1 introduction to linux os

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1 introduction to linux os

  1. 1. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgHidaya Institute ofScience &Technologywww.histpk.orgA Division of Hidaya Trust, Pakistan
  2. 2. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgIntroduction to Linux OS
  3. 3. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgAn operating system (OS) is a collection of software thatmanages computer hardware resources and providescommon services for computer programs. The operatingsystem is a vital component of the system software in acomputer system. Application programs usually require anoperating system to function. OS is the interface betweenhardware and user .All computers need an OSOSes are used to run applications and control hardware.Popular OSes include Windows, Linux, Mac OSX
  4. 4. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgLinux is a free open-source operating system based onUnix. Linux was originally created by Linus Torvalds with theassistance of developers from around the globe. Linux isfree to download, edit and distribute. Linux is a verypowerful operating system and it is gradually becomingpopular throughout the world. Linux is a Unix-like computeroperating system assembled under the model of free andopen source software development and distributionLinux was originally developed as a free operating system
  5. 5. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgthe underlying source code may be used, modified, anddistributed—commercially or non-commercially—byanyone under licenses such as the GNU General PublicLicense. Typically Linux is packaged in a format knownas a Linux distribution for desktop and server use
  6. 6. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgBefore LinuxIn 80’s, Microsoft’s DOS was the dominated OS for PCApple MAC is better, but expensiveUNIX is much better, but much much expensive. Onlyfor minicomputer for commercial applicationsPeople was looking for a UNIX based system, which ischeaper and can run on PCBoth DOS, MAC and UNIX are proprietary, i.e., thesource code of their kernel is protected
  7. 7. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgGNU projectEstablished in 1984 by Richard Stallman, who believesthat software should be free from restrictions againstcopying or modification in order to make better andefficient computer programs GNU is a recursive acronymfor “GNUs Not Unix”Aim at developing a complete Unix-like operating systemwhich is free for copying and modification Companiesmake their money by maintaining and distributing thesoftware,
  8. 8. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orge.g. optimally packaging the software with different tools(Redhat, Slackware, Mandrake, SuSE, etc) 1985,Stallman started the Free Software Foundation and wrotethe GNU General Public License (GNU GPL) in 1989.A famous professor Andrew Tanenbaum developedMinix, a simplified version of UNIX that runs on PCMinix was for class teaching only. No intention forcommercial use In Sept 1991, Linus Torvalds, a studentof Computer Science at the University of Helsinki,
  9. 9. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgdeveloped the preliminary kernel of Linux, known asLinux version 0.01It was put to the Internet and received enormousresponse from worldwide software developersBy March 1992 came version 0.95….. x-windowsIt was put to the Internet and received enormousresponse from worldwide software developersBy March 1992 came version 0.95….. x-windows
  10. 10. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgNovember 1992 SUSE , German versionAugust 1993 Debian & slackwareMarch 1994 kernel version 1.0Oct 1994 Red hat & calderaMarch 1996 kernel version 2.0KDE 1998Jan 1999 kernel version 2.22000 IBM invest 1 Billion$Jan 2001 kernel version 2.4
  11. 11. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgOpen Office 2002Late 2003 FedoraDecember 2003 kernel version 2.6October 2004 UbuntuJuly 2011 kernel version 3.0
  12. 12. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgLinux Pros and ConsAdvantages over WindowsIts almost free to relatively inexpensive. Source code isincluded. Bugs are fixed quickly and help is readilyavailable through the vast support in Internet. Linux ismore stable than Windows. Linux is truly multi-user andmulti-tasking
  13. 13. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgmultiuser: OS that can simultaneously serve a number ofusers. multitasking: OS that can simultaneouslyexecute a number of programs. Linux runs onequipment that other operating systems consider toounderpowered, e.g. 386 systems, PDA, etcDisadvantages compared with WindowsIsnt as popular as Windows.Less commercial companyis responsible for Linux.Linux is relatively hard to learnand use as compared to Windows
  14. 14. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgLow cost:There is no need to spend time and huge amount money toobtain licenses since Linux and much of it’s software comewith the GNU General Public License. There is no need toworry about any softwares that you use in Linux.Stability:Linux has high stability compared with other operatingsystems. There is no need to reboot the Linux system tomaintain performance levels.
  15. 15. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgRarely it freeze up or slow down. It has a continuous up-times of hundreds of days or morePerformance:Linux provides high performance on various networks. Ithas the ability to handle large numbers of userssimultaneously.Flexibility:Linux is very flexible. Linux can be used for highperformance server applications, desktop applications, andembedded systems.
  16. 16. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgYou can install only the needed components for a particularuse.Compatibility:It runs all common Unix software packages and can processall common file formats.Wider Choice:There is a large number of Linux distributions which gives youa wider choice. Each organization develop and supportdifferent distribution. You can pick the one you like best; thecore functions are the same
  17. 17. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgFast and easy installation:Linux distributions come with user-friendly installation.Multitasking & Multiuser:Linux is a multitasking operating system. It can handlemany things at the same time.It is Also a true multiuser OSSecurity:Linux is one of the most secure operating systems. Fileownership and permissions make linux more secure.
  18. 18. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgOpen source:Linux is an Open source operating systems. You can easilyget the source code for linux and edit it to develop yourpersonal operating system.
  19. 19. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgToday, Linux is widely used for both basic home and officeuses. It is the main operating system used for highperformance business and in web servers. Linux has madea high impact in this world. Today, Linux systems are usedin every domain, from embedded systems tosupercomputers
  20. 20. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgNo threat of virusesLinux systems are extremely stableLinux is FreeLinux comes with most of the required software pre-installedLinux never gets slowLinux does not need defragmentationLinux can even run on oldest hardwareAdding more software is a matter of a few clicksMost Windows-only apps have their either their native version oralternatives for Linux
  21. 21. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.orgLinux distributionsToday there are hundreds of different distributions availablepopular Linux distributions include
  22. 22. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org
  23. 23. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org
  24. 24. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org
  25. 25. © Copyright 2012 Hidaya Trust (Pakistan) ● A Non-Profit Organization ● www.hidayatrust.org / www,histpk.org

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