I. Early English History    A. English conflict with Spain            i. Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603)                    ...
ii. King James of Scotland                       1. Catholic                       2. Makes peace with Spain              ...
the Church of England.                 c. They wanted the Bible to be strictly followed as God’s true law.        2. 1607 ...
In orderly fashion houses extended out from the common                           area in straight lines.                 ...
III. Colonial Governments       A. Early examples of self-government.               i. Mayflower Compact – agreement by th...
i. Executive - enforces the laws.ii. Position called Governor in the colonies.   1. Chosen in different ways depending on ...
IV. Colonial Trade       A. Mercantilism: Belief that colonies exist for the benefit of the parent country               i...
V. Colonial Society       i. Gender, race, and land ownership determined place in society       ii. Wealth was determined ...
 Competing claims in the Caribbean               Competition for fur trade in North America2. The Conflicts       a. Kin...
• Land from the Appalachian Mountains west to the                  Mississippi river.              • Floridae. War proves ...
•   Colonists and British leaders in the frontier lands had little    respect for the Indians.         i. Colonists forced...
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Unit 3 notes (5)

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Unit 3 notes (5)

  1. 1. I. Early English History A. English conflict with Spain i. Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) 1. Commissioned privateers to attack Spanish galleons a. Sir Francis Drake was the most famous of the English Privateers. 2. England’s Navy defeated the Spanish Invincible Armada a. England had faster ships b. Trapped much of the Spanish fleet in port c. Hurricane destroyed the remainder of the fleet B. England looks to America i. England’s Pioneers 1. Richard Hakluyt: 1st Englishman to propose colonizing America  Why? a. Place to send Criminals b. Overseas bases to attack Spanish ships c. Get raw materials d. Bring Protestantism to America 2. Sir Walter Raleigh: first Englishman to establish a colony. a. Purpose: To create a settlement that could be used as a trade outpost if they ever discovered the Northwest Passage b. Roanoke  1st attempt: 1585 - Military outpost…Failed  2nd attempt: 1587 – settlement…Failed  Settlers vanished leaving only the name “CROATOAN” behind. C. Change of English leadership i. Queen Elizabeth died in 1603 1. No child heir to the throne 2. Line of succession goes to a distant cousin
  2. 2. ii. King James of Scotland 1. Catholic 2. Makes peace with Spain 3. Pirating (privateers) made illegal 4. In return Spain gives up claim to North America north of FloridaII. England’s Permanent Colonies A. Jamestown i. Founded 1607 ii. Financed by Virginia Stock Company 1. Promoted propaganda of riches to be made in America iii. Some sold themselves into slavery in order to get to America – Indentured Servants iv. First settlers came with unrealistic expectations 1. By 1609 – lack of work and conflict with Indians caused mass starvation a. Period became known as – the Starving Time. 2. John Smith assumed leadership – “work to eat” a. saved the colony from starvation v. John Rolfe perfected growing tobacco - $$ 1. Tobacco becomes the first cash crop grown in the New World a. The demand for tobacco in Europe made it possible to get wealthy in the New World by growing large farms of tobacco b. created a need for farm workers ( Natives–Indentured Servants–Slaves) B. Plymouth Colony i. Founded by Pilgrims 1. Pilgrims -Christian Separatists a. Religious group that opposed the Anglican Church for not reforming Christianity enough. b. felt that the Reformation in England needed to be more extreme than
  3. 3. the Church of England. c. They wanted the Bible to be strictly followed as God’s true law. 2. 1607 their followers fled from England to Holland because of religious persecution from King James of England. 3. Requested permission from the colony of Virginia for rights to settle on their land in the New World.ii. Landed in Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1620 and formed their own colony.iii. Established an agreement of governance known as the Mayflower Compact. Theiv. Commonwealth of Massachusetts was based on religion. The Puritans believed they a Covenant (contract) with God to create a holy colony.v. 1630 – Great Migration – English settlers looked to begin a new life in the America’svi. John Winthrop – Founder of the colony and later its governor 1. Helped recruit wealthy families to migrate to New England. “We must knit together in this work, as one man…we must delight in each other; make other’s condition our own; rejoice together, mourn together, labor and suffer together.”vii. Puritan Society 1. Society was based on the New England Way (duty, hard work, moderation, and godliness) 2. Goals of the Puritans a. Establish a closely knit well ordered society. b. Establish a society that represented high morals, proper behavior, and the avoidance of any excesses c. Establish a society strongly rooted in the literal Bible & the integration of church and government. 3. Puritan Towns a. Towns centered around the church Towns developed around a central common area. • The commons – or town square The Church faced the common.
  4. 4. In orderly fashion houses extended out from the common area in straight lines. b. Outside of town each family had its own well organized field. c. Law- everyone had to attend church d. Education became a very important method of passing on beliefs Harvard College founded in 1636 as a Minister’s school 4. Puritan Public Life a. Primarily farmers. Other professions included; ministers, coopers, surveyors. b. By law all people must attend church twice a week. c. No separation of Church and State - Church was conducted in same building as the government – Meeting House. d. Only Ministers & chosen people were allowed to speak at meetings.viii. People who did not agree with the government or did not fit in were termed Dissenters. 1. Roger Williams – believed in separation of church and state – banished from Salem, Massachusetts. He later established the colony of Rhode Island. 2. Anne Hutchinson – banished because of her religious views 3. Quakers – Religious group believed in the equality of all people – persecuted by the Puritans.ix. Witchcraft 1. Believed witches existed because they are mentioned in the Bible. 2. By law witchcraft was a capital offense – meaning anyone found guilty of witchcraft would be killed. 3. Any actions that potentially caused a disruption in the well ordered structure of their society was associated with the devil. a. Drama, music, most poetry – banned 4. Accusations of witchcraft in 1692 caused a public panic in which citizens accused each other in a mass hysteria.
  5. 5. III. Colonial Governments A. Early examples of self-government. i. Mayflower Compact – agreement by the settlers of the Plymouth plantation to run their own government and establish laws. ii. Virginia House of Burgesses – based off the English model of government. BRANCH Colonies England BRANCH Executive  Governor King  Monarch Legislative  Upper House House of Lords  Parliament Lower House House of Commons B. Establishment of the Colonial Legislative Branch i. Legislative - makes laws. ii. Made up of two houses: 1. Upper House – appointed by governor 2. Lower House – elected by colonists (white, landowning males) a. Held a lot of power at the local level. iii. Laws were subject to VETO by English Parliament C. Colonial laws were based on 3 English historical documents: i. Magna Carta (1215) – established “Trial by Jury of Your Peers.” ii. Petition of Right (1628) – Established the principle of “No Taxation Without Representation.” iii. English Bill of Rights (1689) – Established the principles of citizens “Right to Bear Arms, Elections, No Cruel & Unusual Punishments.” D. The establishement of the Colonial Executive Branch
  6. 6. i. Executive - enforces the laws.ii. Position called Governor in the colonies. 1. Chosen in different ways depending on the colony. a. Charter colonies: based on the wording of the charter.  EXAMPLES: • Connecticut • Rhodes Island  Governor is elected by the people b. Proprietary colonies: based on ownership of the colonies.  EXAMPLES: • Pennsylvania • Maryland • Delaware  Governor is appointed by owner of colony c. Royal Colonies: based on the say of the crown  EXAMPLES: (all 8 others) • Massachusetts • Georgia • Virginia • The Carolinas  Governor is appointed by the King
  7. 7. IV. Colonial Trade A. Mercantilism: Belief that colonies exist for the benefit of the parent country i. England wanted raw materials 1. Examples a. Tobacco b.Furs c. Timber ii. In return colonies would by English manufactured goods 2. Examples a. Clothing b.Weapons c. Tools B. Triangle Trade = { American Colonies  England  Africa }Colonies: (need –slaves to harvest raw materials)  (take slaves send raw materials to England)England: (need raw materials to produce weapons)  (take raw materials send guns to Africa)Africa: (need weapons to enslave Africans)  (take guns send African slaves to Colonies) C. To enforce this trade agreement England passed The Navigation Acts (1651) i. Required colonies to sell items to England ii. All goods had to be brought on English ships D. Throughout most of Colonial history England ignored the laws they passed regarding limiting trade in the American colonies. i. The British disregard for colonial business practices during most of the Colonial Period is known as Salutary Neglect. 1. By 1750 the American colonies had more freedom than most countries in the world.
  8. 8. V. Colonial Society i. Gender, race, and land ownership determined place in society ii. Wealth was determined by land ownership 1. Wealthy individuals were called gentry a. Members of the Gentry bought mansions, fine clothes, and other goods to impress their peers. iii. Gentlemen followed a code of behavior and studied academic subjects iv. Trades and Occupations 1. Many colonists worked as artisans, printers, farmers and fishermen. 2. Indentured servants agreed to work for a set amount of time in exchange for the cost of travel to the new colonies. 3. Later when the number of people willing to indenture themselves dropped the demand for African slaves increased. v. Colonial Women 1. Colonial women had few legal rights after marriage 2. Most women worked very hard in the household and in the communityVI. Colonial Conflicts i. War became a means for expanding colonial boundaries ii. In the 1660’s the British defeated the Dutch and took the colony of New York iii. Indian Conflicts 1. Virginia 1622 & 1644 Powhatan Wars – Virginia colonists waged war against local Native American tribes over land claims. 2. New England 1675-66 King Philips War – New England colonists waged war against Metacom (known as King Philip) and the Wampanoag Confederacy over colonial territorial expansion. iv. Wars against the French 1. History a. Two competing groups  Catholic New France (Canada)  Protestant English America (13 Colonies) b. The Issues  Fishing Rights in New Foundland
  9. 9.  Competing claims in the Caribbean  Competition for fur trade in North America2. The Conflicts a. King William’s War (1689-1697)  Began as a European War between France and England  King Loius XIV’s attempt at increasing the size of France  Fighting expanded into the America’s b. Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713)  Spain’s King Charles II died without an heir to the throne  England declared war on France to make sure they did not inherit the throne. c. King George’s War (1744-1748)  Fought mainly in the colonies between the British and the Spanish.  The colonists from Georgia invaded Spanish Florida3. The French & Indian War a. The last and largest of the 4 French & English conflicts b. The war was fought all over the world  North American Colonies  Caribbean Islands  Far East Asia  India  Europe c. Beginning of the war was a disaster for England.  British are defeated trying to remove the French from Western Pennsylvania. (Ft. Duquesne) d. British are eventually successful  British General John Forbes takes Ft. Duquesne (1758) renamed it Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh)  British General James Wolfe defeats French commander Marquis de Montcalm allowing British forces to take Quebec and eventually Montreal. • Wolfe and Montcalm are killed during the battle. • Battle destroys France’s ability to wage war in America.  Treaty of Paris ended the war. British gains after the war: • Canada
  10. 10. • Land from the Appalachian Mountains west to the Mississippi river. • Floridae. War proves costly  war cost – over 100 million pounds (currency)  relations between Britain & the colonies became strained • English views: “colonists were poor allies” i. Colonial troops were unreliable and lacked discipline. ii. Colonial merchants violated laws and traded with the French and Spanish even though they were at war with them. 1. Colonial merchants violated the “Rule of 1756” which made it illegal to trade with French and Spanish traders 2. Britain had to pass a “writs of assistance” order that allowed British ships to inspect Colonial cargos. a. Colonial Merchants protested against British interference in their trade b. Boston lawyer James Otis was hired to contest the “writs.” He gave an impassioned speech against the British which John Adams later described as “the first scene of the first act of opposition.” iii. Colonies could not organize and agree on a plan to deal with Indians in a fair manner in order to solicit the help of the Indians during the war. 1. only the Iroquois Nation fought with the British and that is because the French allied themselves with the Hurons, an arch enemy of the Iroquois. 2. The Albany Plan attempted to unite the colonies in 1754 but failed a. Benjamin Franklin, a delegate from PA advised the colonists to join together in a unified government. b. “Join or Die” • Colonial views: i. British military power was not that intimidating and could be defeated. ii. British had different values than the colonists and did not treat the colonists with respect.  Indian issues at the war’s end became costly • Without French forts protecting against colonial intrusion colonists migrated in large numbers over the Appalachian Mountains into lands inhabited by Indians.
  11. 11. • Colonists and British leaders in the frontier lands had little respect for the Indians. i. Colonists forced Indians off of their lands in order to build farms ii. British frontier commander Lord Jeffery Amherst advocated spreading smallpox among the tribes. iii. 1762 Amherst cut off food and supplies that were traditionally traded to the Indians during the winter.

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