History of Computer
Stepped Reckoner• Just a few years after Pascal, the German  Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (co-inventor with  Newton of calcul...
Stepped Reckoner• Although the stepped reckoner employed the  decimal number system (each drum had 10  flutes), Leibniz wa...
Leibnizs Stepped Reckoner
p     • In 1801 the Frenchman Josephu       Marie Jacquard invented a powern       loom that could base its weavec       (...
History of Computers - 19th Century                  • first stored program -                    metal cards              ...
Jacquards Loom showing thethreads and the punched cards
By selecting particular   cards for Jacquards  loom youdefined the    woven    pattern
A close-up of a Jacquard card
• Jacquards technology was a real  boon to mill owners, but put many  loom operators out of work. Angry  mobs smashed Jacq...
Charles Babbage - 1792-1871• Difference Engine c.1822• Analytical Engine 1833   – could store numbers   – calculating “mil...
Difference Engine.• By 1822 the English mathematician Charles  Babbage was proposing a steam driven  calculating machine t...
Difference Engine.• the British government had managed to  become the earths greatest empire. But in  that time frame the ...
Difference Engine.• But construction of Babbages Difference  Engine proved exceedingly difficult and the  project soon bec...
A small  section of the type ofmechanismemployed in Babbages Difference   Engine
Hollerith desk• Holleriths invention, known as the Hollerith  desk, consisted of a card reader which sensed  the holes in ...
An operator  working at aHollerith Desk like the one below
Preparation of punched cards for        the U.S. census
A few Hollerith desks still exist today[photo courtesy The Computer Museum]
Two types of computer punch cards
Incidentally, the Hollerith    censusmachine was   the first  machine to    ever befeatured on a   magazine     cover.
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

History of computers 2

550

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
550
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
12
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

History of computers 2

  1. 1. History of Computer
  2. 2. Stepped Reckoner• Just a few years after Pascal, the German Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (co-inventor with Newton of calculus) managed to build a four- function (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) calculator that he called the stepped reckoner because, instead of gears, it employed fluted drums having ten flutes arranged around their circumference in a stair-step fashion.
  3. 3. Stepped Reckoner• Although the stepped reckoner employed the decimal number system (each drum had 10 flutes), Leibniz was the first to advocate use of the binary number system which is fundamental to the operation of modern computers. Leibniz is considered one of the greatest of the philosophers but he died poor and alone.
  4. 4. Leibnizs Stepped Reckoner
  5. 5. p • In 1801 the Frenchman Josephu Marie Jacquard invented a powern loom that could base its weavec (and hence the design on theh fabric) upon a pattern automatically read from punchede wooden cards, held together in ad c long row by rope. Descendents of a these punched cards have been in r use ever since (remember the d "hanging chad" from the Florida s presidential ballots of the year 2000?).
  6. 6. History of Computers - 19th Century • first stored program - metal cards • first computer manufacturing • still in use today!
  7. 7. Jacquards Loom showing thethreads and the punched cards
  8. 8. By selecting particular cards for Jacquards loom youdefined the woven pattern
  9. 9. A close-up of a Jacquard card
  10. 10. • Jacquards technology was a real boon to mill owners, but put many loom operators out of work. Angry mobs smashed Jacquard looms and once attacked Jacquard himself. History is full of examples of labor unrest following technological innovation yet most studies show that, overall, technology has actually increased the number of jobs.
  11. 11. Charles Babbage - 1792-1871• Difference Engine c.1822• Analytical Engine 1833 – could store numbers – calculating “mill” used punched metal cards for instructions – powered by steam! – accurate to six decimal places
  12. 12. Difference Engine.• By 1822 the English mathematician Charles Babbage was proposing a steam driven calculating machine the size of a room, which he called the Difference Engine. This machine would be able to compute tables of numbers, such as logarithm tables. He obtained government funding for this project due to the importance of numeric tables in ocean navigation. By promoting their commercial and military navies,
  13. 13. Difference Engine.• the British government had managed to become the earths greatest empire. But in that time frame the British government was publishing a seven volume set of navigation tables which came with a companion volume of corrections which showed that the set had over 1000 numerical errors. It was hoped that Babbages machine could eliminate errors in these types of tables.
  14. 14. Difference Engine.• But construction of Babbages Difference Engine proved exceedingly difficult and the project soon became the most expensive government funded project up to that point in English history. Ten years later the device was still nowhere near complete, acrimony abounded between all involved, and funding dried up. The device was never finished.
  15. 15. A small section of the type ofmechanismemployed in Babbages Difference Engine
  16. 16. Hollerith desk• Holleriths invention, known as the Hollerith desk, consisted of a card reader which sensed the holes in the cards, a gear driven mechanism which could count (using Pascals mechanism which we still see in car odometers), and a large wall of dial indicators (a car speedometer is a dial indicator) to display the results of the count.
  17. 17. An operator working at aHollerith Desk like the one below
  18. 18. Preparation of punched cards for the U.S. census
  19. 19. A few Hollerith desks still exist today[photo courtesy The Computer Museum]
  20. 20. Two types of computer punch cards
  21. 21. Incidentally, the Hollerith censusmachine was the first machine to ever befeatured on a magazine cover.
  1. ¿Le ha llamado la atención una diapositiva en particular?

    Recortar diapositivas es una manera útil de recopilar información importante para consultarla más tarde.

×