Cimigo on Vietnam Residential Energy Use 2013
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    Cimigo on Vietnam Residential Energy Use 2013 Cimigo on Vietnam Residential Energy Use 2013 Presentation Transcript

    • Vietnam Residential Energy Use Energy use and associated CO2 emissions in residential households in Vietnam Sustainable Futures Asia Matt Parkes matt.parkes@sustainablefutures.asia www.sustainablefutures.asia Cimigo Richard Burrage richardburrage@cimigo.com www.cimigo.com March 2013
    •  About the authors 3  Why does residential energy use matter? 6  How did we understand energy use and CO2 emissions in Vietnamese homes? 11  How does residential energy use vary? 17  What impact do building materials have today? 30  Which energy conservation actions and attitudes prevail? 34  So what? 39  About Sustainable Futures Asia 44  About Cimigo 48 Contents 2
    • About the authors 3
    •  Matt is the founder of Sustainable Futures Asia. He is a UK qualified Architect with an MSc in Climate Change and Sustainable Development.  Matt is involved with the UK Urban Development Working Group, working with the UKTI and British Council in promoting business and educational links between the UK and Vietnam. In March 2010 he was responsible for producing the British Council / UKTI’s ‘Sustainable Design & Architecture Conference’ that was held in Ho Chi Minh City.  He is now leading a PhD research project with The Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development at De Montfort University, UK, looking at developing new models of low cost, energy self- sufficient, sustainable housing for south east Asian countries, focusing on Vietnam.  Matt moved to Vietnam in 2004, and prior to that has lived and worked in the UK and Hong Kong. 4 Matt Parkes, Sustainable Futures Asia
    •  Richard Burrage has twenty one years of experience in market research and strategic consulting.  Richard has worked across Asia Pacific consulting across a range of industries and business issues.  Richard has spent the last sixteen years in Vietnam assisting in the development and building of numerous brands to achieve leadership positions.  Richard is a UK national and resides in HCMC with his Vietnamese wife and their children.  Richard founded Cimigo in 2003 and today has offices across eight countries in Asia. 5 Richard Burrage, Cimigo
    • Why does residential energy use matter? 6
    • Vietnam population and CO2 emission yearly growth (Population data - ADB, 2009; mt/CO2/capita – UNdata, 2009) Increased energy demand – 800 Twh in 2030 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 BaseDemandTWh Historic and Future Energy Demand - 1990 to 2030 (Historic data – Tuyen & Michaelowa, 2004; Future projections – Cuong, 2011) 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 Population (Million) Total mtCO2e (Million) 7
    • 37% is residential. US$124 billon investment required. Historic and Future % Fuel Contribution to Energy Generation - 1995 to 2030 (Historic data – Tuyen & Michaelowa, 2004; Future projections – Cuong, 2011) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1995 2000 2010 2020 2030 %Contribution Coal Gas Oil Hydro Nuclear Diesel Renewables Imports The estimated total investment capital required up to 2030 = US$123.8 Billion (MONRE, 2011) 37% 37% 20% 2% 4% Industry Residential Other Buildings Urban Infrastructure Others Energy use by type (Energy Conservation Centre of HCMC: 2010) 8
    • Which levers can be used to adjust energy use? • Consumer habits. • Extent of use of passive architecture. • Use of high efficiency energy generation and management systems. 9
    • Residential dwellings in Vietnam Villas Row Houses Apartments 10
    • How did we understand energy use and CO2 emissions in Vietnamese homes? 11
    •  This is a part of the Cimigo giving back programme which includes; Vietnamese Attitudes to Philanthropy, Vietnam’s NetCitizens and so much more, available at www.cimigo.com.  Cimigo conducted a nationwide online survey in March 2013. 12 Cimigo interviewed 1,394 households nationwide 19 23 17 169103110 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Extremely Boring 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Extremely Interesting Survey evaluation(N=1,394) 86% positive towards the survey (scored 6-10)
    •  Interviewing predominantly urban (87%) and ABC economic (93%) households across 59 provinces.  ABC economic households account for the top 65% of household wealth distribution.  The mean average households sharing a dwelling is 2.3. 13 Understanding dwellings and households therein 54% 36% 10% 69% 29% 2% 78% 22% 52% 28% 20% South North Central Row house Apartment Villa house Own Rent 1 household 2 - 3 households 4+ households RegionDwellingOwnorrent#ofHholds/dwelling Household energy survey - sample distribution% (n=1394) Mean2.3 Hholds
    •  Understanding the building materials of the dwelling.  Note the average row house dwelling is;  Width mode 4 metres  Depth mode 20 metres  Floors mode 2  Mean Sq metres 210  The mean average apartment dwelling is 60 sq metres on a single level. 14 Exploring single household size and structure 57% 30% 13% 30% 31% 39% 32% 37% 20% 12% 43% 42% 12% 3% 1% 67% 29% 2% 1% 83% 10% 5% 1% 100 or less 101 - 250 More than 250 1 floor 2 floors 3+ floors 1 - 3 rooms 4 - 5 rooms 6 - 7 rooms 8+ rooms Corrugated iron Cement Tiles Other Wood Brickwork Cement Steel Wood Ceramic tiles tile Cement Wood Other Sqm/ Hhold#offloors#ofroomsRoofmaterialsWallmaterialsFloormaterials Household size andmaterials % (n=1394) Mean136 sqm Mean2.3 floors Mean4.7 rooms
    •  As dwellings are typically shared the mean average size of one household is:  Row house is 167 sqm.  Apartment 50 sqm.  The survey drilled down to one household, their appliances and energy use. 15 Per household space and key appliances 57% 30% 13% 35% 30% 34% 88% 11% 79% 52% 28% 20% 91% 72% 51% 45% 10% 8% 100 or less 101 - 250 More than 250 1 - 3 people 4 people 5+ people < 20 items 20 - 40 items Ventilation open to air No aircon 1 aircon 2 or more aircon PC, Laptop Tablet Washing machine Electric water heater Ceiling fan Solar water heater Electric bicycle Sqm/Hhold #ofpeople/ Hhold #ofelectrical appliancesAir-conPenetrationofappliances Household size andappliances % (n=1394) Mean136 sqm Mean4.2 people
    • 16 Household durable penetration 94 94 91 91 89 87 86 72 67 51 48 45 37 23 10 8 7 4 2.39 1.16 2.05 2.51 1.64 .97 .95 .74 .78 .66 .78 .74 .38 .23 .11 .09 .08 .04 .00 .50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Incidence % Mean (inc. 0) Household durable penetration(n=1394)
    • How does residential energy use vary? 17
    • 18 Electricity bill is 11% of household expenditure 4,577,512 4,129,043 4,728,298 4,447,336 3,443,589 4,875,118 11% 10% 11% 11% 10% 11%565,758 461,777 606,142 529,284 379,511 624,562 9% 10% 10% 11% 11% 12% - 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 6,000,000 Total Apartment Row house North Central South Mean monthly VND electricity bill / household Mean other household VND expenditure / month Electricity % of household expenditure Monthly electricity andhouseholdexpenditureVND (n=1394)
    • 19 2.15 t-CO2 / household / annum 2.15 2.33 2.03 1.55 0.56 0.61 0.52 0.41 - 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 Total South North Central t-CO2 / household / annum t-CO2 / person in Hhold / annum Variance in CO2 emmissions by household % (n=1,394)
    • 20 3,722 KWH / household / annum 3,722 4,042 3,530 2,689 971 1,063 905 717 - 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 Total South North Central kWh/ household / annum kWh / person in Hhold / annum Variance in electricity use by household % (n=1,394)
    • 21 Factors to interrogate Total Total Roof materials Corrugated iron Dwelling Apartment Roof materials Cement Dwelling Row house Roof materials Tiles Dwelling Villa house Wall materials Cement Region North Wall materials Brickwork Region Central Floor finish Ceramic tiles Region South Floor finish Cement Strata City Exposed ventilation Yes Strata Rural Exposed ventilation No SEC AB # of electronic appliances <20 SEC C # of electronic appliances 20-40 Ownership Rent Electric heated water Washing clothes Ownership Own Electric heated water Washing in kitchen Household per dwelling Only 1 Electric heated water Washing in bathroom Household per dwelling 2 to 3 Cooking with electric Cooking with Electric Household per dwelling 4 or more Ceiling fans Ceiling fans People in household 3 or less Aircon No Aircon People in household 4 Aircon 1 Aircon People in household 5 or more Aircon 2 or more Aircon Sq meter of each household 100 or less Electric usage Electric water heater Sq meter of each household 101-250 Electric usage Solar water heater Sq meter of each household More than 250 Electric usage PC, laptop or tablet Floors 1 Floor Electric usage Electric heated water machine Floors 2 Floors Electric usage Electric bicycle Floors 3+ Floors Water source Tap Number of rooms 1-3 rooms Water source Tap & Well Number of rooms 4-5 rooms Water source Well only Number of rooms 6-7 rooms Number of rooms 8 or more
    •  Less living space per person provides more energy efficiency. Electricity efficiency is greatest in dwellings that have:  Multiple households (and hence shared recourses)  Large household sizes (4 plus)  Yet demographic trends to less households/dwelling and less people per household.  Rural households and households relying on well water are more efficient.  Yet demographic trends are to urbanisation.  Natural climate sees reduced use in Central followed by the North. Usage is highest in the South.  Smaller structures are more efficient. Apartments followed by row houses with fewer rooms (and floors) use less.  Renters are more efficient than home owners. 22 Most efficient have shared dwellings and large households
    •  Small households with three or less members are particularly inefficient users.  Air conditioning has a massive impact on energy use.  Inefficient households have larger homes (250 sqm +), 3 or more floors, many rooms and multiple air conditioners.  Cooking with electricity and electric water heaters also increase use significantly.  Solar water heaters have low penetration at 10%. However 3 in 10 households with a solar water heater also have an electric heater. 23 Least efficient have small households and air con
    • 24 Rural dwellings, in central Vietnam with no air con fair best -31% -25% -28% -23% 22% -7% -17% -27% -15% -5% -19% -35% -29% -26% -19% -19% -15% -15% -15% -9% -9% -8% -40% -30% -20% -10% 0% 10% 20% 30% Rural Wellonly Central NoAircon 5ormore 4ormore Cement Rent Apartment 4 1-3rooms Strata Water source Region Aircon People in household Household per dwelling Floor finish Ownership Dwelling People in household Number of rooms kWh / household / annum: index to average base=0 kWh / person in Hhold / annum: index to average base=0 Factors whichlower electricity use by 8% or more of average(All dwellings n=1,394)
    • 25 Many rooms, many air cons and small households fair worst 11% 25% 9% 5% 26% 23% 12% 52% -18% 53% 52% 8% 9% 9% 11% 14% 14% 18% 25% 26% 35% 35% -20% -10% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Electricwaterheater Morethan250 South 1Aircon Solarwaterheater 3+Floors CookingwithElectric 20-40 3orless 2ormoreAircon 8ormore Electric usage Sq meter of each household Region Aircon Electric usage Floors Cooking with electric # of electronic appliances People in household Aircon Number of rooms kWh / household / annum: index to average base=0 kWh / person in Hhold / annum: index to average base=0 Factors whichincrease electricity use by 8% or more of average(All dwellings n=1,394)
    • 26 Row houses: Renters, with large households and no air con fair well -32% -30% -22% -30% 17% -23% -5% -9% -7% -5% -34% -28% -25% -21% -21% -19% -17% -9% -9% -8% -40% -30% -20% -10% 0% 10% 20% Rural Central Wellonly Rent 5ormore NoAircon 4ormore 4-5rooms 4 North Strata Region Water source Ownership People in household Aircon Household per dwelling Number of rooms People in household Region kWh / household / annum: index to average base=0 kWh / person in Hhold / annum: index to average base=0 Factors whichlower electricity use by 8% or more of average(Row houses n=961)
    • 27 Row houses: small households and air con fair badly 8% 16% 20% 13% 46% 44% 46% -13% 9% 10% 13% 21% 23% 32% 33% 35% -20% -10% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% South 3+Floors Solarwaterheater CookingwithElectric 20-40 8ormore 2ormoreAircon 3orless Region Floors Electric usage Cooking with electric # of electronic appliances Number of rooms Aircon People in household kWh / household / annum: index to average base=0 kWh / person in Hhold / annum: index to average base=0 Factors which increase electricity use by 8% or more of average (Row houses n=961)
    • 28 Apartments: large households, no air con fair well 32% -18% -4% -17% -16% -11% -30% -20% -10% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 5ormore NoAircon 4ormore People in household Aircon Household per dwelling kWh / household / annum: index to average base=0 kWh / person in Hhold / annum: index to average base=0 Factors whichlower electricity use by 8% or more of average (Apartments n=410)
    • 29 Apartments: with air con, electric cooking and small households fair badly 7% 8% 5% 32% 19% -22% 21% 9% 18% 18% 8% 9% 10% 10% 13% 14% 14% 16% 18% 27% -30% -20% -10% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% South Tap Corrugatediron 6-7rooms Electricwaterheater 3orless Washingclothes 2to3 CookingwithElectric 1Aircon Region Water source Roof materials Number of rooms Electric usage People in household Electric heated water Household per dwelling Cooking with electric Aircon kWh / household / annum: index to average base=0 kWh / person in Hhold / annum: index to average base=0 Factors whichincrease electricity use by 8% or more of average(Apartments n=410)
    • What impact do building materials have today? 30
    •  For row houses the optimal material (amongst existing use) is cement for roof, walls and flooring.  For apartments the optimal materials (amongst existing use) are cement for roof, and brick for walls. Building materials today have limited influence 31
    • 32 Row houses: limited influence – cement most efficient 0% 1% -1% 2% -2% 1% -1% -8% 0% 4% -6% 5% -2% 1% -1% -6% -10% -8% -6% -4% -2% 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% Rowhouse Corrugatediron Cement Tiles Cement Brickwork Ceramictiles Cement Dwelling Roof materials Roof materials Roof materials Wall materials Wall materials Floor finish Floor finish kWh / household / annum: index to average base=0 kWh / person in Hhold / annum: index to average base=0 Building material impact (Row houses n=961)
    • 33 Apartments: cement roof and brick walls fair well 0% 5% -5% 1% 0% 4% 0% 10% -3% 2% -2% 5% -6% -4% -2% 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% Apartment Corrugatediron Cement Cement Brickwork Ceramictiles Dwelling Roof materials Roof materials Wall materials Wall materials Floor finish kWh / household / annum: index to average base=0 kWh / person in Hhold / annum: index to average base=0 Building material impact (Apartments n=410)
    • Which energy conservation actions and attitudes prevail? 34
    • 35 Growing vegetables and compost actions 47 42 48 48 66 42 42 76 33 51 41 45 68 40 35 42 45 57 34 34 76 31 43 35 39 64 0 20 40 60 80 100 Total Apartment Row house North Central South City Rural Rent Own Tap Tap & Well Well only Grow vegetables or herbs at home Use food and vegetable waste for composting or animal feed Renewable actions % (n=1394) Households that are rural, in the central region and use well water are more likely to exhibit renewable behaviours in the home.  Even 1 in 3 inhabiting apartments are active.
    • 36 Recycling waste and rain water harvesting actions  Recycling is common for 4 in 10 households.  Households that are rural and use well water are more likely to harvest rain water.  Even 1 in 5 inhabiting apartments harvest rain water. 45 47 44 49 42 43 45 46 50 44 45 45 41 22 23 21 25 27 18 18 43 20 22 18 20 32 0 20 40 60 80 100 Total Apartment Row house North Central South City Rural Rent Own Tap Tap & Well Well only Separate recyclable waste from non-recyclable waste Capture rain water and use it for cooking, washing, flushing or garden watering Recycling actions % (n=1394)
    • 37 Strong comprehension of renewable energy benefits  Nearly all are aware of renewable energy sources.  Comprehension of environmental impact and potential energy bill savings is high. 90 79 54 47 21 17 1 0 50 100 Better for the environment They will reduce my energy bills They are safer They are better for my family's health They are more reliable They will save me time I don't know 97% are aware of renewable energies Perceived benefits of renewable energies % (n=1394)
    • 38 Barriers are design build, cost and knowledge 44 30 30 27 23 16 16 16 8 6 3 2 2 2 2 0 20 40 60 My home was not designed for these types of… They are expensive to buy I don't know how These energy sources are not popular in homes I don’t have the time to organise this These energy sources are not convenient I rent my home and can not take action I live in an apartment and con not take action The weather is not right for this type of energy I am not convinced they will save me money I do not trust these energy sources I don't know They are not reliable sources of energy I am not convinced they will help the environment They are not safe sources of energy 97% are aware of renewable energies Reasons for not using % (n=1394)
    • So what? 39
    • 1. The most energy efficient households have shared dwellings and large households. The least efficient have small households and air conditioning. 2. The most energy efficient households which exist today are declining. They are a factor of a low living space per person. 3. The desire to live in urban Vietnam, in single household dwellings, with less generations and hence a shrinking household size, is not a new phenomena. 4. Increasing economic progress will only increase demands for energy sapping durables and devices, straining available energy resources. 5. The building materials used to date have limited influence on household energy efficiency. 6. Consumers have a strong comprehension of renewable energy benefits. However the barriers are design, build, cost and knowledge. Household energy efficiency will decline without action 40
    • 1. More energy efficient design to reduce energy resources for cooling particularly. 2. More efficient building design and materials which enable dwellings to absorb, retain, and release, at the appropriate times, radiate heat. 3. Residential access to and business incentives to provide renewable resources in new built homes. 4. Residential access to and incentives to convert to more efficient cooling/heating. Access encompasses availability and affordability (possibly financing). 5. Raising consumer knowledge and demonstrating household costs savings are both critical. Design, build, access, incentive and education 41
    • 1. A nationwide standard method of survey measurement and benchmarking needs to be established. 2. Promote greater transparency and sharing of data, making it more readily available to research institutions, corporate bodies and individuals who are looking to carry out research that support the development aims for Vietnam. 3. Build an educational campaign to promote comprehension of and accessibility to the 1. efficient use of existing energy, 2. conversion to more efficient energy sources and 3. new design and build models. 4. Establish a new public/private sector project, aimed at developing energy efficient housing models, against which future developments can be measured. What next… 42
    • Download your copy at www.cimigo.com cimigo.com The Voice of the Customer 43
    • About Sustainable Futures Asia 44
    • 45 Professional ‘sustainability’ services Sustainable Futures Asia (SFA) was established in 2011 to provide professional sustainability services throughout the South East Asia region. SFA provide services in three key areas: • Project Consulting – assisting governments and private enterprise in reviewing existing, and developing new economically sustainable business strategies. • Architecture & Urbanism – providing sustainable design solutions, either leading or as part of the client design team, including VGBC Lotus accreditation services. • Knowledge Creation – carrying out research in to sustainability issues, and organising sustainability conferences and other knowledge sharing events. www.sustainablefutures.asia
    • 46 Dr Vu Thi Hong Hanh Hanh is a Vietnamese registered architect who has lived and worked in Vietnam, Australia and the United Kingdom, completing her MSc in Melbourne, Australia and her PhD in Oxford, UK. Hanh teaches at the Ho Chi Minh City University of Architecture. Matt Parkes RIBA Matt is a UK registered architect who has worked in Vietnam since 2004, having previously lived and worked in the UK and Hong Kong. With an MSc in Climate Change and Sustainable Development, Matt is now undertaking PhD research into new models of sustainable housing here in Vietnam. Founding members
    • 47 Khai Duong Joint Stock Company Recent clients include Partner organisations
    • About Cimigo 48
    • VietnamIndonesia India China Hong Kong Philippines Singapore 3 billion customers We now have the privilege of representing Starting 10 years ago in Vietnam we’ve expanded to... 49
    • From seven main cities in Vietnam… 50
    • consumer-rooted growth Online Panels 45 Consultants 130 Full-time staff 12 Qualitative Specialists 5 Call Centres Face-to-face …put the consumer into the boardroom to deliver 650 Fieldworkers Cimigo’s extensive set of resources and expertise... 51
    • Cimigo delivers a full range of services to ensure your business remains connected to your consumers Motivational research Market scoping and segmentation Concept testing New product development Brand positioning 1. Consulting Services Market tracking Product optimisation Brand equity Touch point management Customer loyalty 2. Research Services Ethnography Accompanied shopping In-depth interviewing Focus groups Vox pops Telephone interviewing Street intercepts Mystery shopping On line surveys Social media tracking 52
    • Cimigo for Brand Value And for stronger consumer engagement & intelligence. www.facebook.com/CimigoVietnam @cimigovietnam www.linkedin.com/company/cimigo 53
    • Thank You Sustainable Futures Asia Matt Parkes matt.parkes@sustainablefutures.asia www.sustainablefutures.asia Cimigo Richard Burrage richardburrage@cimigo.com www.cimigo.com March 2013