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• A program or a software that governs the functioning of
other programs
• Interface between User and the Hardware
• Alloc...
• Tasks
• Uni tasking
• Multi tasking
• Users
• Single User
• Multi User
• Processing
• Uni processing
• Multi processing
...
• Free Open Source Software
• Free – Means Liberty and not related to Price or cost
• Open – Source code is available and ...
• Core or nucleus of an operating system
• Interacts with the hardware
• First program to get loaded when the system start...
• Monolithic
• All OS related code are stuffed in a single module
• Available as a single file
• Advantage : Faster functi...
• Program that interacts with kernel
• Bridge between kernel and the user
• Command interpreter
• User can type command an...
• Sh – simple shell
• BASH – Bourne Again Shell
• KSH – Korne Shell
• CSH – C Shell
• SSH – Secure Shell
• To use a partic...
• Freedom to run the software anywhere
• Freedom to study how the programs work. i.e source
code will be accessible
• Free...
• Termed by Richard Mathew Stallman
• Liberates information from the proprietary legal
encumbrances associated with conven...
• Multics – 1964
• Unics – 1969
• Minix – 1990
• Linux – 1991
• Multiplexed Information and Computing Service
• Written in 1964
• Timesharing OS
• Last version was shut down on October...
• Uniplexed Information and Computing System
• Later renamed as UNIX
• Written in 1969
• Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie were...
• Minimal Unix
• Tanenbaum developed this OS
• Mainly for educational purpose
• Unix like OS, implemented with Micro kerne...
• Developed in 1991 by Linus Torvalds
• Used in most of the computers, ranging from
super computers to embedded system
• M...
• Founded by Richard Stallman in 1983
• Organisation that started developing copylefted programs
• Project – GNU Project
•...
User 1
User 2
• Redhat
• Fedora
• Debian
• Novell’s SUSE Linux
• Ubuntu
• Mandrake
• Live CDs – Knoppix and more
• Only the kernel is called by the name Linux
• The rest are the tools developed under GNU Project
• Hence the name GNU/Li...
• Vi
• Emacs
• gEdit
• kWrite
• TextPad
• And more…
• Mozilla
• First Open source browser
• Released from Netscape group
• Firefox
• High performance, feature rich, standards...
• mkdir - creating directory
• mkdir dirname
• rmdir – removing directory and its contents
• rmdir dirname
• cd – Change d...
• ln – Creating links between files
• ln file1 file2
• Difference between copying files and linking files
• cp src dst
• C...
• Help about commands
• man, pinfo, info (man <<cmd name>>)
• Viewing file’s content
• cat <<filename>>
• Viewing users, p...
• Listing files in a directory
• ls – Lists all files in a directory
• ls –a – Lists all files (including hidden files)
• ...
• Popular text editor
• Just type vi <<filename>> at the prompt and hit the enter
key.
• A new file will be opened
• Type ...
• Navigation
• Left - h
• Down - j
• Up - k
• Right - l
• Top of the screen – H (shift + h) //caps lock will not work
• Mi...
• grep – GNU Regular Expression Processor
• Finds the words / patterns matching with the search and
displays the line cont...
• Redirection
• Input redirection
• wc < file1 – Content of file 1 is given as input for wc command
that counts the no of ...
• Open a file with extension .c from the command prompt using vi
editor
• vi hello.c
• Type the contents and save (Esc : w...
• Shell scripting is the most useful and powerful feature in
Linux
• Minimizes typing of repetitive command
• Can schedule...
• Open a file with extension .sh using vi editor
• We can type any number of commands that we use to
type at command promp...
• To Print a line
• echo “Hello World” (Prints Hello World in the screen)
• To read a line
• read n (Stores the content en...
• For loop
for i in 1 2 3 4 5 //Loops 5 times
do
Body of the loop
done
for (( i=0; i<5; i++ ))
do
Body of the loop
done
while [ condn ]
do
body of the loop
done
We need to ensure that the while loop condition is
terminated in a finite way
• We can have if, if else, if elif else and case statements (Nested if
statements are also possible
1. if [ condn ]
then
f...
case expr in
Option1) stmt ;;
Option2) stmt ;;
*) stmt ;;
esac
• Every option should be terminated with a double
semicolon...
• For integer comparison we have the following
-eq : equal to
-ne : not equal to
-lt : less than
-gt : greater than
-le : ...
• For string comparison we have
- = : equal to
- ~= : not equal to
• For logical operators
-a : AND
-o : OR
• Initialising an array
• A[0] = 10
• A[1] = Hi
• Using an array
• ${A[0]} : retrieves 10
• Here arrays can contain data b...
• Local Function
• Written at the command prompt
• Lasts for the current session alone
• Global Function
• Written in .bas...
• Sample function
Functionname()
{
echo $1
}
Calling function:
Functionname Ram
Result:
Ram
• We can view the environment variables through
set or env command
• The set command will display all the global
functions...
• Alias – Alternate name for an entity
• Entity here refers to command
• We can give another name or alias name for a
comm...
• alias newname=oldname
• Eg alias co py= cp
• Then we can use copy in the same way we use
cp command
• Eg co py file 1 fi...
Linux operating system by Quontra Solutions
Linux operating system by Quontra Solutions
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Linux operating system by Quontra Solutions

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  • $chmod u+x file.txt – Gives execution permission to the owner of the file
    Owner/user – Who creates a file
    Group – Collection of users
    Others – Apart from the user and the users in a group
    PermissionsValue
    Read4
    Write2
    Execute1
    -rwxrwxrwx – All permissions given for a file
    drwxrwxrwx – All permissions given for a directory
    chmod 777 file //gives all permission (r,w,x) for a file
    UserGroupOther
    rwxrwxrwx
    000000000----------chmod 000 file
    111111111-rwxrwxrwxchmod 777 file
    Like this depending on set and reset of the bit flags, permission can be changed.
    DecOctal
    0000
    1001
    2010
    3011
    4100
    5101
    6110
    7111
  • By default, terminal will be having scroll bar on the left side. There are many options to design terminal with our preference for colors and other things. See the man pages for more elaborate explanation.
  • X – cuts the letter after cursor position
    x – cuts the letter before cursor position
    yy – Copies a line at which cursor is currently positioned
    yw – Copies a word at which cursor is currently positioned
    P – Pastes the copied content after cursor position
    p – Pastes the copied content before cursor position
    dd – Deletes a line
  • grep abc hello.txt
    Finds the occurance of abc in hello.txt and displays the line in the screen
    grep –i abc hello.txt – Ignores case. Will find Abc, ABC, aBc, aBC etc
    grep –c abc hello.txt – Displays the count of matches
    grep –n abc hello.txt – Displays the matching lines along with line number
    grep –v abc hello.txt – Displays the lines that donot have the pattern abc
    ^a – Starts with a
    a$ - Ends with a
    a* - a followed by any number of characters
    a..b – a separated by 2 characters and then followed by b
  • gcc filename.c
    This will create a default executable a.out
    gcc –o file filename.c
    This will create an executable by the name file and we can run the same
  • Local functions
    #sayHello()
    &amp;gt;{
    &amp;gt;echo “Hello”
    &amp;gt;}
    Now type function name
    #sayHello
    Hello//displays Hello at the command prompt
    #
    Global functions
    Open .bashrc file in the /root directory
    #vi .bashrc
    Type the function definition
    Save the file
    Close the terminal and re open it
    Type the function name. The function will be executed. We can use this function in any directory. Hence it is global.
  • We can pass any number of parameters like this
    $0 – File name
    $1,$2… - first, second parameters and so on
    $? – stores the status (success or failure status of the last command that was executed)
    $# - stores the number of parameters passed through the command line
    #pwd
    /home
    #echo $?
    0// As the last command is success
    #abc
    Error:command not found
    #echo $?
    127 // as the last command didn’t execute successfully
  • Transcript of "Linux operating system by Quontra Solutions"

    1. 1. • A program or a software that governs the functioning of other programs • Interface between User and the Hardware • Allocates resources for tasks • Allocates tasks to programs • Manages space and time • Controls the devices
    2. 2. • Tasks • Uni tasking • Multi tasking • Users • Single User • Multi User • Processing • Uni processing • Multi processing • Timesharing
    3. 3. • Free Open Source Software • Free – Means Liberty and not related to Price or cost • Open – Source code is available and any body can contribute to the development. Organization independent
    4. 4. • Core or nucleus of an operating system • Interacts with the hardware • First program to get loaded when the system starts and runs till the session gets terminated • Different from BIOS which is hardware dependent. • Kernel is software dependent
    5. 5. • Monolithic • All OS related code are stuffed in a single module • Available as a single file • Advantage : Faster functioning • Micro • OS components are isolated and run in their own address space • Device drivers, programs and system services run outside kernel memory space • Supports modularity • Lesser in size
    6. 6. • Program that interacts with kernel • Bridge between kernel and the user • Command interpreter • User can type command and the command is conveyed to the kernel and it will be executed
    7. 7. • Sh – simple shell • BASH – Bourne Again Shell • KSH – Korne Shell • CSH – C Shell • SSH – Secure Shell • To use a particular shell type the shell name at the command prompt. • Eg $csh – will switch the current shell to c shell • To view the available shells in the system, type cat /etc/shells at the command prompt • To view the current shell that is being used, type echo $SHELL at the command prompt
    8. 8. • Freedom to run the software anywhere • Freedom to study how the programs work. i.e source code will be accessible • Freedom to redistribute copies • Freedom to improve the software • If a software has all these 4 freedoms, then it is a FOSS
    9. 9. • Termed by Richard Mathew Stallman • Liberates information from the proprietary legal encumbrances associated with conventional co pyrig ht • Co pyle ft state m e nt: • “Ve rbatim co pying and re distributio n are pe rm itte d in any m e dium pro vide d this no tice is pre se rve d. ”
    10. 10. • Multics – 1964 • Unics – 1969 • Minix – 1990 • Linux – 1991
    11. 11. • Multiplexed Information and Computing Service • Written in 1964 • Timesharing OS • Last version was shut down on October 30, 2008 • Monolithic kernel
    12. 12. • Uniplexed Information and Computing System • Later renamed as UNIX • Written in 1969 • Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie were among the developers • Multi user, Multi tasking and timesharing • Monolithic kernel
    13. 13. • Minimal Unix • Tanenbaum developed this OS • Mainly for educational purpose • Unix like OS, implemented with Micro kernel. So the name Minix
    14. 14. • Developed in 1991 by Linus Torvalds • Used in most of the computers, ranging from super computers to embedded system • Multi user • Multi tasking • Time sharing • Monolithic kernel
    15. 15. • Founded by Richard Stallman in 1983 • Organisation that started developing copylefted programs • Project – GNU Project • GNU Not Unix • Recursive expansion
    16. 16. User 1 User 2
    17. 17. • Redhat • Fedora • Debian • Novell’s SUSE Linux • Ubuntu • Mandrake • Live CDs – Knoppix and more
    18. 18. • Only the kernel is called by the name Linux • The rest are the tools developed under GNU Project • Hence the name GNU/Linux
    19. 19. • Vi • Emacs • gEdit • kWrite • TextPad • And more…
    20. 20. • Mozilla • First Open source browser • Released from Netscape group • Firefox • High performance, feature rich, standards based web browser • Sea Monkey –Integrated web application suite derived from the mozilla source code
    21. 21. • mkdir - creating directory • mkdir dirname • rmdir – removing directory and its contents • rmdir dirname • cd – Change directory • cd dirpath • cp – Copying files • cp file1 file2 • mv – Moving or renaming files • mv oldfile newfile
    22. 22. • ln – Creating links between files • ln file1 file2 • Difference between copying files and linking files • cp src dst • Contents of src will be present in dst • Changing content in src will not affect contents of dst and vice versa • ln src dst • Contents of src will be present in dst • Changing content in src or dst will get reflected in the other file
    23. 23. • Help about commands • man, pinfo, info (man <<cmd name>>) • Viewing file’s content • cat <<filename>> • Viewing users, processes • who – List all Users • who am I – List the current user • pstree – displays all processes running in the system in tree format • ps – displays processes owned by the current user • Changing file permission/owner • chmod – changes file permission • chown – changes file owner
    24. 24. • Listing files in a directory • ls – Lists all files in a directory • ls –a – Lists all files (including hidden files) • ls –l – Lists files in a directory along with owner information, permission etc • Terminal Emulator • xterm – Generates a terminal • xterm –fg color –bg color –rightbar : Generates a terminal with the specified background and foreground color and a scroll bar on the right side
    25. 25. • Popular text editor • Just type vi <<filename>> at the prompt and hit the enter key. • A new file will be opened • Type the contents needed and save • To save, press the Esc Key and then press : (colon) w q and then enter • To quit with out saving Esc + : + q and then enter
    26. 26. • Navigation • Left - h • Down - j • Up - k • Right - l • Top of the screen – H (shift + h) //caps lock will not work • Middle of the screen – M (shift + m) • Bottom of the screen – L (shift + l) • $ - End Key, 0 – Home Key • Edit Commands • Cut – X, x • Copy – yy, yw • Paste – P, p
    27. 27. • grep – GNU Regular Expression Processor • Finds the words / patterns matching with the search and displays the line containing the patterns. • Search is limited to a file
    28. 28. • Redirection • Input redirection • wc < file1 – Content of file 1 is given as input for wc command that counts the no of lines, words and characters in a file • Output redirection • cat file > newfile – Copies file’s content to newfile. Over writes the existing content • cat file >> newfile – Appends the new content to the existing content • Pipes • Output of first command is input for the second and so on • who | wc –l – Number of lines in the output of who command will be displayed
    29. 29. • Open a file with extension .c from the command prompt using vi editor • vi hello.c • Type the contents and save (Esc : wq!) • Compile the file • gcc hello.c • Run the executable • ./a.out • Compile file with output option • gcc –o hello hello.c • Run the executable • ./hello
    30. 30. • Shell scripting is the most useful and powerful feature in Linux • Minimizes typing of repetitive command • Can schedule jobs to run in the system • Can initiate back up activities for system administration • Similar to batch files in DOS, but more powerful than Batch files
    31. 31. • Open a file with extension .sh using vi editor • We can type any number of commands that we use to type at command prompt • Save the file • Execute the file • sh file.sh • ./file.sh (if the file has execution permission)
    32. 32. • To Print a line • echo “Hello World” (Prints Hello World in the screen) • To read a line • read n (Stores the content entered by user in variable n • To Comment a line • # This is a comment • Only single line comment is available. For multi line comment, we need to use # symbol in lines which we want to comment.
    33. 33. • For loop for i in 1 2 3 4 5 //Loops 5 times do Body of the loop done for (( i=0; i<5; i++ )) do Body of the loop done
    34. 34. while [ condn ] do body of the loop done We need to ensure that the while loop condition is terminated in a finite way
    35. 35. • We can have if, if else, if elif else and case statements (Nested if statements are also possible 1. if [ condn ] then fi 2. if [ condn ] then else fi 3. if [ condn ] then elif [ condn ] then else fi
    36. 36. case expr in Option1) stmt ;; Option2) stmt ;; *) stmt ;; esac • Every option should be terminated with a double semicolon. • Denotes default case • Case should be termniated with esac
    37. 37. • For integer comparison we have the following -eq : equal to -ne : not equal to -lt : less than -gt : greater than -le : less than or equal to -ge : greater than or equal to
    38. 38. • For string comparison we have - = : equal to - ~= : not equal to • For logical operators -a : AND -o : OR
    39. 39. • Initialising an array • A[0] = 10 • A[1] = Hi • Using an array • ${A[0]} : retrieves 10 • Here arrays can contain data belonging to different data types • Uninitialised index in arrays will have null value by default
    40. 40. • Local Function • Written at the command prompt • Lasts for the current session alone • Global Function • Written in .bashrc file • Available as long as the definition is there in .bashrc file • Function in shell script • Available with in the file alone
    41. 41. • Sample function Functionname() { echo $1 } Calling function: Functionname Ram Result: Ram
    42. 42. • We can view the environment variables through set or env command • The set command will display all the global functions written by the user • The env command displays only the variables and not the functions • We can reassign values for the variables either temporarily or permanently • Temporary • Type varname=value at the command prompt • Permanent • Type varname=value in .bashrc at the root directory
    43. 43. • Alias – Alternate name for an entity • Entity here refers to command • We can give another name or alias name for a command either at the command prompt or in the .bashrc file. • The former will be temporary and will vanish if the session ends and the latter will be permanent as long as the definition exists in the .bashrc file
    44. 44. • alias newname=oldname • Eg alias co py= cp • Then we can use copy in the same way we use cp command • Eg co py file 1 file 2 //copies content of file1 to file2 • To remove alias use unalias command • unalias co py • After this we cannot use copy to perform copying function

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