© Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgHidaya Institute of...
© Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgFile System Structure
© Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgFile System Structu...
© Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgFSSTND• The FSSTND ...
© Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgWhat is a File?• Fi...
© Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgWhat is a directory...
© Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/ – Root• Every sin...
© Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/bin – User Binarie...
© Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/boot, Boot Loader ...
© Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/dev – Device Files...
© Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/etc – Configuratio...
© Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/home – Home Direct...
© Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/lib – System Libra...
© Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/lost+found• Linux ...
© Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/media – Removable ...
© Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/mnt – Mount Direct...
© Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/opt – Optional add...
© Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/root – Home Direct...
© Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/sbin – System Bina...
© Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/usr – User Program...
© Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/var – Variable Fil...
© Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/srv – Service Data...
© Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/tmp – Temporary Fi...
© Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgThe End
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

File system structure in linux

714 views

Published on

Linux Slides

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
714
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
57
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

File system structure in linux

  1. 1. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgHidaya Institute ofScience &Technologywww.histpk.orgA Division of Hidaya Trust, Pakistan
  2. 2. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgFile System Structure
  3. 3. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgFile System Structure• A file system is the methods and data structuresthat an operating system uses to keep track offiles on a disk or partition; that is, the way the filesare organized on the disk.• A file system organizes data in an efficientmanner and is tuned to the specificcharacteristics of the device.
  4. 4. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgFSSTND• The FSSTND (Filesystem Standard), afilesystem hierarchy standard specific to the Linuxoperating system, was released on 14 February1994.• The name has been changed into FilesystemHierarchy Standard (FHS) on 26 October 1997.• Initial release 1.0 14 February 1994.• Latest release 2.3 29 January 2004.
  5. 5. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgWhat is a File?• Files are collection of data items stored ondisk. Or, its device which can store theinformation, data, music (mp3 files), picture,movie, sound, book etc. In fact what everyou store in computer it must be inform offile. Files are always associated withdevices like hard disk ,floppy disk etc. Fileis the last object in your file system tree
  6. 6. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgWhat is a directory?• Directory is group of files.• Root directory - There is only one root directoryin your system, which is denoted by / (forwardslash).• It is root of your entire file system and can not berenamed or deleted.Sub directory - Directory under root (/) directoryis sub directory.Directories are used to organize your data files,programs more efficiently.
  7. 7. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/ – Root• Every single file and directory starts fromthe root directory.• Only root user has write privilege under thisdirectory.• Please note that /root is root user’s homedirectory, which is not same as /.
  8. 8. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/bin – User Binaries• The bin directory contains several usefulcommands that are of use to both thesystem administrator as well as non-privileged users.• It usually contains the shells like bash, csh,etc… and commonly used commands likecp, mv, rm, cat, ls.
  9. 9. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/boot, Boot Loader Files• This directory contains everything requiredfor the boot process.• Contains boot loader related files.
  10. 10. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/dev – Device Files• Contains device files.• These include devices, usb, or any deviceattached to the system like hda1, hda2 or/dev/cdrom.
  11. 11. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/etc – Configuration Files• This is the nerve center of your system, itcontains all system related configurationfiles in here or in its sub-directories.• A "configuration file" is defined as a localfile used to control the operation of aprograms.
  12. 12. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/home – Home Directories• Home directories for all users to store theirpersonal files.• Linux is a multi-user environment so eachuser is also assigned a specific directorythat is accessible only to them and thesystem administrator.• ~ tilde symbol is represents the homedirectory of login user.
  13. 13. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/lib – System Libraries• The /lib directory contains kernel modulesand those shared library images (the Cprogramming code library) needed to bootthe system and run the commands in theroot filesystem, ie. by binaries in /bin and/sbin.
  14. 14. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/lost+found• Linux should always go through a propershutdown. Sometimes your system mightcrash or a power failure might take themachine down.• fsck will go through the system and try torecover any corrupt files that it finds.
  15. 15. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/media – Removable Media Devices• Temporary mount directory for removabledevices.• For examples,• /media/cdrom for CD-ROM• /media/floppy for floppy drives• /media/flash for usb flash drive
  16. 16. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/mnt – Mount Directory• Temporary mount directory where we canmount the filesystems.• This is a mount point under which youmount your filesystems or devices.• Mounting is the process by which you makea filesystem available to the system.
  17. 17. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/opt – Optional add-on Applications• This directory is reserved for all thesoftware and add-on packages that are notpart of the default installation.
  18. 18. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/root – Home Directory of root user• This is the home directory of the SystemAdministrator, root.
  19. 19. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/sbin – System Binaries• Just like /bin, /sbin also contains binaryexecutables.• But, the linux commands located under thisdirectory are used typically by systemadministrator, for system maintenancepurpose.
  20. 20. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/usr – User Programs• Contains binaries, libraries, documentation,and source-code for second levelprograms.
  21. 21. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/var – Variable Files• Content of the files that are expected togrow can be found under this directory.• This includes• System log files (/var/log)• Packages and database files (/var/lib)…
  22. 22. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/srv – Service Data• Contains server specific services relateddata.
  23. 23. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org/tmp – Temporary Files• Directory that contains temporary filescreated by system and users.• This directory contains mostly files that arerequired temporarily.
  24. 24. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) A Non-Profit Organization www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgThe End

×