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Speech Language Engineering System for Automatic                Generation of Web based User Forms        Imran Sarwar Baj...
2. Problem statement                                            done in the perspective of facilitating the experts. No   ...
can also be designed by just providing the information       this particular example following code is generated byabout t...
system. Following is output of one of the examplesgenerated by the designed system.                                       ...
7.5 User Forms Generation                                       based Framework, 4th International Conference on          ...
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Web User Forms (ICOMMS 2006)


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Imran Sarwar Bajwa, A. H. S. Bukhari, [2006] "Speech Language based Engineering System for Automatic Generation of User Forms", in International Conference on Man-Machine Systems (ICOMMS 2006), Kangar, Malaysia

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  1. 1. Speech Language Engineering System for Automatic Generation of Web based User Forms Imran Sarwar Bajwa Waqar Aslam Syed Irfan Hyder Faculty of Computer & Emerging Department of Computer Science & PAF-Karachi Institute of Sciences Information Technology Economics and Technology, Balochistan University of IT and MS, The Islamia University of Karachi Quetta Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur Abstract designer as he has to manipulate information in various applications as for sake of record keeping and reportDesigning user forms for dynamic web pages is a time generation purposes [5]. Some of the applications areconsuming task for experts and tricky job for novel users. very complex and also require lot of efforts during theirNatural language processing provides an easy interface design. As web designing is one of the importantto the novel users to handle the cumbersome computer software engineering fields and to design a successfulapplications. The designed system incorporates this and excellent website is real technical task.vigorous ability of natural language processing based The aspect of Web designing is constituted of variousautomated system. User forms basically allow the user to facets as the web stuffing, web technology, web visualsinput information and also get back the particular and web based money matters [2]. Web stuffing isresponse. User interacts with a web system by using basically related to the actual data contents, informationvarious parts of a user form. A web page not actually and statistics which are heart and soul of a web page. Onneeds the visual components but a well-designed form the other hands a particular Web technology provides thewith good scripts for processing the business data. A well actual functionality of a website in the shape of forms,designed form is a tool for collecting and distributing reports, and dynamic web contents generation. Webinformation for user. The designed system helps to visuals typically define the shape and outline of aautomatically generate some desired web user forms. website and it is a major tool to interact user to theUser only provides his particular business related website. In the last, the web economics contributes therequirements in the form of simple English text. The economics rectifications where required [1]. The webdesigned system bases on a rule based algorithm which economics provides the facility to perform onlinereads the user requirements, understand the scenario, business transactions.extracts the required information and then at the lastautomatically generates some sample web user forms. The major prominence of the conducted research is toUser can use them with proper adjustments. This provide an automatic facility to the user so that he mayautomated system can really save the time of the user himself provide his requirements and preference at hisand web designer to design the user forms. own and may generate his required and desired output of the user forms. The key issue was to facilitate the novelKeywords: Human Computer Interaction, Automatic users who do not have expertise in major web tools. AUser forms Design, Text understanding, Language user form is basically composition of various types ofEngineering, ActiveX controls used for both input and output functions [4]. Major components often used are input1. Introduction text boxes, command buttons, option buttons, radio buttons, lists and combo boxes. The physicalUser entry forms are one of the major tools for collecting arrangement of these components and the written HTMLuser–related information. User forms are useful in many code working behind them is real time-consuming task.ways as for collecting large quantities of statistical or Various ActiveX components are used for variousotherwise quantifiable information, applying for surveys, purposes. User forms can be more interactive and easy tovarious signup mechanisms, login mechanisms and process if they are designed according to the approvedmiscellaneous search mechanisms [3]. User entry forms norms and conventions.are an easy source for colleting information not only foruser’s point of view but also according to the web
  2. 2. 2. Problem statement done in the perspective of facilitating the experts. No work has been done for the novels. A person who is notConventional styles of designing user entry forms is little expert can not use these intimated software applications.tedious task and also time consuming job. On the otherhand highly skillful and expert person is required todesign the user forms. The un-effective layout of user 5. User Forms Designingentry forms may cause problem for the user during the Among various good Web designing practices one is tofilling of the forms. The difficult user interface in the design websites that are simple and easy for people toform of user forms can be quite troublesome and interact. There are some key principles for effectiveineffective for a website. A website can be really design of user-friendly data entry forms. There are veryunproductive and futile if the users face difficulty in simple things which are usually overlooked during formfilling forms. designing. The designed system has ability to automatically decide that which input components should3. Problem’s Solution be used in which situation.To address the depicted problem, an automated system is Some important considerations are as the radio buttonsrequired which is adequately intelligent to generate the are only used when options are mutually exclusive anduser entry forms according to the user requirements and the user has to make only one selection among variousin no time. The intended research project “Speech options, e.g. Gender. The checkboxes are used when theLanguage Engineering Framework for Automatic user has to select as many or as little (including zero)Generation of User Forms” helps to automatically choices according to his requirement [8]. This isgenerate the user forms according to the user’s given common practice during subscribing to variousrequirement and guidelines. To generate the forms a newsletters. A single checkbox is used when the userparticular user only has to provide his particular business has a choice of a Boolean value, e.g. on and off and itrelated requirements in the form of simple English text. helps to get the basic concept of good form design.The designed system uses a rule based algorithm which There are more tedious questions to answer that where toreads the user requirements, comprehends the given text, use drop–down list instead of radio buttons as both ofdigs out the required information and then eventually them perform the similar task [12]. In the currentgenerates the user forms. User can use them with proper scenario, the radio buttons are used in case of 2 or 3adjustments. This automated system can really save the choices. If choices are more than that drop–down list aretime of the user and web designer for later web designing used.process and a support for the novel web-designers. Some other key rules are also followed when designing a form that typically facilitates a common user during4. Literature Review interfacing with a user form. First of all the subheadings are used to separate distinct sections of the target forms.Automatic Web based user entry forms generation is not The sectioning of form makes it easier to scan throughan old field of work. Work from last few years has been the choices and make them easier to understand. Thestarted in this really vital area. The major area of interest lists are designed vertically as this makes it easier for theis visual interface layout [8]. The research in visual user to check the multiple choices and make a decisioninterface layout design came into being with the advent easily [6]. The “other” option is also supported as it helpsof new visual applications as web layout and graphical to provide a new option not listed in the provided list. Ifuser interface for computer applications. From so many the list is endless and user writes word ‘etc’ aexamples some are UIDE [13], ADDI [14]. Various supplemented textbox is provided as an “other” option.methods and techniques have been defined to address theproblem of automatic web-layout generation. These The situation in which user have to select at least oneinterface applications typically provide the design value, always a default value is provided in options forprocess and also support incorporation of domain- radio buttons and drop–down lists. By definition thesespecific preferences [3]. These applications provide the inputs require at least one option to be selected.half functionality as the course of mapping the domainobjects and their properties into corresponding visual 6. Used Methodologyproperties in the layout design is left for the user. Someapplications also tend to use the visual knowledge base The designed system works in two halves. In first halfto solve this problem [10]. the user’s given input text is read by the system and after proper understanding and analysis the necessaryThese defined models can assist layout designers in information is extracted. This information is further usedaddressing the dynamics of the problem in an efficient to draw the sample web layouts. In second half if usermanner. The whole related work in this area has been also wants to draw the user forms automatically, those
  3. 3. can also be designed by just providing the information this particular example following code is generated byabout the forms as how many text boxes are required the system.what are their names and other properties. <HTML>6.1. Text Understanding <BODY> <CENTER>This is the major phase of automatically generating the <FORM action="..." method="post">user entry forms. The user writes his requirements and <TABLE>preferences in simple English text. For example a user <TR>gives following preferences to draw a sample web- <TD> Name </TD>layout. <TD>“Draw a text box with label Name, whose maximum <INPUT type= “text” name= “text1” value= “”length is 25. Draw a text box with label Father Name. maxlength=25>Draw a text box with 25 columns and 5 rows, whose </TD>label is Address. Draw two option buttons with labels <TR>Male and Female. Their name is sex and values are Male <TD> Father Name </TD>and Female. Draw also a submit button. ” <TD> <INPUT type= “text” name=“text2” value=“”>Designed system reads such type of input extracts the </TD>information after appropriate analysis. Some information </TR>is auto generated as name, type and value of a text box, <TR>etc. The extracted information is as following <TD> Address </TD> <TD> Input_1.label= Name <Textarea name=“text3” columns=25 rows=5> text1 </TD> Input_1. type= “Text” </TR> Input_1.value= “” <TR> Input_1.maxlength= 25 <TD> Gender </TD> Input_2.label= Father Name <TD> text2 <INPUT type= “radio” name=“sex” Input_2. type= “Text” value=“Male”> Input_2.value= “” <INPUT type= “radio” name=“sex” Input_3.label= Address value=“Female”> Input_3.type = Text Area </TD> text3 </TR> Input_3.value= “” <TR> Input_3.colums= 25 <TD> Input_3.rows= 5 <INPUT type= “sumit”> </TD> Input_4.label= Gender </TR> sex </TABLE> Input_4.type= radio </FORM> Input_4.value= “Female” </BODY> sex </HTML> Input_5.type= radio Code -1: Automated HTML generated code Input_5.value= “Male” This HTML generated code is stored in a new file. The Input_6. type= “submit” designed system is adequately flexible in analyzing theThese defined input types are further processed to given text.generate the concerning HTML code. 6.3. Web Layout Generation6.2. HTML Code Generation After compound analysis and generation of HTML codeAfter extracting this type of information the designed for user entry form layout is really designed and thesystem has a rigorous ability of generating related HTML actual web page is generated by writing the generatecode on the base of this information. On the behalf of code into new file with .html extension. Many exemplaryextracted information nested tables technique is used. For text requirements were processed by the designed
  4. 4. system. Following is output of one of the examplesgenerated by the designed system. Sample User Forms page User Forms Generation Creating a new HTML file HTML Code Generation Generating HTML tags to draw forms Information Extraction Extracting FORM tags informationFigure 1.0: A sample user entry form automaticallygenerated from user given preferences Analyzing User Input7. Architecture of Designed System Text UnderstandingAutomatic web based user entry forms generation system with syntax Analysisusing natural language processing techniques isadequately capable of understanding the provided input Reading User Inputtext and generates the required web-layout according tothe provided information. The designed system generatesthe user entry forms in five distinct phases: Reading User User given input textInput, Analyzing User Input, Information Extraction, in Simple EnglishHTML Code generation and finally producing the actual InputHTML file containing user entry forms. The intendedsystem based on the structural design shown in thefollowing figure 2.0. Figure 2.0: Structure of Speech Language Engineering7.1 Reading User Input Framework for Automatic Generation of User FormsThis is the first phase and it helps to acquire input textpreference from the user. User provides his requirements 7.3 Information Extractionin from of paragraphs of the text. This module reads the This phase particularly extracts different objects as theinput text in the form characters and generates the words input boxes, option buttons, check boxes, commandby concatenating those input characters. This module is buttons etc. Other respective attributes are extracted onthe implementation of the lexical phase. Lexicons and the basses of the input provided by the precedingtokens are generated in this module. module.7.2 Analyzing User Input 7.4 HTML Code GenerationThis phase reads the input provided by the module 1 in After extracting the information required to draw thefrom of words or tokens. These words are categorized particular HTML tags used to draw the variousinto various classes as verbs, helping verbs, nouns, components of the forms are used as <Form>, <Input>,pronouns, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, etc for <option>, <select tags, are automatically greetedthe various intentions as understanding and further according to the given requirements by the user.processing of the text.
  5. 5. 7.5 User Forms Generation based Framework, 4th International Conference on Computer Applications 2006 Rangoon, MyanmarThis is the final phase which uses the extractedinformation from the previous phase to actually generate [3] A.R. Ahmad, O. Basir, K. Hassanein, “Intelligenta new HTML file. The HTML code based on various Expert System for Decision Support in the Layoutforms tags is embedded into the <table> tags to create a Design”, Working Paper, Systems Design Engineering,systematic design. In response, the output is provided to University of Waterloo, 2004.the user according to his requirements. [4] Malaisé Véronique, Zweigenbaum Pierre, Bachimont Bruno, Mining Defining Contexts to Help Structuring8. Conclusion Differential Ontologies Terminology, 11:1, 2005For automatic generation of the user forms for dynamic [5] Drouin Patrick. "Detection of Domain Specificcontents based web pages, a newly rule based algorithm Terminology Using Corpora Comparison" Proceedingshas been designed. The designed system “Speech of the Fourth International Conference on LanguageLanguage Engineering Framework for Automatic Resources and Evaluation (LREC), Lisbon, PortugalGeneration of Web based User Forms” bases on this (2004)newly designed algorithm and the major objectives ofthis research were to not only support the experts and [6] Gómez-Pérez Asunción, Fernández-López Mariano,save their time but also to provide a very simple interface Corcho Oscar, Ontological Engineering: withto novel users who are not highly skilled in designing examples from the areas of Knowledge Management,dynamic HTML pages and are not skillful in using e-Commerce and the Semantic Web Springer (2004)complex web designing software applications. The used [7] Khoo Christopher, Chan Syin, Niu Yun, “The Manyapproach is based on a newly designed rule based Facets of the Cause-Effect Relation”, The Semantics offramework which is highly capable of understanding the Relationships. Kluwer Academic Press. (2002). p. 51-user given text and performs the desired task. The user 70provides his requirements and preferences using simpleEnglish text and the designed application performs the [8] A. R. Ahmad, O.Basir, K.Hassanein, “Fuzzycompound analysis of the given text after reading it. Inferencing in the Web Page Layout Design”, Proc. ofDesired HTML code is generated on the basis of the the 1st Workshop on Web Services: Modeling,extracted information. A new HTML file is generated Architec. & Infrastructure, France, pp. 33-41, Aprilwhich contains the newly generated web layout. The 2003used approach is based on a newly designed rule based [9] E. L. Blair, S. Miller, “An interactive approach toframework which is highly capable of understanding the facilities design using microcomputers”, Journal ofuser given text and performs the desired task. Computers in Industrial Engineering, Vol. 9, pp. 91- 102, 19859. Future Work [10] A.R. Ahmad, O. Basir, K. Hassanein, “EfficientCurrently achieved progress is only capable of Placement Heuristics for Ge netic Algorithm basedgenerating forms that are static. The automatic Layout Optimization”, Working Paper, Systemsgeneration process can further be improved by improving Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, 2003the designed algorithm’s considerations. The designed [11] M.G. El-Said, G. Fischer, S.A. Gamael-Din, M.system only works for static user entry forms. The Zaki, “ADDI: A tool for automating the design ofresearch work can be enhanced and further improved to visual interfaces”, Computers & Graphics, Vol 21, No.also generate dynamic consents generation code that is 1, pp. 79-87, 1997typically written in JSP, ASP or PHP languages. [12] S. Kim, H. Alani,W. Hall, P. Lewis, D. Millard, N.10. References Shadbolt, and M. Weal. 2002. Artequakt: Generating tailored biographies with automatically annotated[1] Nikiforos Karamanis and Hisar Maruli Manurung, fragments from the web. In Proc. of the Semantic 2002, Stochastic text structuring using the principle of Authoring, Annotation and Knowledge Markup continuity, Proceedings of the Second International Workshop in the 15th European Conf. on Artificial Conference on Natural Language Generation (INLG- Intelligence 2002), Ramapo Mountains, NY [13] J. Foley, W. Kim, S. Kovacevic, and K. Murray,[2] Imran S. Bajwa, M. Asif Naeem, Riaz-Ul-Amin, M “UIDE-An Intelligent User Interface Design A. Choudhary, Speech Language Processing Interface Environment”, In J W Sullivan and S.W. Taylor for Object-Oriented Application Design using a Rule- (Eds.), Intelligent User Interface, ACM, NY, 1991