QURAT-UL-AIN
AZAM
9 PINK-A
 In 1833, a French
chemist Anselme Payen
discovered the first
enzyme, diastase.
 In 1877, German
physiologist
Wilhelm Ku...
 Enzymes are protein molecules which speed
up all biochemical reactions and metabolic
activities occurring inside a livin...
 a set of chemical processes occurring within a living
organism that are necessary for the maintenance of
life.
 our bod...
CATABOLISM:
Catabolism is the set of metabolic pathways that
breaks down molecules into smaller units to
release energy.
A...
 Enzymes are "biological catalysts."
 They are produced or derived from living
organisms
 have the ability to increase ...
 Almost all enzymes are globular proteins which
means that they are made up of long linear chains
of amino acids.
 They ...
 All enzymes have an active site . It is the small
portion of the enzyme that is directly involved in
catalysis .
 It is...
In enzyme catalyzed reactions, the molecules at
the beginning of the process, called substrates, are
converted into differ...
E+S→ES Complex→E+P
MECHANISM OF ENZYMES
 minimum energy required to start a reaction
 This energy could be in the form of heat,
proteins, or other chemicals.
EN...
 Enzymes are specific
 In other words, the active site of each
enzyme has a particular substrate to which
it binds. The ...
ENZYMES PLACE SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT ORIGIN
SALIVARY
AMYLASE MOUTH
STARCH AND
GLYCOGEN
MALTOSE SALIVARY
GLANDS
PEPSIN STOMACH P...
 Enzyme production in a cell is controlled
 Production of enzymes is increased or
decreased according to its requirement...
COFACTORS
INORGANIC
(METAL IONS)
ORGANIC
COENZYMES
PROSTHETIC
GROUPS
 COFACTORS:
an additional non-protein working
component.
 COENZYMES:
• Loosely bound organic cofactor
• transfer chemica...
 Series of chemical reactions occurring inside
a cell
 the products of one reaction are
the substrates for subsequent re...
The activity of an Enzyme is affected by
its environmental conditions. Changing
these alter the rate of reaction caused by...
2.SUBSTRATE CONCENTRATION:
 Continuous change in substrate
concentration
 Constant enzyme concentration
 Saturation
3.pH:
 Optimum pH:
 Retardation:
 Proposed by Emil Fischer in 1894
 Explained specificity of enzymes
 both the enzyme and the substrate
possess specific...
INDUCED-FIT MODEL
•Proposed by Daniel Koshland in1958
•a modification to the lock and key model
•It states that exposure o...
 Foundation of energy
 Life force in all living
things
 Help in thinking, moving,
healing, reproducing,
growing etc…
 ...
Enzymes
Enzymes
Enzymes
Enzymes
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Enzymes

  1. 1. QURAT-UL-AIN AZAM 9 PINK-A
  2. 2.  In 1833, a French chemist Anselme Payen discovered the first enzyme, diastase.  In 1877, German physiologist Wilhelm Kuhne, first used the term enzymes.
  3. 3.  Enzymes are protein molecules which speed up all biochemical reactions and metabolic activities occurring inside a living body.  On the basis of their location there are two types of enzymes:extracellular and intracellular enzymes
  4. 4.  a set of chemical processes occurring within a living organism that are necessary for the maintenance of life.  our bodies get the energy they need from food through metabolism  Helps in moving, thinking, growing, reproducing etc…
  5. 5. CATABOLISM: Catabolism is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units to release energy. ANABOLISM: • Anabolism is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units. • These reactions require energy • are powered by catabolism.
  6. 6.  Enzymes are "biological catalysts."  They are produced or derived from living organisms  have the ability to increase the rate of chemical reactions  are not changed or destroyed by the chemical reaction that they accelerate.
  7. 7.  Almost all enzymes are globular proteins which means that they are made up of long linear chains of amino acids.  They are held together by peptide bonds.  All enzymes also possess an active site.
  8. 8.  All enzymes have an active site . It is the small portion of the enzyme that is directly involved in catalysis .  It is normally lined with amino acid residues which recognize the substrate.  After being recognized the substrate is binded to the active site and the reaction is carried out.  After being used in a reaction , the active site can be used again.
  9. 9. In enzyme catalyzed reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products.  SUBSTRATE: In biochemistry, an enzyme substrate is the material upon which an enzyme acts.  PRODUCT: In biochemistry, a product is something that is formed or manufactured by an enzyme from its substrate.
  10. 10. E+S→ES Complex→E+P MECHANISM OF ENZYMES
  11. 11.  minimum energy required to start a reaction  This energy could be in the form of heat, proteins, or other chemicals. ENZYMES AND ACTIVATION ENERGY Enzymes greatly decrease the requirement of activation energy in these ways: 1. orienting substrates correctly 2. straining substrate bonds or by altering their shape 3. Providing a favorable micro environment 4. Covalently bonding to the substrate 5. by disrupting the charge distribution on the substrate
  12. 12.  Enzymes are specific  In other words, the active site of each enzyme has a particular substrate to which it binds. The shape of the substrate determines its ability to bind to the active site of a particular enzyme  Enzymes cannot bind to substrates whose shape is not compatible with the active site
  13. 13. ENZYMES PLACE SUBSTRATE PRODUCT ORIGIN SALIVARY AMYLASE MOUTH STARCH AND GLYCOGEN MALTOSE SALIVARY GLANDS PEPSIN STOMACH PROTIEN PEPTIDES STOMACH GLANDS LIPASE SMALL INTESTINE FATS GLYCEROL AND FATTY ACIDS STOMACH GLANDS TRYPSIN SMALL INTESTINE PEPTIDES SIMILAR PEPTIDES PRODUCT OF ENZYMESFRO M PANCREAS AND DUODENUM MALTASE SMALL INTESTINE MALTOSE TWO GLUCOSE MOLECULES GLANDS IN WALLS OF SMALL INTESTINE
  14. 14.  Enzyme production in a cell is controlled  Production of enzymes is increased or decreased according to its requirements.  can also be enhanced or diminished in response to changes in the cell's environment.
  15. 15. COFACTORS INORGANIC (METAL IONS) ORGANIC COENZYMES PROSTHETIC GROUPS
  16. 16.  COFACTORS: an additional non-protein working component.  COENZYMES: • Loosely bound organic cofactor • transfer chemical groups from one cell to another
  17. 17.  Series of chemical reactions occurring inside a cell  the products of one reaction are the substrates for subsequent reactions, and so on.
  18. 18. The activity of an Enzyme is affected by its environmental conditions. Changing these alter the rate of reaction caused by the enzyme. 1.TEMPERATURE :  Optimum temperature  Denaturation:
  19. 19. 2.SUBSTRATE CONCENTRATION:  Continuous change in substrate concentration  Constant enzyme concentration  Saturation
  20. 20. 3.pH:  Optimum pH:  Retardation:
  21. 21.  Proposed by Emil Fischer in 1894  Explained specificity of enzymes  both the enzyme and the substrate possess specific complementary geometric shapes that fit exactly into one another  it fails to explain the stabilization of the transition state that enzymes achieve.
  22. 22. INDUCED-FIT MODEL •Proposed by Daniel Koshland in1958 •a modification to the lock and key model •It states that exposure of an enzyme to a substrate causes the active site of the enzyme to change shape in order to allow the enzyme and substrate to bind
  23. 23.  Foundation of energy  Life force in all living things  Help in thinking, moving, healing, reproducing, growing etc…  Speed up all biochemical reactions  Without enzymes, life won’t exist.
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