Linux commands Presented by Quontra Solutions


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QuontraSolutions is one of the leading online trainers of IT online training, Our Strengths are our team of IT Trainers; we are into online training with passion and dedication. We have our team of experienced trainers with real time experience & are dedicated towards providing quality online training. Quontra Solutions provides Linux online training by Industry experts with Real time Scenarios. Linux is having good demand in the market.
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Linux commands Presented by Quontra Solutions

  1. 1. Linux Commands File Handling Call Us : 404-900-9988 Email: Website:
  2. 2. Topics head tail link tar gzip and gunzip touch diff
  3. 3. ‘head’ command Displays the first ten lines of a file, unless otherwise stated. Syntax: head [-number | -n number] filename Example: head -15 myfile.txt It displays the first 15 lines of ‘myfile.txt’ . -number Number of lines to display -n number Number of lines to display filename Desired filename
  4. 4. ‘tail’ command Displays the last ten lines of a file, unless otherwise stated. Syntax: • tail [-n number] [-l] [-b] [-c] [-r] [-f] [file] -n number Number of lines to display -l Units of lines. -b Units of blocks. -c Units of bytes. -r Copies lines from the specified starting point in the file in reverse order. -f Displays the last 10 lines and then update the file as new lines are being added. filename Desired filename
  5. 5. ‘link’ command Creates a link to the file or directory. Syntax: ln [-f] [-n] [-s] [-i] source destination -f Forced to create a link. -n Does not overwrite existing files. -s Creates a Symbolic link. source Desired filename destination Destination filename
  6. 6. Example: ln –s f1 home/myfiles/f2 Creates a symbolic link between file ‘f1’ to file ‘f3’ of ‘myfiles’ directory. Represented as ‘’  View the Link using : ls –l  Remove the link using ‘rm’ command. rm –r f1.
  7. 7. ‘tar’ command Used to group set of files in to ma single file. It is called Archive file. Syntax: tar [-c] [-t or -v] [-x] [-f] filename archivefilename  It has ‘.tar’ extension. -c Creates an archive file. -t or -v Lists archive file content. -x Extract or de archive an archive file. filename File to be archived archivefilename New name for archive file.
  8. 8. Examples: 1. Create an archive file tar –vcf dir1 myarc.tar It creates archive file ‘myarc.tar’ which has all files of directory ‘dir1’. 2. Dearchive an archive file tar –xvf myarc.tar All files in ‘dir1’ are no more grouped, they are separated.
  9. 9. ‘gzip’ and ‘gunzip’ Used to compress and decompress the file respectively. Syntax: gzip [-f][-d] filename. gunzip [-f] compressedfilename. • It is with ‘.gz’ extension. -f Compress forcibly. -d Decompress the compressed file. filename File to be compressed.
  10. 10. Examples: 1. Compress the file. gzip –f f1. Compresses the file ‘f1’ and is represented as ‘f1.gz’. 2. Decompress the compressed file. gzip –d f1.gz or gunzip –f f1.gz File ‘f1.gz’ is decompressed to file ‘f1’.
  11. 11. ‘touch’ command Used to change the timestamp of a file. It is also used to create multiple files at one shot. Syntax: touch –t [-a][-m] [-r reference-file] filename a To change access time m To change modified time -r Refer the timestamp of another file filename Required filename
  12. 12. Use ‘Stat’ command to know the Timestamp. $ stat f1.c (sample output) Access: 2010-11-01 20:35:58.000000000 +0530 Modify: 2010-11-01 20:35:58.000000000 +0530 Change: 2010-11-01 20:35:58.000000000 +0530 Format for touch -t is : [YY]MMDDhhmm[.ss]
  13. 13. Examples: 1. Create multiple files at once. $ touch file1.txt file2.txt file3.txt 2. Change the access time of a file. $ touch –t -a 08210820 file1.txt Access: 2010-06-15 13:30:00.000000000 +0530 Modify: 2010-08-21 08:20:00.000000000 +0530 Change: 2010-11-01 20:45:05.000000000 +0530
  14. 14. Same way we can change the modified time of a file using ‘-m’ along with ‘-t’ 4. Refer the timestamp of another file than the current time. $touch -r file4 file5 file 5 uses the timestamp of file4.
  15. 15. ‘diff’ command It is used to find differences between two files. Syntax: diff [options] file1 file2 Options: a Treats all files as text and compare them line-by-line. y Use the side by side output format. w Ignore white space/blank space when comparing lines. i Ignores Case.
  16. 16. Let us have two files, file1.txt and file2.txt as follows: file1.txt file2.txt LINUX TEST goodmorning with great thoughts Lead india LINUX TEST GOODMORNING with great thoughts
  17. 17. Examples: 1. Compare the files side by side, ignoring white space. diff -by file1.txt file2.txt LINUX TEST LINUX TEST | with great thoughts with great thoughts Lead India < 2. Compare the files side by side, ignoring Case. diff -iy file1.txt file2.txt LINUX TEST LINUX TEST with great thoughts | with great thoughts Lead India <
  18. 18. Thankyou