and multiply by 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Divide by 2 </li></ul>144x10/2= 12 2 =144 =720 (factor of 2)
  81. 81. The Sum of Squares 12 2 + 36 2 = <ul><li>Since 12 goes into 24 three times… </li></ul><ul><li>Square 12 and multiply by 10 </li></ul>144x10= 12 2 =144 =1440 (factor of 3)
  82. 82. The Difference of Squares 32 2 - 30 2 = <ul><li>Find the sum of the bases </li></ul><ul><li>Find the difference of the bases </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply them together </li></ul>32+30=62 32-30=2 (Sum x the Difference) 62 x 2 =124
  83. 83. Addition by Rounding 2989 + 456= <ul><li>Round 2989 to 3000 </li></ul><ul><li>Subtract the same amount to 456, 456-11= 445 </li></ul><ul><li>Add them together </li></ul>2989+11= 3000 456-11=445 (Sum x the Difference) 3000+445=3445
  84. 84. 123…x9 + A Constant 123 x 9 + 4 <ul><li>The answer should be all 1s. There should be 1 more 1 than the length of the 123… pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>You must check the last number. Multiply the last number in the 123… pattern and add the constant. </li></ul>3x9 + 4 =3 1 1111 (1111…Problem)
  85. 85. Supplement and Complement <ul><li>The answer is always 90 </li></ul>=90 Find The Difference Of The Supplement And The Complement Of An Angle Of 40.
  86. 86. Supplement and Complement <ul><li>Use the formula 270-twice the angle </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple the angle by 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Subtract from 270 </li></ul>270-80= Find The Sum Of The Supplement And The Complement Of An Angle Of 40. =190
  87. 87. Larger or Smaller <ul><li>Find the cross products </li></ul><ul><li>The larger fraction is below the larger number </li></ul><ul><li>The smaller number is below the smaller number </li></ul>Larger = 5/4 55 52 Smaller = 13/11 5 13 4 11 +
  88. 88. Two Step Equations (Christmas Present Problem) <ul><li>Start with the answer and undo the operations using reverse order of operations </li></ul>11+1=12 12 x3 = 36 A 3 - = 11 1
  89. 89. Relatively Prime (No common Factors Problem) * One is relatively prime to all numbers <ul><li>Put the number into prime factorization </li></ul><ul><li>Subtract 1 from each exponent and multiply out all parts separately </li></ul><ul><li>Subtract 1 from each base </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply all parts together </li></ul>How Many #s less than 20 are relatively prime to 20? 2 x 1 x 1 x 4 = 8 2 2 x 5 1 =2 1 x 5 0 =2 x 1
  90. 90. Product of LCM and GCF <ul><li>Multiply the two numbers together </li></ul>Find the Product of the GCF and the LCM of 6 and 15 6 x 15 = 90
  91. 91. Estimation <ul><li>Take the number in the middle and cube it </li></ul>15 x 17 x 19 17 3 =4913
  92. 92. Subtracting Reverses <ul><li>Subtract the 1 st digit of the last # </li></ul><ul><li>from the 1 st digit of the 1 st # </li></ul><ul><li>Add 1 zero </li></ul><ul><li>Subtract the # from the original # </li></ul>64 - 46 <ul><li>6 – 4 = 2 </li></ul><ul><li>2 + 0 = 20 </li></ul><ul><li>20 – 2 = 18 </li></ul>
  93. 93. Subtracting Reverses 2 <ul><li>Subtract the 1 st digit of the last # </li></ul><ul><li>from the 1 st digit of the 1 st # </li></ul><ul><li>Add 2 zeroes </li></ul><ul><li>Subtract the # from the original # </li></ul>634 - 436 <ul><li>6 – 4 = 2 </li></ul><ul><li>2 + 00 = 200 </li></ul><ul><li>200 – 2 = 198 </li></ul>
  94. 94. Subtracting Reverses 3 <ul><li>Subtract the 1 st 2 digits of the last # </li></ul><ul><li>from the 1 st 2 digits of the 1 st # </li></ul><ul><li>Add 2 zeroes </li></ul><ul><li>Subtract the # from the reverse of the original # </li></ul>2821 - 1282 <ul><li>28 – 12 = 16 </li></ul><ul><li>16 + 00 = 1600 </li></ul><ul><li>1600 – 61 = 1539 </li></ul>
  95. 95. Sequences-Finding the Pattern <ul><li>If the pattern is not obvious try looking at every other number. There may be two patterns put together </li></ul>7, 2, 5, 8, 3, 14 7 , 2, 5 , 8, 3 , 14 Find the next number in this pattern 1
  96. 96. Sequences-Finding the Pattern <ul><li>If nothing else works look for a Fibonacci Sequence where the next term is the sum of the previous two </li></ul>1, 4, 5, 9, 14, 23 1, 4, 5, 9, 14, 23 Find the next number in this pattern 14+23=37
  97. 97. Degrees Radians <ul><li>If you want radians use Pi X/180 </li></ul><ul><li>If you want degrees use 180 x/Pi </li></ul>90 0 = _____ 90(Pi)/180 Radians =Pi/2

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