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Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)
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Long term causes sessions 4 and 5 (2) (1)

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  • 1. THE LONG-TERM CAUSES OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR Lecture 4 & 5: Stephen Evans
  • 2. OVERVIEW • THE KAISER: WELTPOLITIK • THE ALLIANCE SYSTEM • THE ARMS RACE • THE FIRST MOROCCAN CRISIS • CRISIS IN THE BALKANS • THE SECOND MOROCCAN CRISIS • THE BALKAN WARS OF 1912-1913
  • 3. THE KAISER: WELTPOLITIK
  • 4. THE ALLIANCE SYSTEM
  • 5. THE ALLIANCE SYSTEM • 1882: TRIPLE ALLIANCE BETWEEN GERMANY, AUSTRIA-HUNGARY & ITALY • 1894: FRANCO-RUSSIAN ALLIANCE • 1904: ENTENTE CORDIALE: BRITAIN AND FRANCE • 1907: ANGLO-RUSSIAN ENTENTE • 1907: TRIPLE ENTENTE: RUSSIA, BRITAIN AND FRANCE
  • 6. HOW MIGHT THE ALLIANCE SYSTEM CAUSE WAR?
  • 7. THE ARMS RACE
  • 8. THE BUILD-UP OF ARMIES  The existence of large armies in Europe was another threat to peace.  Military leaders argued a strong army would prevent invasion.  All the Great Powers apart from Britain increased their army.  All countries but Britain introduced CONSCRIPTION.
  • 9. KAISER WILHELM II OF GERMANY
  • 10. THE NAVAL RACE 1906-1914  Britain needed a powerful navy, especially as the British army was very small.  In 1900 Britain has the largest navy in the world.  In 1898 the Germans began to build up their navy. (What do you think this encouraged Britain to do?).  In 1906 both sides started to build DREADNOUGHTS.
  • 11. DREADNOUGHT
  • 12.  The Dreadnought was a new style of battleship that could easily destroy any of the older type battleships.  This led to a race to build the most Dreadnoughts.  Public opinion was behind the building of the Dreadnoughts.  This situation worsened relations between Britain and Germany.
  • 13. THE ARMY • Military leaders argued that the only way to ensure peace was to have an army strong enough to prevent an invasion by another country. • This view was encouraged by arms manufacturers.
  • 14. CONSCRIPTION • Britain was the only one of the Great Powers not to have introduced conscription before 1914. • In 1913, the French raised their period of compulsory military service from 2 years to 3 years. • In 1913 the Russians raised their period from 3 to 3½ years.
  • 15. THE FIRST MOROCCAN CRISIS 1905-1906
  • 16. • In 1905 when on a visit to Morocco Kaiser Wilhelm II promised to support Morocco’s independence. • This upset the French who were interested in occupying Morocco as a colony. • Wilhelm was also testing the strength of the new friendship between Britain and France.
  • 17. • In a conference held at Algeciras in 1906 Britain and Russia stood by France and it was agreed that Germany should have no say in Morocco. • This strengthened France’s alliance with Britain who shortly afterwards made a colonial agreement with Russia, in 1907, so forming the Triple Entente with France. • The Germans sensed they were being surrounded and the Kaiser became even more resentful.
  • 18. CRISIS IN THE BALKANS 1908-1909
  • 19. BACKGROUND • The Balkans had been part of the Turkish Ottoman Empire until the late 19th Century. • A number of new states had been created including Bosnia- Herzegovina and Serbia • There populations were mostly Slav.
  • 20. RIVALRY • Austria-Hungary wanted to expand its empire into the Balkans. • It was opposed by Russia, which saw itself as the leader and protector of the Slav people. • Serbia (a Slav country) wanted to include the other Slavs of the Balkans.
  • 21. THE CRISIS In 1908, Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina and made it part of their empire. This was opposed by Serbia. Serbia looked to Russia for support. Russia supported Serbia. Germany made it clear that it would declare war on Russia if Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary. Russia backed down.
  • 22. THE CONSEQUENCES 1. Austria-Hungary felt confident of German support for any future actions in the Balkans. 2. Russia started to build up its armies and was determined not to back down in the next crisis. 3. Serbia was forced to accept that Bosnia was part of Austria-Hungary. 4. Serbia was looking for an opportunity of getting their own back on Austria-Hungary. 5. Serbia also felt threatened and considered pre- emptive action against A-H as a serious option. 6. Italy feared that it could get drawn into a war and became less enthusiastic about the Triple Alliance.
  • 23. THE SECOND MOROCCAN CRISIS 1911
  • 24. • In 1911 there was a rebellion against the Sultan of Morocco which was put down with French help. • This was an opportunity for the French to take Morocco. • They were prepared to grant compensation to countries such as Germany and Spain who were concerned by the French action. KEY EVENTS
  • 25. KEY EVENTS • The Germans sent a gunboat called the Panther, to Agadir a port on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, to challenge the French. • The Kaiser hoped to force the French into giving Germany a share of Morocco. • The British were alarmed that Germany was going to set up a naval base in Agadir to challenge Britain’s naval supremacy.
  • 26. REACTION • Germany’s aggressive action in Morocco confirmed Britain’s worst fears: Germany was aiming to dominate Europe. • Britain’s response was to support France over Morocco. • The British and French also made a naval agreement by which Britain promised to defend the north coast of France if it was attacked from the sea.
  • 27. OUTCOME • The French took over Morocco as a protectorate, that is they governed the country without it becoming part of the French Republic. • Germany was given 100,000 square miles of the French Congo in compensation, but the land was mostly swamp and jungle. • The Agadir crisis was a clear victory for France and the Entente. • The Kaiser felt humiliated was determined not to be the loser in the next crisis.
  • 28. THE BALKAN WARS 1912-1913
  • 29. THE BALKAN WARS OF 1912-1913 • By the early 20th century, Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia had achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire, but large parts of their ethnic populations remained under Ottoman rule. • In 1912, these countries formed the Balkan League. This was part of a Pan-Slavic movement. • Smaller countries gained more territory. • Serbia doubled in size and this was a concern to Austria-Hungary.

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